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Edwin M. Stanton

Edwin M. Stanton

Edwin Stanton was born on December 19, 1814 in Steubenville, Ohio, to devout Methodist parents. He developed a very successful legal career in Ohio, then Pittsburgh, and finally Washington, DC.While in Ohio, Stanton became active in the local antislavery society and was elected Prosecuting Attorney of Harrison county as a Democrat. Stanton and his colleagues convinced the jury to acquit Sickles on the grounds of temporary insanity, marking one of the earliest uses of that plea.After the 1860 presidential election, Stanton gave up a lucrative law practice to become Attorney General in the lame-duck presidential administration of James Buchanan. Seward, informed about White House policy decisions.In 1862, after President Lincoln removed Simon Cameron, the corrupt and ineffective Secretary of War, by appointing him Minister to Russia, Seward and Salmon P. Stanton once again gave up a prosperous law practice to enter public service an showed himself to be a strong and effective cabinet officer, instituting practices to rid the War Department of waste and corruption.When Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Taney died in October 1864, Stanton wanted to be named as his replacement. Lincoln believed, though, that he was more important to the Union cause as Secretary of War, so the President appointed Chase, instead.Stanton was at the center of the battle to impeach and remove President Andrew Johnson from office. He locked himself in the War Department until the Senate voted against the President’s removal.Stanton resigned in May 1868 and returned to his private practice. He died, however, four days later.


Edwin M. Stanton, Lincoln's Secretary of War

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    Edwin M. Stanton was secretary of war in Abraham Lincoln's cabinet for most of the Civil War. Though he had not been a political supporter of Lincoln's before joining the cabinet, he became devoted to him, and worked diligently to direct military operations until the end of the conflict.

    Stanton is best remembered today for what he said standing at the bedside of Abraham Lincoln when the wounded president died on the morning of April 15, 1865: "Now he belongs to the ages."

    In the days following Lincoln's murder, Stanton took charge of the investigation. He energetically directed the hunt for John Wilkes Booth and his conspirators.

    Before his work in the government, Stanton had been an attorney with a national reputation. During his legal career he had actually met Abraham Lincoln, whom he treated with considerable rudeness, while working on a noteworthy patent case in the mid-1850s.

    Up until the time Stanton joined the cabinet his negative feelings about Lincoln were well-known in Washington circles. Yet Lincoln, impressed by Stanton's intellect and the determination he brought to his work, picked him to join his cabinet at a time when the War Department was dogged by ineptitude and scandal.

    It is generally accepted that Stanton putting his own stamp on the military during the Civil War aided the Union cause considerably.


    Contents

    Shortly after the end of the Civil War, a group of African Americans from Jacksonville organized the Education Society, and, in 1868, purchased the property on which the Old Stanton School was built. It was their intent to erect a school to be called the Florida Institute. Financial problems, however, delayed progress on the building until December of that year, when the school was built and incorporated through the aid of the Freedmen's Bureau. This wooden structure was named in honor of Edwin McMasters Stanton, President Abraham Lincoln's second Secretary of War. He was an ardent champion of human rights and an advocate of free school education for Negro boys and girls. It was the second school for black children in the state of Florida (the first, from 1866, was the predecessor of Edward Waters College).

    Freedmen's Bureau ran the school. Northern white teachers were employed until the county leased the property for the purpose of opening a public school. The first building was destroyed by fire in 1882. Another building constructed the same year was also destroyed by fire on May 3, 1901, a fire that destroyed much of Jacksonville. A new school was constructed in 1902 and remained in operation until 1917.

    Originally the school mascot had been the Blue Devil. Because the school had burned and been rebuilt twice, "the Phoenix rising from ashes" would eventually be adopted as a second mascot. Today both mascots are used, with the Blue Devil used as the mascot for sports and other activities, and the Phoenix used as a symbol of the school itself, along with the most current logo, a royal blue Superman "S" symbol.

    On May 23, 1914, the Circuit Court of Duval County appointed nine trustees to manage the school and its property. They were Robert B. Archibald, S. H. Hart, A. L. Lewis, J. W. Floyd, W. L. Girardeau, I. L. Purcell, B. C. Vanderhorst, J. E. Spearing, and W.H. H. Styles. Archibaid and Hart resigned and were replaced by J. M. Baker and L. H. Myers.

