International interest in promoting peace developed in the late 19th century, prompted by the acrimonious race for empire among the great powers. During these years, two major international gatherings considered means of promoting peace.
- The First Hague ConferenceSummoned in May, 1899 by Czar Nicholas II of Russia and Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, the First Hague Conference was attended by 26 nations, including a distinguished delegation from the United States. The conference was charged with charting a course toward disarmament and placing limitations on the means of conducting warfare. Unfortunately, varying aims of the participating nations made agreement impossible.One positive achievement did emerge from the gathering, however. Provisions were made for the establishment of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (popularly known as the Hague Tribunal), a body that would render binding decisions on international disputes between cooperating nations. The idea of arbitration was very popular in the United States in the early 20th century and Theodore Roosevelt submitted the first case to the Court (a minor dispute with Mexico). Later, the Venezuelan crisis of 1902 was settled through the auspices of the Court’s arbitrators.
- The Second Hague ConferenceIn 1907, with 46 nations assembled at The Hague, the United States pushed for the establishment of a world court. The body was to be a type of supreme court that would issues decisions based upon international law and precedent, a markedly different function from the arbitration activities of the Permanent Court. Discussions reached an impasse over the issue of how the judges were to be selected. Naturally enough, every member nation wanted its judges included.In the absence of agreement on the main topic, the conference experienced some apparent success in adopting resolutions defining the rules of conduct in modern warfare. However, in the months following adjournment, many nations failed to ratify the resolutions and others attached so many reservations that they were sapped of all authority.One clear achievement did emerge from the Second Hague Conference. The delegates agreed on the wording of a model arbitration treaty that was to be used by consenting nations. The Hague Tribunal was to settle differences among signatories, except in cases involving sovereignty, vital interests or national honor.
Promotion of peace was a popular topic of international discussion in the early 20th century. ^Andrew Carnegie used his vast financial resources to foster the movement, providing funding for the construction of the Peace Palace at The Hague, the home of the Hague Tribunal. Various secretaries of state, including John Hay, Elihu Root and William Jennings Bryan^, devoted much time and energy to negotiating arbitration treaties with other nations.
Hague Conventions of 1907
The codification of modern international humanitarian law began at the end of the nineteenth century. A peace conference was held at The Hague, Netherlands, in 1899, followed by a second conference, which met in the same city in 1907. The latter adopted a series of international conventions related to the peaceful settlement of international conflicts and the laws of war, which are known collectively as the Hague Conventions. Convention IV, which is the most relevant here, proclaimed the Laws and Customs of War on Land. Still in force, this Convention imposes upon the parties the obligation to issue instructions to their armed land forces in conformity with the Regulations annexed to the Convention. Each party to a conflict is responsible for all acts committed by individuals forming part of its armed forces, including militia and volunteer corps commanded by a person responsible, having a fixed distinctive emblem and carrying arms openly. A belligerent party who violates the provisions of the Regulations shall, if the case requires, be liable to pay compensation. On July 9, 2004, the International Court of Justice, in its advisory opinion on the Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, referred to the 1907 Hague Convention IV as customary international law binding on all states in the twenty-first century.
The Hague Conferences: Seeking Peace - History
The maintenance of general peace, and a possible reduction of the excessive armaments which weigh upon all nations, present themselves in the existing condition of the whole world, as the ideal towards which the endeavors of all Governments should be directed.
The humanitarian and magnanimous ideas of His Majesty the Emperor, my August Master, have been won over to this view. In the conviction that this lofty aim is in conformity with the most essential interests and the legitimate views of all Powers, the Imperial Government thinks that the present moment would be very favorable for seeking, by means of international discussion, the most effectual means of insuring to all peoples the benefits of a real and durable peace, and, above all, of putting an end to the progressive development of the present armaments.
In the course of the last twenty years the longings for a general appeasement have become especially pronounced in the consciences of civilized nations. The preservation of peace has been put forward as the object of international policy in its name great States have concluded between themselves powerful alliances it is the better to guarantee peace that they have developed, in proportions hitherto unprecedented, their military forces, and still continue to increase them without shrinking from any sacrifice.
All these efforts nevertheless have not yet been able to bring about the beneficent results of the desired pacification. The financial charges following an upward march strike at the public prosperity at its very source.
The intellectual and physical strength of the nations, labor and capital, are for the major part diverted from their natural application, and unproductively consumed. Hundreds of millions are devoted to acquiring terrible engines of destruction, which, though today regarded as the last word of science, are destined tomorrow to lose all value in consequence of some fresh discovery in the same field.
National culture, economic progress, and the production of wealth are either paralyzed or checked in their development. Moreover, in proportion as the armaments of each Power increase, so do they less and less fulfill the object which the Governments have set before themselves.
The economic crises, due in great part to the system of armaments a L'outrance, and the continual danger which lies in this massing of war material, are transforming the armed peace of our days into a crushing burden, which the peoples have more and more difficulty in bearing. It appears evident, then, that if this state of things were prolonged, it would inevitably lead to the very cataclysm which it is desired to avert, and the horrors of which make every thinking man shudder in advance.
To put an end to these incessant armaments and to seek the means of warding off the calamities which are threatening the whole world-such is the supreme duty which is today imposed on all States.
Filled with this idea, His Majesty has been pleased to order me to propose to all the Governments whose representatives are accredited to the Imperial Court, the meeting of a conference which would have to occupy itself with this grave problem.
This conference should be, by the help of God, a happy presage for the century which is about to open. It would converge in one powerful focus the efforts of all States which are sincerely seeking to make the great idea of universal peace triumph over the elements of trouble and discord.
It would, at the same time, confirm their agreement by the solemn establishment of the principles of justice and right, upon which repose the security of States and the welfare of peoples.
(1) Handed to diplomatic representatives by Count Mouravieff, Russian Foreign Minister, at weekly reception in the Foreign Office, St. Petersburg, August 24/12, 1898. Back
The Hague Conferences: Seeking Peace - History
WOMEN WORKING FOR PEACE
In April 1915, about 1200 women from the warring countries gathered together in The Hague, for the Women&rsquos International Congress. The overwhelming majority were from Holland, as others had great difficulties getting there. They came from Austria, Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United States. French and Russian women were not allowed to attend. 180 British women had applied to come but the government refused at first to allow passports, eventually agreeing to issue 24 to women chosen by the Home Secretary. But the Admiralty then closed the North Sea to shipping! The only British women able to attend were Chrystal Macmillan and Kathleen Courtney who had already travelled to the Hague to help organise it, and Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence who came from the States. Those travelling from the States risked their lives sailing across the Atlantic in a ship that was unable to fly the American flag and could have been torpedoed. Five Belgian delegates arrived to great applause having surprisingly secured permits from the occupying German authorities. Messages of support came from as far away as India, Brazil and South Africa.
The British press treated this with the usual contempt – the Evening Standard said &lsquoWomen peace fanatics are becoming a nuisance and a bore&rsquo, their efforts were dismissed as amateurish, they were mocked by the Daily Express as &lsquopeacettes&rsquo and generally the press was disappointed the women did not come to blows.
To hold the conference at all during the war was an amazing feat of organisation, and bravery. It was the first international meeting to draw up an outline of the principles needed for a peace settlement to succeed. The Covenant of the League of Nations after the war is remarkably similar to the 20 resolutions passed by the delegates. They included democratic control of foreign policy, with no secret treaties, universal disarmament, future international disputes to be referred to arbitration – and of course, equal political rights for women, and the involvement of ordinary men and women in the final peace conference.
The delegates held a minute&rsquos silence for all those killed in the war so far – Rosika Schwimmer described the mood: &lsquowe had one who learned that her son had been killed – and women who had learned two days earlier that their husbands had been killed, and women who had come from belligerent countries full of the unspeakable horror, of the physical horror of war, these women sat there with their anguish and sorrows, quiet, superb, poised, and with only one thought, &lsquoWhat can we do to save the others from similar sorrow?&rsquo
It was her idea that the resolutions passed by the Congress should be taken in person to the heads of the belligerent and neutral governments and to the President of the United States. Many thought the idea impractical and impossible, but she persuaded them with her eloquence. Between May and August 1915 thirteen of the women, in two groups, visited top statesmen in fourteen capitals: Berlin, Berne, Budapest, Christiana (now Oslo), Copenhagen, The Hague, Le Havre (seat of the deposed Belgian government), London, Paris, Petrograd (now St. Petersburg), Rome, Stockholm, Vienna and Washington. Women from the fighting countries were chosen to visit the neutral governments, and vice versa. Chrystal Macmillan from Britain was one of them. They wanted the neutral countries to set up a mediating conference. They succeeded in meeting top level statesmen – for example in Britain Catherine Marshall arranged meetings with the Foreign Secretary and the Prime Minister. Everywhere they found all the governments had convinced themselves they were fighting &lsquoin self-defence&rsquo and were waiting for the neutral countries to intervene. In Austria, Jane Addams (American chair of the Congress) said to the Prime Minister that &lsquoIt perhaps seems to you very foolish that women should go about in this way but after all, the world itself is so strange in this war situation that our mission may be no more strange or foolish than the rest.&rsquo He replied &lsquoFoolish? These are the first sensible words that been uttered in this room for ten months.&rsquo As history shows, the women did not succeed. Every government seemed to be waiting for some other government to take the first step to peace.
Rosika Schwimmer ultimately returned to Hungary, then after the war was forced to flee to America where she was ironically accused of being a German spy, and denied American citizenship because she &lsquorefused to bear arms&rsquo, dying stateless in 1948.
Branches of what became the Women&rsquos International League for Peace and Freedom were set up throughout Europe and the United States and later further afield. WILPF women continue to work for peace throughout the world to this day.
Geneva Protocol to Hague Convention [ edit | edit source ]
Though not negotiated in The Hague, the Geneva Protocol to the Hague Convention is considered an addition to the Convention. Signed on June 17, 1925 and entering into force on February 8, 1928, it permanently bans the use of all forms of chemical and biological warfare in its single section, entitled Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. The protocol grew out of the increasing public outcry against chemical warfare following the use of mustard gas and similar agents in World War I, and fears that chemical and biological warfare could lead to horrific consequences in any future war. The protocol has since been augmented by the Biological Weapons Convention (1972) and the Chemical Weapons Convention (1993).
Arbitration, Mediation, and Conciliation - The hague peace conferences
It was not until the 1890s that there came many new opportunities to advance the ideas of arbitration enthusiasts. During that decade, marked as it was by naval building, imperial rivalries, and war, arbitration nonetheless seemed to emerge as a major feature of international relations, and the U.S. government was at the forefront of this development. As the period began, President Benjamin Harrison's secretary of state, James G. Blaine, brought together in Washington during late 1889 and early 1890 the First International Conference of American States. This conference recommended a number of proposals to promote hemispheric unity, among them a plan by which the American republics would have referred to arbitration all disputes that diplomacy could not settle, excepting questions of independence. Blaine called this agreement "the first and great fruit" of the conference, but he rejoiced too soon. No government ratified the agreement.
Even before it was apparent that the Pan-American arbitral plan would fail, the United States was concluding an agreement with Britain for arbitration of an acrimonious dispute. Endeavoring to stop the indiscriminate killing of fur seals in the Bering Sea by both British subjects and American citizens, State Department officials grasped at mistaken translations and interpretations of Russian documents which seemed to prove that sovereignty over the sea had passed to the United States with the acquisition of Alaska. The Coast Guard seized Canadian ships and arrested their crews. Britain protested vigorously. Blaine's successor, John Watson Foster, negotiated an agreement by which the two powers established a tribunal in Paris to hear the case. In an award announced in 1895 the tribunal upheld Britain's contention that the Bering Sea was part of the high seas and thus not subject to the police actions of any government in time of peace. It became necessary for the State Department to resume negotiations to save the seals.
The Bering Sea tribunal had barely completed its labors when a serious Anglo-American quarrel arose over arbitration in another matter. The United States had long urged arbitration of the border dispute between Venezuela and British Guiana, but the British government, fearing that such an arbitration would encourage demands for changes in boundaries of other British colonies, repeatedly rejected American suggestions. Late in 1895, President Grover Cleveland's new secretary of state, Richard Olney, convinced himself and the president that Britain was very possibly claiming territory without real justification and was, therefore, about to violate the Monroe Doctrine. The secretary sent stern messages to London. Lord Salisbury, who was both prime minister and foreign minister, responded with a statement that sounded much like a schoolmaster explaining a few simple facts to a student with little intelligence. The Monroe Doctrine was not "public law," as Olney claimed, it was simply a statement made by a distinguished American statesman. Salisbury was accurate enough, but Americans insisted that the Monroe Doctrine had a larger meaning that other nations should recognize. Cleveland sent Congress a special message that resounded with appeals to honor and patriotic duty. In both the United States and Britain there were calls for war. After a few days calmer counsel prevailed. The British government decided that arbitration, after all, was the best way out of the crisis and concluded a treaty with Venezuela by which the two countries established a tribunal in Paris to determine the boundary. To the irritation of many Americans, the tribunal, in an award announced in 1899, largely upheld the British position.
In addition to the proceedings at Paris, the boundary controversy had another important result for arbitration. Shocked by the emotional excesses of the recent crisis, British and American leaders at last yielded to the pleas of peace spokesmen for a treaty of arbitration. Secretary Olney and the British ambassador, Sir Julian Pauncefote, negotiated a treaty according to which their governments were to agree that for a five-year period they would settle territorial and pecuniary claims through arbitration. The treaty made no exception for national honor, but it provided an elaborate procedure for setting up tribunals and handling appeals that should have been adequate safeguards for the interests of both parties. Optimists believed the treaty could be a first step toward a permanent world tribunal. Olney and Pauncefote signed the treaty on 11 January 1897, and Cleveland and his successor, William McKinley, both urged ratification. Unfortunately, partisan politics, dislike for Britain, and fear of a departure from the traditional policy of avoiding entangling alliances influenced many senators. After approving amendments that would have deprived the treaty of any real force, the Senate on 5 May 1897 declined consent for ratification. Great was the disappointment of arbitration enthusiasts, but there soon came another opportunity for their cause.
The Russian foreign ministry, on 24 August 1898, sent a circular note to all governments with diplomatic representation in St. Petersburg. Czar Nicholas II proposed a conference to consider limitation of armaments. The United States was quick to accept, although there was no interest in Washington in limiting or reducing armaments, and some influential people suspected a connection between the Russian proposal and the recent American victory in the war with Spain. When the Russians added improvements in the laws of war and arbitration to the agenda, American officials became more interested. Secretary of State John Hay instructed the American delegates to work for agreement on these subjects, and he told them to present a plan for a permanent international tribunal modeled on the Supreme Court of the United States.
Upon request of Nicholas II, Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands provided the conference with a meeting place at The Hague. Representatives of twenty-six governments were present for the opening session on 18 May 1899 at one of the Dutch royal palaces, the House in the Wood. In addition to the delegates, peace workers gathered at The Hague, anxious to encourage the "Peace Conference," as they called it, to make large initiatives for peace. To many people, the term "Peace Conference" soon seemed a misnomer, for the conference spent much of its time discussing war. It failed to agree to any reduction in armies and navies or their budgets but did adopt declarations against poison gas, needlessly cruel bullets, and the throwing of projectiles or explosives from balloons or similar devices. It was more successful in its work with the laws of war. It framed two conventions about this subject, one of which was a codification of the laws of land warfare and the other a convention extending the Geneva Convention of 1864 (popularly known as the Red Cross Convention) to naval warfare. While humanitarians hailed these conventions, another document, the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, was more interesting to peace workers. This convention summarized experience with arbitration, mediation, and commissions of inquiry and made several significant innovations in the application of these methods to the resolution of international differences.
No part of the conference's work required more diplomacy than Title IV of the Pacific Settlement Convention, "On International Arbitration." The American delegates soon discovered that there was little chance for adoption of their plan for a permanent tribunal, and they decided not to press for its acceptance. Instead, they supported a plan offered by Pauncefote, the chairman of the British delegation. The British proposed that each signatory power name two jurists to a list and that parties to an arbitration should choose judges from that list. The Russians also advanced a plan, proposing that five powers be given authority to name one judge each and that these judges should always be ready to act as arbitrators. Both plans called for an administrative bureau at The Hague. The chairman of the U.S. delegation, Andrew D. White, and the delegation secretary, Frederick W. Holls, worked closely with the British and Russians to secure an acceptable compromise. For a time German objections threatened to defeat their efforts and it required much persuasion before the German government agreed to support a plan believed somewhat weaker than the original British and Russian proposals. The conference then agreed that each signatory power should select "four persons at the most, of known competency in international law, of the highest moral reputation, and disposed to accept the duties of Arbitrator." These people were to be members of a permanent international institution, the Permanent Court of Arbitration. A bureau at The Hague would maintain their names on a list and carry out all administrative responsibilities. Powers wishing to enter into arbitrations could choose arbitrators from the list, but there was no requirement that they do so.