    The deteriorating and unsafe condition of the poorly-constructed school building prompted the Board of Public Instruction, the Stanton School trustees, and interested citizens of Jacksonville to jointly agree to replace the wooden structure with a fire-proof building. In 1917 the building, which still stands at Ashley, Broad, Beaver, and Clay Streets, was completed. Stanton became the main focus for the education of black children in Duval County and surrounding areas. The Edwin M. Stanton School was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. [14]

    An equally impressive record of academic expansion has accomplished the physical growth of Stanton. Beginning as an elementary school with six grades, under the administration of J. C. Waters as the first principal and D. W. Gulp who followed as principal, Stanton gradually became known throughout the state for the high educational standards which it still maintains today. The eighth grade was added under the leadership of Principal W. M. Artrell. Principal James Weldon Johnson, an alumnus, started the move toward a high school department. The addition of the twelfth grade [ when? ] made Stanton a comprehensive school.

    Stanton continued as a school for all grades through the administrations of I. A. Blocker, G. M. Sampson, and J. N. Wilson. In 1938, with F. J. Anderson as principal, Stanton became a senior high school exclusively. J. L. Terry served as the last principal of Stanton Senior High School.

    In 1953, the Stanton Senior School name was transferred to a new facility on 13th Street and was renamed New Stanton Senior High School. Charles D. Brooks was the first principal of the new school. Under his leadership, Stanton continued to foster the same traditionally high standards which befit its rich heritage, and flourished as the oldest and most important high school for blacks in Jacksonville.

    Beginning in 1953, the Broad and Ashley Street facility became known as the "Old" Stanton. The building was used as a junior high school in 1953-1954. In August 1954, it was converted into the Stanton Vocational High School and functioned as a vocational training center, adjusting its curriculum to train and graduate African-American students in technical skills. At night, it became a center for the Adult and Veterans Education Program.

    From 1969-1971, the focus of New Stanton Senior High School began to change from academic to vocational under the leadership of Principal Ben Durham, the former principal of Stanton Vocational High School. In 1971, the Old Stanton High School building was again placed under control of the trustees of Stanton and the student body was transferred to New Stanton Senior High School where the revised curriculum now provided for both the academic and the vocational interests of the students

    In 1981, Stanton College Preparatory School became the Duval County School System's first magnet school. Beginning with grades 7-10, and adding one grade level each succeeding year, the first senior class of 54 students graduated in 1984. Stanton College Preparatory School now serves secondary students living within the 841 square miles (2,180 km 2 ) of the Duval County school district and leads the Duval County Public Schools in academic achievement. [ when? ] [15]

    In March 2017, the school received international criticism for verbiage on flyers hung around campus presenting both acceptable and unacceptable attire for the school prom. Students found the use of "good girl" to praise those with attire deemed appropriate to be demeaning, and took to social media with the hashtag #scpgoodgirl. The principal quickly issued an apology. [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23]

    Honor societies Edit

    Stanton has many honor societies that support students in multiple fields. Honor societies include:

    • National Honor Society (NHS)
    • National Spanish Honor Society (NSHS)
    • National French Honor Society (NFHS)
    • National Latin Honor Society (NLHS)
    • Chinese National Honor Society (CNHS)
    • National Art Honor Society (NAHS)
    • National Film Honor Society (NFHS)
    • International Thespian Honor Society (ITHS)
    • National History Honor Society (NHHS)
    • National Math Honor Society (ΜΑΘ)
    • Science National Honor Society (SNHS)
    • National English Honor Society (NEHS)
    • National Society for Leadership and Success (NSLS) Music Honor Society
    • National Psychology Honors Society (NPHS)
    • Quill & Scroll International Journalism Honor Society

    Athletics Edit

    Stanton competes in the Gateway Conference, [24] a collaboration between most public high schools in Duval County. As of the 2018-2019 school year, Stanton's athletic director is Christopher Crider. [25] Stanton's campus has a limited number of athletic facilities due to its urban environment, but includes a football field, a rubber track, a softball field, and two hard surface tennis courts. Because Stanton doesn't have a baseball field, the baseball team practices at J. P. Small Memorial Stadium. Similarly, Stanton's cross country and track & field teams used to practice at Mallison Park before Stanton's rubber track was built. Stanton's sports include cross country, basketball, football, wrestling, weightlifting, flag football, soccer, track and field, swimming and diving, lacrosse, bowling, volleyball, tennis, baseball, softball, golf, and competitive cheerleading.


    Stanton, Edwin M.