Efforts at incorporating obligatory features into the convention largely failed. The Germans, in particular, opposed obligatory arbitration, and without their support little was possible. The completed convention included, however, a statement that the signatory powers recognized arbitration "as the most effective, and at the same time the most equitable, means of settling disputes which diplomacy has failed to settle," and article 27 declared that the signatory powers would "consider it their duty, if a serious dispute threatens to break out between two or more of them, to remind these latter that the Permanent Court is open to them." This provision, based on a French proposal that Holls had warmly supported, was the subject of serious disagreement within the American delegation. The naval delegate, Captain Alfred T. Mahan, the famed historian of sea power, argued that the article could lead to conflict between the Hague Convention and the Monroe Doctrine. Debate within the delegation ceased only when White read a statement to the conference that in signing the convention the United States was in no way departing from its traditional policies toward Europe or the Americas.
Many of the framers of the Peaceful Settlement Convention were as concerned with good offices and mediation as with arbitration. When a government extends an offer of good offices to powers in controversy or at war, it makes its diplomatic services and facilities available to them. When a power acts as a mediator, it takes an active part in negotiations, acting much as a middleman. In actual practice, it is difficult to distinguish between good offices and mediation, and the First Hague Conference did not make such a distinction, but it did recognize the need to guarantee their benevolent character. Too often such offers had been viewed as unfriendly interventions, sometimes for good reasons. Americans remembered how the imperial French government during the Civil War had been unsympathetic to the Union cause and had, at an inconvenient moment, offered mediation. The Peace Conference sought to prevent such problems in the future by including in the convention a declaration that powers that were strangers to a dispute had the right to offer good offices and mediation even during hostilities and that the exercise of this right could "never be regarded by either of the parties at variance as an unfriendly act." The convention was as careful in its treatment of recipients of offers of good offices and mediation. Article 6 declared that offers of good offices and mediation "have exclusively the character of advice, and never have binding force," while article 7 stated that mediation could not interrupt, delay, or hinder mobilization or other preparations for war.
Article 8 of the mediation section was in a class by itself. The result of a proposal by Holls—other delegates referred to it as La Proposition Holls —it provided for what was called "special mediation." According to its terms, each party to a conflict could choose another power to act in its place. For thirty days the disputing powers would cease all communication about their controversy and let their seconds make an effort at settlement.
In addition to the articles on mediation and arbitration, the conference included provisions in the convention for commissions of inquiry. It was already an accepted practice to promote international conciliation by appointing commissions to ascertain facts. Such commissions were not expected to make recommendations for settlement, but they were expected to make reports that could aid quarreling governments to work out their differences. There was, however, no generally accepted procedure for establishing commissions. Cleveland had appointed a commission to gather evidence during the Venezuelan boundary controversy, and while the commission did much good work, the fact that it was constituted by only one party to the dispute was lost on no one. Obviously, such one-sided arrangements should be avoided in the future. The Hague Convention provided that commissions should be organized according to a procedure similar to that by which arbitral bodies could be constituted from the list of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and that the commissions should confine their activities to the determination of facts. They would present reports to the conflicting powers but those powers would retain full freedom to interpret the findings of the commissions.
During the fifteen years following the Peace Conference of 1899, the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes was of considerable importance in international relations, and no country displayed more interest in the convention and the Hague Court than the United States. American statesmen made promotion of the court an important part of foreign policy. Upon the suggestion of President Theodore Roosevelt, the United States and Mexico gave the court its first case, a dispute over whether the cession of California to the United States had ended Mexico's obligation to give financial support to an ancient fund for the conversion of the California Indians—the Pious Fund of the Californias. The court carefully examined a large quantity of historical evidence and, on 14 October 1902, rendered an award stating that Mexico was still obligated to support the fund.
Roosevelt's initiative in the Pious Fund case won approval from American and European peace movement leaders, but soon he made clear the limits of his confidence in the Hague Court. He refused to submit the controversy over the Alaska Panhandle's boundary with Canada to the court. A joint commission had failed to settle the matter, a problem since the Klondike gold rush in 1896, but Roosevelt agreed to what was essentially another commission, although called a tribunal. The president and the British monarch were each to appoint three "impartial jurists of repute." Roosevelt appointed his secretary of war, Elihu Root his close friend Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts and former senator George Turner of Washington, who was well acquainted with commercial relations between his state and the Alaskan gold-rush ports. King Edward VII appointed the lieutenant-governor of Quebec, Sir Louise A. Jetté a Toronto lawyer, A. B. Aylesworth and the lord chief justice of England, Lord Alverstone, who had a prominent role in the Bering Sea arbitration. Alverstone voted with the Americans for a decision favorable to American contentions. Great was the anger of Canadians who charged that no one could have expected the American jurists to be impartial, despite reasons for believing that the impartiality of the British Empire jurists was also suspect. Roosevelt told people who believed he had risked a sound claim to arbitration that a tie was the worst that could have happened, and he insisted that the London proceedings had not been an arbitration. History does not support what the president was saying, but his interpretation has, nonetheless, been widely accepted.
With regard to a more serious controversy, the Venezuelan debt affair, Roosevelt was as pleased to make use of the Permanent Court of Arbitration as he had been determined to avoid it in the Alaska boundary dispute. After Britain, Germany, and Italy blockaded Venezuelan ports in late 1902 and early 1903 to force Venezuela to honor financial obligations due their nationals in that country, other governments asked that the claims of their nationals in Venezuela also be paid. The question then arose as to whether the blockading powers should have preference when the payments began. Roosevelt saw an opportunity for the Hague Court. Upon his suggestion a court was again constituted from its list of arbitrators, and the interested powers began a long and complicated arbitration. The court finally announced, on 22 February 1904, an award stating that the blockading powers should have preference, a disappointing decision to many of the warmest friends of the court, for it seemed to reward violence.
Before World War I broke out, the Hague Court rendered awards in twelve other cases, two of them involving the United States. The Treaty of Washington of 1871 and the Halifax commission had failed to put to rest all difficulties over the North Atlantic fisheries, and the American and British governments referred their controversy to the Permanent Court in 1909. The court, on 10 September 1910, announced an award that upheld most British contentions but which was so carefully stated that the Americans as well as the British believed justice had been done. A few weeks after making this award, the court, on 25 October, made an award in another case involving the United States, the Orinoco Steamship Company case, a dispute between a company owned by U.S. citizens and the Venezuelan government. The award was substantially in accord with the position of the United States government.
The provisions of the Pacific Settlement Convention for commissions of inquiry and good offices and mediation were not used as often as the arbitration sections from 1899 to 1914, but they were of importance in connection with the most serious armed conflict of the era, the Russo-Japanese War. When Russia's Baltic fleet, en route to the Far East, fired into a British fishing fleet off Dogger Bank on the night of 21–22 October 1904, having mistaken the fishing boats for Japanese torpedo boats, there was a furor in Britain, and high officials in London talked of using force to stop the Russian fleet. Anger subsided when the Russian government suggested establishment of a commission of inquiry under terms of the Hague Convention. Four admirals—one each from Russia, Britain, France, and the United States—were appointed to a commission that carefully investigated the matter. Upon receiving the commission's report, the Russian government paid damages and the matter was closed.
As the war passed its decisive stages, peace movement spokesmen hoped that powers signatory to the Hague Convention would remember its provisions for good offices and mediation, and they were elated when President Roosevelt mediated a settlement, the Peace of Portsmouth of 1905. The American president made no use of the language of the Hague Convention, but it is probable that that document influenced him, for at one time he suggested that the Russians and Japanese hold peace negotiations at The Hague.
Many peace spokesmen in the United States and Europe believed Roosevelt's efforts to improve the Hague system would prove as important in the long run as his mediation of the Russo-Japanese conflict. The president in 1904 promised the visiting Interparliamentary Union that he would call another Hague peace conference, and in October of that year Secretary of State Hay sent out a circular suggesting a new conference. Later, Roosevelt stepped aside in response to a Russian request that Nicholas II have the honor of calling the conference officially, but the United States took an active role in the conference.
The Second Hague Peace Conference, which met in 1907, was much larger than the 1899 conference, for it included delegates from most Latin American countries. The Latin Americans were present because the United States asked for their inclusion. Indeed, Latin American policy was one of the most important considerations of the United States at the conference, but Secretary of State Elihu Root and the president did not forget the old dream of a world court. The chairman of the U.S. delegation, Joseph Hodges Choate, and another American member, James Brown Scott, struggled valiantly to secure establishment of a new tribunal, the Court of Arbitral Justice, which would have stood alongside the Permanent Court of Arbitration but would have been a truly permanent court, always in existence and ready to hear cases. Unfortunately, it proved impossible to agree upon a system of appointing judges without offending smaller powers that could not have continuous representation. As the conference closed, the Court of Arbitral Justice was only a project attached to a voeu (formal wish) that the powers signatory to the Final Act bring the court into existence as soon as they agreed upon the selection of judges and several details of the court's constitution.
The negotiation of arbitration treaties and treaties of conciliation were other important aspects of the diplomacy of peace from 1899 to 1914. Britain and France in 1903 negotiated a treaty of arbitration, and peace movement leaders then urged the United States to follow this example. Roosevelt and Hay yielded to their pleas, and Hay, in 1904 and 1905, negotiated treaties with France, Switzerland, Germany, Portugal, Great Britain, Italy, Spain, Austria-Hungary, Mexico, and Sweden and Norway. To the anger of Roosevelt and Hay, the Senate in advising ratification insisted that the preliminary arbitration agreements be actual treaties and therefore subject to the ratifying process. Roosevelt thereupon refused to proceed further, but Hay's successor, Root, was convinced that treaties amended so as to meet the Senate's requirements would be better than none. He prevailed upon the president to consent to negotiation in 1908 of a new set of treaties. The Senate found these treaties more to its liking and approved ratification.
It would have been well if President William Howard Taft and his secretary of state, Philander C. Knox, had been as cautious as Root in dealing with the Senate, for they would have been spared a large disappointment. Knox negotiated arbitration treaties with Britain and France in 1911 that made no exceptions for such considerations as national honor. The treaties merely stated that any matter that was justiciable would be arbitrated. Since whether or not a dispute was justiciable was subject to varying interpretations, it seemed that the treaties contained adequate safeguards for the interests of the governments concerned, but the Senate saw the matter in a different light. Believing that the treaties could limit the nation's freedom of action, the Senate refused consent for ratification.
President Woodrow Wilson's first secretary of state, William Jennings Bryan, was less interested in arbitration than his immediate predecessors, although he negotiated renewal of the Root treaties. He was more impressed with the conciliatory effects of commissions of inquiry and believed that their development could be carried much farther than the Pacific Settlement Convention had done. He hoped for treaties of conciliation incorporating new ideas about investigating commissions. Soon after the Wilson administration took office, he advanced what he called the president's peace plan. He urged nations to agree to refer their disputes to investigating commissions for six months or a year. While awaiting the reports of the commissions, they would refrain from going to war or increasing their armaments. The signatories of the treaties would be free to accept or reject conclusions of the commissions or to go to war, but Bryan was confident that the period of waiting could have a cooling-off effect and help avert war. He negotiated twenty-nine treaties according to this plan, and twenty of them were ratified. Sadly, this initiative for peace was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I.
The declarations of war in 1914 also interrupted American efforts to bring the Court of Arbitral Justice into existence and to ensure the meeting of a third Hague peace conference. Since the conference of 1907, American diplomats had been conducting quiet negotiations with the British, French, and Germans to establish the Court of Arbitral Justice without waiting for the consent of all powers that had participated in that conference. While these negotiations had reached no definite conclusion, in 1914 there were some reasons to hope for success. Negotiations for a third Hague peace conference were even more promising. The 1907 conference had recommended that another conference meet after an eight-year interval, the same as between the first two conferences. To many peace spokesmen and theorists, the conference seemed to be developing into a permanent institution. A periodic world conference and a world court with judges always ready to hold sessions—these were the institutions necessary for a viable world organization, they believed. In the United States the peace societies and the new Carnegie Endowment for International Peace brought pressure to bear upon Wilson and Bryan to use their influence to bring about the meeting of the conference, and this the president and the secretary of state agreed to do. Planning for the conference had made considerable progress when war began in 1914.
1899 Hague Declaration concerning Expanding Bullets
The Hague Declaration concerning expanding bullets was adopted on 29 July 1899 largely in response to a rifle bullet used by British troops in wars on the north-west frontier of the Indian Empire (today Pakistan&rsquos North-West Frontier Province on the border with Afghanistan). The so-called &lsquodumdum&rsquo bullet, named after the small town near Calcutta where the ammunition factory was located that produced the bullet in the 1890s, expanded on impact, causing disabling wounds and allegedly providing the &lsquostopping power&rsquo that British troops felt was necessary to halt advancing &lsquobrave and fanatical tribes&rsquo. A. Ogston, 'The Wounds Produced by Modern Small-Bore Bullets', British Medical Journal, 17 September 1898, 813-4.
Controversy quickly arose about whether the wounding effect of this (and similar) expanding bullets fell foul of the principle laid down in the Saint Petersburg Declaration of 1868, namely, whether the use of such bullets would &lsquouselessly aggravate the sufferings of disabled men, or render their death inevitably&rsquo, and would, hence, be &lsquocontrary to the laws of humanity&rsquo. The British authorities argued that the dumdum bullet (as well as the Woolwich bullet, a &lsquohollow-point&rsquo bullet developed at the ordnance factory at Woolwich, England, in the late 1890s) was not an exploding bullet prohibited by the 1868 Saint Petersburg Declaration, and that its use, especially against &lsquosemicivilised or barbarous races who practice no humanity in their warfare&rsquo was not contrary to the spirit of any convention or custom of war. A. Ogston, 'Continental Criticism of English Rifle Bullets', British Medical Journal, 25 March 1899, 752. They also contended that wounds inflicted by this bullet were no more severe than wounds caused by the type of rifle bullets used by all Powers before the recent introduction of small bore rifles. M. Waldren, Dum-Dum Bullets, Police Firearms Officers Association (PFOA), Police History Series, 16, citing 'The British Declaration on the Dumdum Bullet&rsquo.
In August 1898, against the background of an arms race among great Powers, whose costs were increasingly difficult to bear and which threatened peace in Europe, the Russian Tsar proposed a conference for the maintenance of peace and the limitation of armaments. In a circular dated 30 December 1898, sent on behalf of the Tsar, the Russian Foreign Minister, Count Mouravieff, proposed that the conference should, among other things, &lsquoprohibit the use in the armies and fleets of any new kind of firearms whatever, and of new explosives, or any powders more powerful than those now in use, either for rifles or cannons&rsquo. 'Russian Circular Note Proposing the First Peace Conference', in J. B. Scott (ed.), The Hague Conventions and Declarations of 1899 and 1907, Oxford University Press, 1915, xiv-xvii.
Although the programme of the conference was cast in general terms, the discussions in the sub-commission dealing with new kinds of firearms focused on the British dumdum bullet. W. I. Hull, The Two Hague Conferences and their Contributions to International Law, International School of Peace, Ginn & Company, Boston, 1908, 181. Although all the Powers participating in the conference recognized that the use of bullets which cause unnecessarily severe wounds should be prohibited, the delegates of the United States of America (USA) and the British representatives argued that it had not been proved that the dumdum bullet caused the effects that the delegates were aiming to prevent. The US delegate, therefore, filed a proposal for a more general prohibition on &lsquoThe use of bullets which inflict wounds of useless cruelty, such as explosive bullets and in general every kind of bullet which exceeds the limit necessary for placing a man immediately hors de combat&rsquo. This proposal was never put to the vote due to procedural issues. 'Report of Captain Crozier to the Commission of the United States of America to the International Conference at The Hague regarding the Work of the First Committee of the Conference and its Sub-Committee', in J. B. Scott (ed.), The Hague Conventions and Declarations of 1899 and 1907, Oxford University Press, 1915, 34&ndash5.
Certain &lsquoexpanding&rsquo bullets in use in Portugal and Switzerland received little attention at the Conference, which strengthened the view of some British commentators that &lsquohumanity had nothing whatever to do&rsquo with the introduction of the ban. A. Ogston, 'The Peace Conference and the Dum-Dum Bullet', British Medical Journal, 29 July 1899, 278. They saw the process as anti-British agitation, taking place against the backdrop of the &lsquoScramble for Africa&rsquo, in which continental European Powers feared their troops may find themselves opposing British troops equipped with expanding bullets, and the rivalry between the Russian and the British empires over supremacy in Central Asia (the &lsquoGreat Game&rsquo). Note that the encounter of British and French troops in Fashoda in 1898 had brought the two Powers to the verge of war.
Great Britain, Portugal, and the USA did not sign the Declaration in 1899. Britain and Portugal adhered to it in 1907.
Provisions and scope
The Contracting Parties to the 1899 Hague Declaration concerning expanding bullets agreed to
abstain from the use of bullets which expand or flatten easily in the human body, such as bullets with a hard envelope which does not entirely cover the core or is pierced with incisions.