    Stanton, Edwin M. (1814�), secretary of war under President Abraham Lincoln, was born in Steubenville, Ohio, 19 December 1814.Admitted to the bar in 1836, Stanton made a quick reputation for brilliance. Moving to Pittsburgh in 1847, he won national attention by representing Pennsylvania before the Supreme Court in an interstate commerce suit. A growing Supreme Court practice took him to Washington, D. C. in 1857.

    In 1858, Stanton exposed a conspiracy to defraud the government of some $150 million worth of land in California. This catapulted him into the office of U.S. Attorney General when President James Buchanan reorganized his cabinet in December 1860. Democrat Stanton opposed slavery and supported the Wilmot Proviso, but accepted the Dred Scott decision. He tried to strengthen Buchanan's policy against secession and to reinforce Fort Sumter.

    Stanton returned to private life when Buchanan's term ended. He distrusted Lincoln and befriended Gen. George B. McClellan when he took charge of army operations and openly derided Lincoln and his administration. Nevertheless, Lincoln invited him to replace Simon Cameron as Secretary of War in January 1862. Inheriting an administrative shambles, Stanton soon restored honesty and order.

    Brusque and intemperate with people, rigid and vigorous in pursuit of victory, Stanton made few friends in his department or the cabinet, but he and the president gradually forged mutual admiration. Lincoln trusted Stanton's judgment and came to rely heavily on his advice. An active war secretary, Stanton lost faith in McClellan. In September 1863, Stanton's dispatch of 23,000 men from east to west in less than seven days to reinforce Gen. William S. Rosecrans ranks as a logistical marvel. An early admirer of Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, he pushed his advancement, and enthusiastically approved his appointment as general‐in𠄌hief of the Union armies in 1864.

    Meddling in civil affairs, Stanton censored newspapers and had citizens arrested for suspicion of disloyalty. Although Stanton and Grant got along well, the general disliked the secretary's abrupt and severe rebuke of Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman for his proposed surrender terms to Gen. Joseph E. Johnston.

    Lincoln's assassination released a fanatical streak in Stanton, who pushed the execution of Mrs. Mary Surratt and tried to implicate Jefferson Davis in the assassination plot. President Andrew Johnson kept Stanton at his post𠅊n error he soon regretted. Although Stanton did a masterful job in demobilizing the Union armies, he joined the Republican Radicals against presidential reconstruction policies. He did, however, oppose the Tenure of Office Act (aimed at keeping him in office).

    When Johnson asked for his resignation in August 1867, the secretary refused to leave office until Congress reconvened in December (he argued that since the Tenure of Office Act had been passed over Johnson's veto, it was law). Johnson suspended him but was overridden by the Senate in January 1868. The president dismissed Stanton in February 1868, but Stanton held on and even ordered the arrest of Adjutant‐General Lorenzo Thomas, whom Johnson had named as secretary ad interim. Stanton resigned when Johnson's impeachment failed. Appointed by President Grant to the Supreme Court, Stanton died on December 24, 1869, four days after his confirmation.

    Frank A. Flower , Edwin McMasters Stanton: The Autocrat of Rebellion, Emancipation, and Reconstruction , 1905.
    Benjamin P. Thomas and and Harold M. Hyman , Stanton: The Life and Times of Lincoln's Secretary of War , 1962.


    Photo, Print, Drawing [Secretary of War Edwin Stanton]

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    Edwin M. Stanton - History

    In 1868, the Trustees of Florida Institute, a group that included two Florida Chief Justices, a justice of the peace and a member of the Duval County Board of Public Instruction was founded after the Civil War to provide educational opportunities for former slaves and free blacks. They purchased a 1.5-acre city block from Ossian B. Hart with financing from the Freedman’s Bureau to open the Stanton Normal School, named in honor of General Edwin M. Stanton, an outspoken abolitionist and Secretary of War under Lincoln.

    The school, opened on April 10, 1869, was destroyed by fire in 1882 and a new brick building was constructed. This second school was burned in the Great Fire of 1901 and again, rebuilt. This third Stanton was much inferior to Stanton’s previous structures, revealing the diminished opportunities for blacks under “Jim Crow” laws which sanctioned strict segregation, according to one of the city’s most celebrated natives, James Weldon Johnson, a graduate of the school.

    After receiving a degree from Atlanta University, Johnson returned home to become the principal of Stanton in 1894. He served as principal for nearly eight years, at which time he expanded the school from eight to twelve grades, making it the only high school for blacks in Jacksonville.