Thus, the Declaration prohibited the use of certain bullets on the basis of terminal ballistic effects (&lsquoexpand or flatten easily in the human body&rsquo) which were, at the time, believed to cause especially severe wounds. The Declaration describes the characteristics of bullets that were believed to have such effects, namely, 'bullets with a hard envelope which does not entirely cover the core or is pierced with incisions&rsquo.
The prohibition was introduced mostly with a view to ban the British dumdum bullet, which met the technical characteristics, but the expression &lsquosuch as&rsquo indicates that other bullets could also expand or flatten easily in the human body, and would, hence, also be prohibited by the Declaration. What bullets other than the dumdum bullet would fall within the ambit of the Declaration was, however, disputed at the time, and remains the subject of controversy.
The Declaration is still formally binding on some states, but the customary rule to which it gave rise is of greater practical importance today. According to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), state practice establishes as a norm of customary international law applicable in both international and non-international armed conflicts that
the use of bullets which expand or flatten easily in the human body is prohibited. ICRC, Customary IHL Study, 2005, Rule 77.
Some scholars have expressed doubt as to the customary law status of the prohibition on expanding bullets, particularly in relation to non-international armed conflicts. See W. H. Parks, 'Conventional Weapons and Weapons Reviews', 8(2005) Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, 89, citing Turns and Greenwood in footnote 136.
Records of International Conferences, Commissions, and Expositions
Finding Aids: H. Stephen Helton, comp., Preliminary Inventory of the Records of United States Participation in International Conferences, Commissions, and Expositions, PI 76 (1955) Marion M. Johnson and Mabel D. Brock, comps., "Preliminary Inventory of the Records of United States Participation in International Conferences, Commissions, and Expositions Supplementary to National Archives Preliminary Inventory No. 76," NC 95 (Feb. 1965) supplement in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.
Security-Classified Records: This record group may include material that is security-classified.
Related Records: General Records of the Department of State, RG 59.
Records of Boundary and Claims Commissions and Arbitrations, RG 76.
Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State, RG 84.
Records of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace, RG 256.
43.2 RECORDS OF U.S. PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES
43.2.1 Records relating to the Panama Congress
History: Held in Panama, June 22-July 15, 1826, to plan for hemispheric defense.
Textual Records: General records, 1825-27.
Microfilm Publications: M662.
43.2.2 Records relating to the "Red Cross Conferences"
History: Held in Geneva, 1863, 1864, 1868, and 1906 Brussels, 1874 and The Hague, 1904, to consider problems associated with caring for sick and wounded soldiers in wartime. United States participated in the conferences of 1864, 1904, and 1906.
Textual Records: General records, 1863-1907.
43.2.3 Records relating to the International Sanitary Conference
History: Authorized by Joint Resolution 33 (21 Stat. 415), May 14, 1880. Held in Washington, DC, January 5-March 1, 1881, to plan an international system of notification of contagious and infectious diseases and to set up a uniform system of bills of health.
Textual Records: Memorandums, 1880. Conference proceedings, 1881.
43.2.4 Records of the U.S. Commissioner to the International
Prime Meridian Conference
History: Conference authorized by an act of August 3, 1882 (22 Stat. 217). Held in Washington, DC, October 1-22, 1884, to set a suitable meridian of longitude to be employed as a common zero of longitude and a worldwide standard of time reckoning.
Textual Records: Letters received, 1884.
43.2.5 Records relating to the Berlin Conference on West African
History: Held in Berlin, November 16, 1884-February 26, 1885, to regulate trade and commerce with West Africa, particularly in the Congo River Basin.
Textual Records: General records, 1884-85.
43.2.6 Records relating to the First and Second Samoan
History: Held in Washington, DC, June 25-July 26, 1887, to adjust Samoan affairs and to determine the spheres of influence of the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany and in Berlin, April 29-June 14, 1889, to complete the work begun by the first conference.
Textual Records: Protocols of the first conference, 1887. Dispatches by and instructions to U.S. delegates to the second conference, 1889.
Related Records: Records relating to the Samoan High Commission UNDER 43.11.6. Records of the Government of American Samoa, RG 284.
43.2.7 Records of the U.S. Delegations to the First-Tenth
International Conferences of American States
History: First conference held in Washington, DC, October 1889- April 1890 second, Mexico City, October 22, 1901-January 31, 1902 third, Rio de Janeiro, July 21-August 26, 1906 fourth, Buenos Aires, July 12-August 30, 1910 fifth, Santiago, March 25- May 3, 1923 sixth, Havana, January 16-February 20, 1928 seventh, Montevideo, December 3-26, 1933 eighth, Lima, December 9-27, 1938 ninth, Bogota, March 30-May 2, 1948 and tenth, Caracas, March 1-28, 1954. Discussed hemispheric issues and problems.
Textual Records: Records of the first conference, including minutes of meetings, November 1889-April 1890 Spanish-language stenographic notes of meetings, 1889-90 letters sent and received by William E. Curtis, conference executive officer, 1889-90 records of appointment of delegates, 1889-90 and correspondence relating to the conference agenda and recommendations, 1889-91. Records of the second conference, consisting of letters sent letters and telegrams received and printed copies of conference resolutions, conventions, and treaties, 1901-2. Records of the third conference, consisting of general records, administrative correspondence, copies of projects submitted to committees, and "Third International American Conference-Minutes and Documents," 1906. Records of the fourth conference, consisting of adopted conventions and resolutions, 1910. Records of the fifth conference, consisting of general files and informational material, 1923. Records of the sixth conference, including general records, 1927-28 and instructions to delegates, telegrams, statements of Latin American countries on "Conference Policy," and daily conference reports ("Diario"), 1928. Records of the seventh conference, including general records, telegrams, daily conference reports ("Diario"), recommended agenda topics, projects and proposals presented to commissions, reference files, press releases, and addresses and statements, 1933-34. Records of the eighth conference, including drafts of instructions, declarations, and resolutions copies of conference documents reference and clippings files subject ("topic") files committee records and U.S. Delegation correspondence, 1938. Records of the ninth conference, consisting of conference files and U.S. Delegation records, 1948. Records of the tenth conference, including preparatory (preconference) records, 1952-54 subject file, 1954 numbered conference documents, 1953-54 minutes of meetings ("Diario de le Decima Conferencia Interamerica"), 1954 and a postconference subject file, 1954-55.
Photographs (2 images): U.S. Delegation returning from fourth conference, shown with Peruvian Government officials in the Peruvian Foreign Office, 1910 (M, 1 image) and an unidentified print, taken in El Salvador, 1910 (M, 1 image). SEE ALSO 43.17.
43.2.8 Records of the U.S. Delegations to the First and Second
International Peace Conferences
History: Conferences held in The Hague at the initiative of the Russian Government, May 18-July 29, 1899, and June 15-October 18, 1907.
Textual Records: Records of the first conference, consisting of conference proceedings and reports of the U.S. Delegation, 1899. Records of the second conference, consisting of proceedings and printed material, 1907.
43.2.9 Records of the U.S. Delegations to the International Opium
Commission and Conferences
History: International Opium Commission met in Shanghai at the initiative of the United States, February 1-26, 1909, to study the problems of opium traffic. Two International Opium Conferences held in The Hague at the initiative of the United States, December 1, 1911-January 23, 1912, and July 1-9, 1913, to draft an opium trade convention.
Textual Records: General correspondence, 1909-20. Letters received relating to the Opium Commission, 1908-9. Correspondence regarding appropriations for controlling the opium traffic, 1908- 13, and regarding narcotics traffic control legislation, 1909-16. Memorandums, 1909. Correspondence relating to the first and second conferences, 1901-13. Memorandums and notes preparatory to the second conference, 1913. Diplomatic correspondence relating to the second and a proposed third conference, 1913-14. Reports of the first and second conferences, 1911-13. Presidential messages, 1909-14. Reference material, 1909-13. Records of Delegate Hamilton Wright, including correspondence relating to his employment in the Federated Malay States, 1893-1914.
Subject Access Terms: Denman, William Finger, Henry J.
43.2.10 Records of the U.S. Delegations to the Thirteenth
International Congress Against Alcohol and to the Fourteenth and
Fifteenth International Anti-Alcoholic Congresses
History: Congresses held in The Hague, September 11-16, 1911 Milan, September 22-28, 1913 and Washington, DC, September 21- 27, 1920.
Textual Records: General correspondence, 1911, 1913, 1920.
43.2.11 Records of the Preliminary International Conference on
History: Held in Washington, DC, October-December 1920, to determine the disposition of German cable lines that had been ceded to the Allies by the Treaty of Versailles (1919), and to study the problems of international communications.
Textual Records: Reports of conference proceedings, 1920, with subject index. Minutes of meetings of the International Secretariat, 1920. Correspondence of the Secretariat, 1920-21, with index. Card index to minutes and reports of committee meetings, 1920. Correspondence relating to personnel of the Secretariat, 1920-21, with index. Minutes of informal meetings of the U.S. Delegation, 1919-20, with index. Correspondence of the U.S. Delegation's secretary, 1920-21. Miscellaneous records maintained by Delegate Walter S. Rogers, 1920-21. Extracts, 1919- 21. Informational materials, 1884-1922. Miscellaneous correspondence regarding disbursements, 1920-22.
43.2.12 Records relating to the Conference on the Limitation of
History: Held in Washington, DC, November 12, 1921-February 6, 1922, to consider the limitation of armament and certain questions relating to Pacific and Far Eastern areas.
Textual Records: Records of the Secretariat General, consisting of a classification manual, 1921 excerpts from conference documents, 1921-22 general correspondence, 1921-22, with subject index card file for personnel of the Secretariat, 1921-22 press releases, 1921-22 proceedings, 1922 and records relating to the receipt and distribution of documents, 1921-22. Records of the U.S. Delegation, 1921-22, consisting of general records, with subject index minutes of meetings of the advisory committee to the delegation summaries of editorial comment news summaries special reports prepared by the advisory committee daily summary of foreign comment on the conference reports on foreign press comment statements of delegates informational memorandums resolutions adopted on Pacific and Far Eastern questions, with subject index minutes of conference committee meetings, with subject index minutes of plenary sessions minutes of meetings of the Committee on Limitation of Armament and the Committee on Pacific and Far Eastern Questions "Current Estimate of the Strategic Situation of the World" newspaper clippings and economic reports prepared for the U.S. Delegation. Miscellaneous U.S. Delegation records relating to the Far East, 1914-22. Records, 1921-22, of U.S. Delegation Secretary A.H. Miles, and of Senators Henry Cabot Lodge and Oscar W. Underwood.
Maps and Charts (199 items, in Washington Area): Organization charts, floor plans of the conference rooms and buildings, and maps of various parts of the world, 1921-22. SEE ALSO 43.14.
43.2.13 Records relating to the U.S. Special Mission to the
History: Conference held in Lausanne, Switzerland, at the initiation of the United Kingdom, France, and Italy, November 20, 1922-February 4, 1923, and April 23-July 24, 1923, to draw up a treaty of peace between Turkey and Greece.
Textual Records: Records relating to the first phase of the conference, 1922-23, consisting of general records a register of communications sent and telegrams, with register. Records relating to the second phase of the conference, consisting of general records, 1923, with subject index and register of correspondence telegrams, 1923 and conference documents, 1922- 23.
43.2.14 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the Conference on
Central American Affairs
History: Conference held in Washington, DC, December 4, 1922- February 7, 1923, to exchange views and make recommendations regarding the preservation of peace and stability in Central America.
Textual Records: Correspondence, 1922-23. Proceedings of the plenary sessions and the committee of the whole, 1922-23. Copies of treaty, protocol, and conventions, 1922-23. Miscellaneous conference documents and reference material, 1922-23.
43.2.15 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the International
History: Conference held in Washington, DC, October-November 1927, to amend and update the International Radiotelegraph Convention signed in London, July 5, 1912.
Textual Records: General records, 1927, with subject indexes. Proposals relating to the telecommunications convention, 1927. Committee documents, 1927. Minutes, reports, and other documents of conference committees, 1927, including bound documents and lists of documents. Copies of State Department records used by the U.S. Delegation, 1927. Records maintained by the administrative officer, 1927. Card file on persons attending the conference, 1927.
43.2.16 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the Conference for the
Limitation of Naval Armament
History: Conference held in Geneva, at the initiative of the United States, June 20-August 4, 1927, to discuss ways of completing work on the limitation of naval armament begun by the Washington conference of 1921-22 (SEE 43.2.12) and to conclude, if possible, additional agreements covering types of ships not included in earlier agreements.
Textual Records: General records, 1927. Memorandums of conversations with other delegations, 1927. Telegrams received, 1927. Conference documents, 1927. "Records of the Conference for the Limitation of Naval Armament," 1927.
43.2.17 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the International
History: Conference held in Brussels, September 10-12, 1928, to consider the use of code language.
Textual Records: Conference proceedings, 1928.
43.2.18 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the Second
International Conference on Emigration and Immigration
History: Conference held in Havana, March 31-April 17, 1928, to discuss technical and nonpolitical questions regarding emigration and immigration.
Textual Records: General records, 1928.
43.2.19 Records of the Secretariat of the International
Conference of American States on Conciliation and Arbitration
History: Conference held in Washington, DC, December 1928-January 5, 1929, pursuant to a resolution of the Sixth International Conference of American States (SEE 43.2.7).
Textual Records: General records, 1928-29. Conference proceedings, 1929.
43.2.20 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the International
Conference on Safety of Life at Sea
History: Conference held in London, April 16-May 31, 1929, to revise the international convention of 1914 relating to safety of life at sea.
Textual Records: General records, 1929. Committee reports, 1929. Copies of newspapers, 1929.
Related Records: Records of Rear Adm. George H. Rock, a member of the U.S. Delegation, in RG 19, Records of the Bureau of Ships.
43.2.21 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the Pan American Trade-
History: Conference held in Washington, DC, February 11-20, 1929.
Textual Records: General records, 1929.
43.2.22 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the London Naval
History: Conference held in London, January 21-April 22, 1930, to continue the work of the Washington conference of 1921-22 (SEE 43.2.12).
Textual Records: General records, 1929-30, with subject index. Memorandums of press conferences, 1929-30, and of conversations, 1930. Telegrams, 1930. Records maintained by the U.S. Delegation secretary, 1930. Conference documents, 1930. Informational material, 1929-30.
43.2.23 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the Conference for the
Codification of International Law
History: Conference held in The Hague at the initiation of the Council of the League of Nations, March 13-April 12, 1930.
Textual Records: General records, 1930. List of conference documents, 1930.
43.2.24 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the first phase of the
General Disarmament Conference
History: Conference held in Geneva, February 8-July 23, 1932.
Textual Records: Memorandums of U.S. Delegation meetings, 1931- 32. Telegrams exchanged between the State Department and U.S. embassies in Europe, 1931-32.
43.2.25 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the International Radio
and Telegraph Conferences
History: Conferences held in Madrid, simultaneously but separately, September 3-December 9, 1932, to revise the radio and telegraph conventions and regulations that had resulted from earlier conferences.
Textual Records: Conference documents, 1933. Proposals for the conferences, 1932. Opinions of the International Consulting Committee on Radio, 1931. Copies of conventions, 1927-32. U.S. Delegation report, 1932. Telegrams exchanged with the Secretary of State and the State Department, 1932. Minutes of conference meetings, 1932. Miscellaneous communications, 1931-33.
43.2.26 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the Monetary and
History: Conference held in London, June 12-July 27, 1933, to consider the adoption of monetary measures to effect a worldwide economic recovery.
Textual Records: General records, 1933, with subject index. Telegrams exchanged with the State Department and U.S. embassies and legations, 1933. Journal and program of the conference, 1933. Reports and statements of the Economic Commission, 1933. Summaries of foreign press comment, 1933. Special memorandums prepared by the U.S. Delegation, 1933. Press releases, 1933.
43.2.27 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the Fifth Pan American
History: Conference held in Buenos Aires, May 26-June 19, 1935, pursuant to a resolution of the Seventh International Conference of American States, 1933.
Textual Records: General records, 1935. Minutes of the meetings of the conference and its commissions, 1935. Informational material, 1934-35.
43.2.28 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the London Naval
History: Conference held in London, December 9, 1935-March 25, 1936, pursuant to provisions of the Washington and London naval treaties of 1922 and 1930.
Textual Records: Telegrams, 1934-36. Conference documents, 1935- 36.
43.2.29 Records relating to negotiations for a new general treaty
between the Republic of Panama and the United States
History: Negotiations addressed Panama Canal protection and tolls, railroad company rights, troop maneuvers, and U.S. Government support facilities.
Textual Records: Minutes of meetings, 1934-36, with subject index.
43.2.30 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the Inter-American
Conference for the Maintenance of Peace
History: Conference held in Buenos Aires, December 1-22, 1936.
Textual Records: General records, 1936-37. Telegrams, 1936-37. Conference proceedings, 1937. Newspaper clippings and reports on press comment, 1937. State Department press releases, 1936-37.
43.2.31 Records of the Third World Power Conference and the
Second Congress on Large Dams
History: Held in Washington, DC, September 7-12, 1936, to discuss the trends in power and energy resource development and regional planning efforts in the participating countries.