    In 1914, the Trustees of the Florida Institute embarked on a campaign to improve the education for black children in Jacksonville and to replace the poorly constructed 1902 school. Instead of building a better building, the school board proposed selling the property and building three other buildings throughout the city. Stanton supporters, led by the trustees, sued the school board to prevent this action and a settlement was reach in 1915. “This was the first example of civil-rights litigation in Jacksonville and one of the earliest cases in the South,” according to Jacksonville’s Architectural Heritage.

    The school board agreed to construct a three-story building, pictured above, on the original Stanton site. The new school opened in 1917 and closed in 1971. Today, the building is typically referred to as Old Stanton High School. In 1983, the school was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.

    Old Stanton High School was closed in 1971 and in 1983, was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.


    Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton

    Born in Steubenville in 1814, Edwin McMasters Stanton studied at Kenyon College and opened his law practice in Cadiz in 1836. The grandson of North Carolina slaveholders, Stanton opposed slavery. A successful railroad attorney and War Democrat at the beginning of the Civil War, he accepted the challenge of reorganizing President Abraham Lincoln's War Department. Stanton enforced unpopular draft laws, fought draft, restricted the press, and nationalized the railroads. An effective planner and logistician, Stanton moved 20,000 soldiers more than 1,200 miles in a week by railroad to relieve the siege of Chattanooga in 1863. Following Lincoln's assassination, Stanton clashed with President Andrew Johnson and provoked the act that led to Johnson's impeachment. He died four days after President Ulysses S. Grant appointed him to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1869.

    Erected 2003 by Ohio Bicentennial Commission, The Scotts Company-Founded by a Civil War Veteran, and The Ohio Historical Society. (Marker Number 7-41.)

    Topics and series. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Abolition & Underground RR &bull Railroads & Streetcars &bull War, US Civil

    . In addition, it is included in the Former U.S. Presidents: #17 Andrew Johnson, and the Ohio Historical Society / The Ohio History Connection series lists. A significant historical year for this entry is 1814.

    Location. 40° 21.582′ N, 80° 36.826′ W. Marker is in Steubenville, Ohio, in Jefferson County. Marker is at the intersection of Market Street and North 3rd Street, on the left when traveling east on Market Street. This historical marker is located in the downtown business district, at the southeast corner of the Jefferson County Courthouse Square. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Steubenville OH 43952, United States of America. Touch for directions.

    Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Edwin McMasters Stanton (here, next to this marker) Abraham Lincoln's Visit to Steubenville (a few steps from this marker) The Steubenville Building and Loan Association Building (within shouting distance of this marker) U.S.S. Maine (within shouting distance of this marker) Veterans Memorial (within shouting distance of this marker) Guy W. Jacobs (1888 - 1973) / Steubenville Rotary Club (April 20, 1921) (within shouting distance of this marker) 328 Market Street (about 300 feet away, measured in a direct line) Steubenville's Dean Martin (about 300 feet away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Steubenville.

    1. Edwin McMasters Stanton. This is a link to a site that discusses the background of those involved in the Impeachment of Andrew Johnson. (Submitted on August 2, 2010, by Dale K. Benington of Toledo, Ohio.)

    2. Edwin M. Stanton. This is a link provided by NNDB. (Submitted on August 2, 2010, by Dale K. Benington of Toledo, Ohio.)

    3. Edwin M. Stanton Biography. This is a link provided by the Civil War 100 by Robert Wooster. (Submitted on August 2, 2010, by Dale K. Benington of Toledo, Ohio.)


    Photo, Print, Drawing Edwin M. Stanton

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    2. If there is information listed in the Reproduction Number field above: You can use the reproduction number to purchase a copy from Duplication Services. It will be made from the source listed in the parentheses after the number.

    If only black-and-white ("b&w") sources are listed and you desire a copy showing color or tint (assuming the original has any), you can generally purchase a quality copy of the original in color by citing the Call Number listed above and including the catalog record ("About This Item") with your request.

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    Is the item digitized? (A thumbnail (small) image will be visible on the left.)