Textual Records: General records of the American National Committee, 1935-37. Card index to correspondence, 1935-36. Letters sent, 1935-37. Transactions of the Third World Power Conference and of the Second Congress on Large Dams, 1938. Newspaper clippings, 1936. Accounting records, 1936. Card record, 1935-36, of delegates and members, and of tours.
Maps (4 items, in Washington Area): Maps of the United States, showing routes covered by each of the four official conference tours, 1936. SEE ALSO 43.14.
Motion Pictures (2 reels): U.S. power resources, 1936. SEE ALSO 43.15.
43.2.32 Records relating to international whaling
History: International Whaling Conference (IWC) held in Washington, DC, November 20-December 2, 1946, to consider problems relating to conservation of whale stocks. Signed an international convention establishing permanent International Whaling Commission.
Textual Records: General subject and reference files, 1937-48. Minutes of meetings and background information papers of the State Department's Informal Inter-agency Committee on the Regulation of Whaling, which organized the IWC, 1946. Working papers of the IWC, 1946. Working papers of the International Whaling Commission, 1948-49.
Photographs (29 images): IWC delegates signing the final convention, 1946 (IWC). SEE ALSO 43.17.
43.2.33 Records relating to the Capitulations Conference
History: Held in Montreux, Switzerland, April 12, 1937, to terminate the capitulatory or extraterritorial rights that the governments and nationals of the United States and 11 other countries enjoyed in Egypt.
Textual Records: General records, 1937.
43.2.34 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the Inter-American
History: Conference held in Havana, November-December 1937, to discuss North American broadcasting and to reach agreements concerning the application of radio to inter-American communications.
Textual Records: General records, 1937.
43.2.35 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the International
History: Conferences held in Cairo, February 1-April 4, 1938, to revise the telegraph, telephone, and radio regulations annexed to the International Telecommunications Convention that had been signed at Madrid in 1932 (SEE 43.2.25).
Textual Records: Documents of the International Radio Conference and of the International Telegraph and Telephone Conference, 1938. Administrative records, 1938. French-language version, with some English-language translations, of regulations appended to the approved conventions ("Blue and Green Sheets"), 1938. "Proposals for the International Radio Conference of Cairo, 1938," 1937.
43.2.36 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the Fifteenth International Congress of Architects
History: Scheduled to meet in Washington, DC, September 24-30, 1939. Postponed indefinitely, September 8, 1939, because of the outbreak of World War II.
Textual Records: General records, 1939.
43.2.37 Records of the U.S. Delegations to the first-third meetings of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics and to the successor fourth meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American States
History: First meeting, Panama, September 21, 1939, discussed measures to preserve peace and neutrality in the Americas. Second, Havana, July 21-30, 1940, considered ways to prevent transfer of colonial possessions from defeated European nations to Germany. Third, Rio de Janeiro, January 15-28, 1942, discussed cooperative actions against the Axis Powers, including breaking of diplomatic relations. Fourth, Washington, DC, March 26-April 7, 1951, considered the threat of communism in the Western Hemisphere.
Textual Records: Records of the first meeting, consisting of general records and telegrams sent and received, 1939. Records of the second meeting, consisting of general records and telegrams sent and received, 1940. General records of the third meeting, 1942. Records of the fourth meeting, consisting of preparatory records, 1951 numbered documents, 1951 and general records, 1951-52.
43.2.38 Records of the Secretariat of the Eighth American
History: Congress held in Washington, DC, May 10-18, 1940, to determine a medium for the exchange of scientific information and to pay tribute to the Pan American Union.
Textual Records: General records, 1939-41. Minutes of section meetings, 1940. Lists of delegates, 1940. List and abstracts of papers, 1940. Proceedings, 1940. Completed questionnaires, 1940. Correspondence with authors, 1940-41. Record of receipt, 1940. Registration cards, 1940. Miscellaneous documents, 1939-40.
43.2.39 Records relating to the Inter-American Technical Economic
History: Scheduled to meet in Rio de Janeiro, March 15, 1945, but postponed to November 15, 1945, again to April 15, 1946, and finally indefinitely. Conference was replaced by the Inter- American Conference for the Maintenance of Continental Peace and Security, Rio de Janeiro, 1947 (SEE 43.2.41).
Textual Records: General records, 1945-46.
43.2.40 Records relating to the Inter-American Conference on
Problems of War and Peace
History: Held in the castle of Chapultepec near Mexico City, February 21-March 8, 1945, to discuss the Argentina problem and the problems of collective security in the Americas.
Textual Records: Background files of the U.S. Delegation, 1944- 45. Conference records, 1945. Committee and commission files, 1945. Exhibits and appendixes, 1945.
43.2.41 Records relating to the Inter-American Conference for the
Maintenance of Continental Peace and Security
History: Held in Petropolis, Brazil (near Rio de Janeiro), August 15-September 2, 1947, to discuss a regional defense plan.
Textual Records: General records, 1947.
43.2.42 Records of the International Conference on Trade and
Employment (International Trade Organization)
History: Preparatory Committee established by the United Nations Economic Council, February 1946, to develop an agenda and proposals for an international conference on trade and employment met in London, October 5-November 26, 1946, and Geneva, April 10-October 30, 1947. Drafting Committee, established to prepare a charter for the proposed International Trade Organization (ITO), met in Lake Success, NY, January 20- February 25, 1947. International Conference on Trade and Employment held in Havana, November 17, 1947-March 24, 1948, with discussions resulting in the signing of ITO charter. Preparatory Committee met in Geneva, April-October 1947, to prepare agenda for negotiations leading to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
Textual Records: ITO subject file, 1933-50. Records, including subject files, relating to the first and second meetings of the Preparatory Committee, 1946-47. Records relating to the Drafting Committee, 1946-47. U.S. Delegation file, 1946-47. Records of the ITO Conference at Havana, consisting of general records, 1947-48 subject file, 1947-48 and records relating to the Interim Commission of the ITO, 1948-49. Records relating to GATT, consisting of records of GATT sessions at Havana, 1947-48 Geneva, 1948, 1950 Annecy, France, 1949 and Torquay, United Kingdom, 1950-51. Records relating to tariff negotiations with Latin American countries, 1937-52.
Sound Recordings (1 item): Statement of Winthrop G. Brown on the establishment of ITO, October 3, 1947. SEE ALSO 43.16.
43.2.43 Records relating to the United Nations Conference on
Freedom of Information
History: Held in Geneva, April 21-24, 1948, to consider measures to facilitate the gathering and free flow of information, including the news.
Textual Records: Administrative records, 1947-48. Telegrams, 1948. Memorandums of conversation, 1948. Records of the U.S. Delegation, 1948-49.
43.2.44 Records of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Conference
History: Held in Washington, DC, January 26-February 8, 1949, to promote international conservation of fishery resources in the Northwest Atlantic.
Textual Records: Verbatim minutes of executive committee meetings, 1949. Administrative records, 1947-48. Outgoing telegrams, 1948. Memorandums of conversation, 1948. Records of the U.S. Delegation, 1948.
43.2.45 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the Japanese Peace
Textual Records: Administrative subject files, 1951. Minutes of plenary sessions, 1951. Working papers, 1951.
43.2.46 Records of the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, Department of State, relating to the Organization of American States (OAS)
History: OAS charter adopted at the Ninth International Conference of American States, held at Bogota, 1948 (SEE 43.2.7). Ratified by the United States, 1951.
Textual Records: Subject files relating to the Pan American Union, 1947 the OAS Council, 1948-49 and the OAS, 1949-61.
43.2.47 Records of the U.S. Representatives to the meetings on
preliminary arrangements for a Korean political conference
History: Meetings of representatives of the United States, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and the People's Republic of China were held October 26-December 12, 1953.
Textual Records: General records, 1953-54.
43.2.48 Records relating to the Bermuda Conference
History: The President of the United States, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and the President of France, accompanied by their foreign ministers, met in Bermuda, December 4-7, 1953. An earlier conference had been canceled due to the illness of Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
Textual Records: General records, December 1953. Records relating to the canceled conference, June 1953.
43.2.49 Records relating to the Nine Power Conference
History: Held in London, September 28-October 3, 1954.
Textual Records: General records, September-October 1954.
43.2.50 Records of U.S. delegations to other international
Textual Records: Records of U.S. delegations to the International Conference on Status of Forces, 1955-57 the International Conference on High Frequency Broadcasting, 1948-49 and the International Conference on Marine Aids to Navigation, 1947.