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    Edwin M. Stanton's Surveillance of Telecommunications During the American Civil War

    President Abraham Lincoln appointed Edwin M. Stanton Secretary of War on January 15, 1862, and soon thereafter Stanton requested sweeping powers, including total control of telegraph lines, as a security measure. By having all telegraph lines rerouted through his office, Stanton could monitor vast amounts of communication&mdashjournalistic, governmental and personal. This early example of governmental surveillance of telecommunications came to my attention in an op-ed piece by David T. Z. Mindich entitled "Lincoln's Surveillance State" in The New York Times July 5, 2013. The piece was published in the context of the leaks by Edward Snowden in June 2013 concerninig the vast PRISM telecommunications surveillance program:

    "Having the telegraph lines running through Stanton&rsquos office made his department the nexus of war information Lincoln visited regularly to get the latest on the war. Stanton collected news from generals, telegraph operators and reporters. He had a journalist&rsquos love of breaking the story and an autocrat&rsquos obsession with information control. He used his power over the telegraphs to influence what journalists did or didn&rsquot publish. In 1862, the House Judiciary Committee took up the question of 'telegraphic censorship' and called for restraint on the part of the administration&rsquos censors.

    "When I first read Stanton&rsquos requests to Lincoln asking for broad powers, I accepted his information control as a necessary evil. Lincoln was fighting for a cause of the utmost importance in the face of enormous challenges. The benefits of information monitoring, censorship and extrajudicial tactics, though disturbing, were arguably worth their price.

    "But part of the reason this calculus was acceptable to me was that the trade-offs were not permanent. As the war ended, the emergency measures were rolled back. Information &mdash telegraph and otherwise &mdash began to flow freely again.

    "So it has been with many wars: a cycle of draconian measures followed by contraction. During the First World War, the Supreme Court found that Charles T. Schenck posed a &ldquoclear and present danger&rdquo for advocating opposition to the draft later such speech became more permissible. During the Second World War, habeas corpus was suspended several times &mdash most notably in Hawaii after the Pearl Harbor attack &mdash but afterward such suspensions became rare.

    "This is why, if you are a critic of the N.S.A.&rsquos surveillance program, it is imperative that the war on terror reach its culmination. In May, President Obama declared that 'this war, like all wars, must end.' If history is any guide, ending the seemingly endless state of war is the first step in returning our civil liberties.

    "Until then, we will continue to see acts of governmental overreach that would make even Stanton blush. &ldquoI, sitting at my desk, certainly had the authorities to wiretap anyone, from you or your accountant, to a federal judge or even the President, if I had a personal e-mail,&rdquo Mr. Snowden told The Guardian. And unlike Stanton&rsquos telegraph operation, which housed just a handful of telegraphers, the current national security apparatus is huge. An estimated 483,000 government contractors had top-secret security clearances in 2012. That&rsquos a lot of Snowdens to trust with your information."


    William A. Howard Letter on Edwin M. Stanton

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    Biographical / Historical

    William Alanson Howard practiced law in Detroit before serving in the US House of Representatives as a congressman for Michigan (1855-1861). He was chairman of the Michigan Republican Party from 1862-1868 land commissioner of the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railway (1869-1871) and the North Pacific Railway (1872-1878) and governor of the Dakota Territory from 1878-1880. Howard died in 1880 in Washington DC.

    Edwin McMasters Stanton was born in 1814 in Steubenville, Ohio, and later practiced law in Ohio and Pennsylvania. Stanton, then a Democrat, relocated to Washington DC in 1856. From December 1860-March 1861—as Southern states began seceding from the United States—he served as attorney general in the Democratic cabinet of President James Buchanan, succeeding Jeremiah S. Black in that position after Black was appointed Buchanan’s secretary of state (1860-1861). After his tenure in Buchanan’s cabinet, Stanton became a member of the Republican Party. He served as secretary of war in Lincoln's administration from 1862-1865, during most of the US Civil War and later organized inquiries after Lincoln’s assassination in April 1865. Stanton also had a key role in creating the Freedmen’s Bureau in 1865 to provide assistance for people who had been emancipated from slavery. Stanton died on December 24, 1869, of complications from asthma. After his death, Republican Massachusetts senator Henry Wilson, who later served as US vice president, praised Stanton for keeping Republican politicians apprised of the Buchanan administration’s cabinet decisions during the secession crisis of 1860-1861, and thus demonstrating concern for the Union. Jeremiah Black asserted that such a characterization would mean Stanton was disloyal to the Democratic president under whom he then served. A later article by Wilson defended his initial remarks, citing letters from a number of other politicians to support his version of events and Stanton’s motivations. This later article, “Jeremiah S. Black and Edwin M. Stanton” (


    Watch the video: Walter Stahr, Stanton: Lincolns War Secretary (December 2021).