43.3 RECORDS OF WORLD WAR II CONFERENCES (JANUARY 1942-JANUARY
43.3.1 Records of the post-Arcadia meetings of the Combined
Chiefs of Staff
History: Conference (codenamed Arcadia) between President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill, in Washington, DC, December 22, 1941-January 14, 1942, resulted in a decision to develop strategy for an Allied landing in North Africa, and the establishment of Allied command structures in the Pacific and Far East. Following Arcadia, U.S. and British chiefs of staff, known as Combined Chiefs of Staff, held 20 meetings in Washington, DC, January 23-May 19, 1942, to coordinate the war effort.
Textual Records: Minutes, 1942.
43.3.2 Records of the First Quebec Conference (Quadrant)
History: Held in Quebec, August 10-25, 1943, to plan operations in the Pacific and in Europe, and to discuss operations against Italy.
Textual Records: Papers and minutes of meetings, 1943. Log of the President's visit to Canada, 1943.
43.3.3 Records of the Third Washington Conference (Trident)
History: U.S. and British Delegations held eight meetings at the White House, May 12-25, 1943, to discuss the conduct of the war, combined planning efforts, and the invasion of the European continent.
Textual Records: Papers and minutes of meetings, 1943.
43.3.4 Records of the Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers
History: The foreign ministers of the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union met in Moscow, October 1-November 10, 1943, to discuss the war situation and wartime cooperation.
Textual Records: General records, 1943.
43.3.5 Records of the Teheran Conference
History: President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and Soviet Union leader, Marshal Joseph Stalin, met in Teheran, Iran, November 28-December 1, 1943, to discuss the projected United States-United Kingdom invasion of Western Europe and the coordination of that assault with the Soviet offensive against Germany.
Textual Records: General records, 1943. Minutes of meetings, 1943.
43.3.6 Records of the Second Cairo Conference
History: President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and Turkish President Ismet Inonu met in Cairo, December 4-6, 1943, to affirm the alliance between the United Kingdom and Turkey, and to discuss the possibility of Turkey's entry into the war.
Textual Records: Minutes of meetings, 1943.
43.3.7 Records relating to the United Nations Monetary and
Financial Conference (Bretton Woods Conference)
History: Representatives of 44 nations met in Bretton Woods, NH, July 1-22, 1944, to establish an International Monetary Fund for the stabilization of national currencies and the fostering of world trade, and to set up an International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Textual Records: General correspondence, 1944-45. Correspondence concerning publication and distribution of conference documents and proceedings, 1944-50. Press releases, 1944. Press clippings and transcripts of press conferences, 1944. Certified copy of the Final Act of the Conference, 1944.
43.3.8 Records of the Second Quebec Conference (Octagon)
History: Held in Quebec, September 11-16, 1944, to consider strategic plans for final victory over Germany and Japan.
Textual Records: Minutes of meetings, and papers offered for discussion, 1944. Log of the President's inspection trip to the Pacific, 1944.
43.3.9 Records of the Malta Conference
History: Preparatory to the Yalta Conference (SEE 43.4.1), Combined Chiefs of Staff met in Malta, January 1945, to plan the final campaign against Germany and to discuss the demarcation of occupation zones in case of a German collapse or early surrender.
Textual Records: Administrative records, 1945.
43.4 RECORDS OF WORLD WAR II AND POSTWAR CONFERENCES (FEBRUARY-
43.4.1 Records relating to the Yalta Conference
History: President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and Marshal Stalin met at Yalta, USSR, February 1945, to discuss the final stage of the war in Europe, Soviet entry into the war against Japan, and probable postwar issues.
Textual Records: General records, 1945. Background and reference materials, 1944-45. Log of the President's trip, 1945. Minutes, notes, and conference documents, 1945.
43.4.2 Records relating to the Alexandria Conference
History: President Roosevelt and King Abdul Aziz al Saud of Saudi Arabia met on board the U.S.S. Quincy in Alexandria Harbor, Egypt, February 14, 1945, to discuss Jewish-Arab relations and the situation in the Near East.
Textual Records: General records, 1945.
43.4.3 Records relating to the Potsdam Conference
History: President Harry S. Truman, Prime Minister Churchill, and Marshal Stalin met in Potsdam, near Berlin, July-August 1945, to plan for the occupation and control of Germany and the settlement of various European problems.
Textual Records: General records, 1945. Minutes and papers of meetings, 1945. Telegrams, 1945. Messages exchanged by heads of state, 1944-45.
43.4.4 Records relating to the Paris Conference on Reparations
History: Eighteen-power conference held in Paris, November 9- December 21, 1945, at the invitation of the governments of the United States, the United Kingdom, and France as the powers occupying the western zones of Germany, to discuss a recommendation for the adoption of the Paris Agreement on Reparations, which established policies and procedures for the division of German assets among the 18 governments.
Textual Records: General subject file, 1944-48. Numbered documents, 1945. Background material, 1944-45. Telegrams between Delegate James W. Angell and the State Department, 1945-46. Angell's final report, 1946.
43.5 RECORDS OF THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE
History: Held in Paris, July 29-October 15, 1946, with 21 nations participating. Purpose was to provide Allied nations other than the "Big Five" (United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, China, and France) with the opportunity to express their views on the draft peace treaties with Italy, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Finland.
43.5.1 Records of the plenary sessions
Textual Records: Numbered documents and verbatim records of the plenary sessions, 1946. Numbered peace conference documents, 1946. Numbered documents of and notes by the Secretariat, 1946. Speeches, 1946. Miscellaneous records, 1946.
43.5.2 Records of the U.S. Delegation
Textual Records: Memorandums, 1946. Journals, 1946. Orders of the day, 1946. Press releases, 1946. Digests of U.S. newspapers, 1946. Miscellaneous administrative records, 1946.
43.5.3 Records of the General Commission
Textual Records: Numbered documents, 1946.
43.5.4 Records of the Commission on Procedures
Textual Records: Numbered documents, 1946. Record of decisions, 1946. Minutes of meetings, 1946.
43.5.5 Records of Economic Commissions
Textual Records: Records of the Economic Commission for the Balkans and Finland, and the Economic Commission for Italy and its Sub-Commission on Reparations, 1946, consisting of numbered documents, records of decisions, agendas, and minutes of meetings.
43.5.6 Records of Political and Territorial Commissions
Textual Records: Records of the Political and Territorial Commissions for Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, Italy (including the Sub-Commission on the Statute of the Free Territory of Trieste), and Romania, consisting of numbered documents, a record of decisions, agendas, and minutes of meetings, 1946.
43.5.7 Records of the Legal and Drafting Commission
Textual Records: Commission records, 1946, consisting of agendas, minutes of meetings, numbered documents, and a record of decisions. Records of the Draft Sub-Commission, 1946, including agendas, numbered documents, and a record of decisions.
43.5.8 Records of the Military Commission
Textual Records: Agendas, minutes of meetings, numbered documents, and a record of decisions, 1946.
43.6 RECORDS OF THE FIRST-SIXTH SESSIONS OF THE COUNCIL OF
FOREIGN MINISTERS (CFM)
1910-50 (bulk 1945-50)
43.6.1 Records of the first session of the CFM
History: CFM, established during the Potsdam Conference (SEE 43.4.3), and composed of the foreign ministers of the "Big Five" (United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, China, and France), met in London, September 11-October 2, 1945, to prepare draft peace treaties with Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and Italy, and to propose settlements of outstanding territorial questions.
Textual Records: Minutes of meetings, 1945. Numbered documents, 1945. Document registration book, 1945-46. Subject index to documents, 1945. Biographical sketches of delegates, 1945.
43.6.2 Records of the second session of the CFM
History: Held in Paris, April 25-May 16 and June 15-July 12, 1946, to work on the contents of the draft treaties of peace with Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and Finland, and to plan for a larger peace conference.
Textual Records: General records of the U.S. Delegation, 1946. Records of the commissions and committees, 1946. Minutes of meetings, 1946. Numbered documents, 1946. Record of decisions, 1946. Miscellaneous records, 1946.
43.6.3 Records of the third session of the CFM
History: Held in New York, November 4-December 12, 1946, to resolve issues concerning the draft treaties of peace.
Textual Records: General and administrative records, 1946. Minutes of meetings, 1946. Numbered documents, 1946-47. Record of decisions, 1946-47. Records of the U.S. Delegation, 1946, consisting of administrative records, minutes of meetings, and press releases.
43.6.4 Records of the fourth session of the CFM
History: Held in Moscow, March-April 1947, at the urging of the United States, in an attempt to resolve differences between the major powers regarding the draft treaties for Germany and Austria.
Textual Records: Administrative records, 1947. Numbered documents, 1947, with subject index. Minutes of CFM formal and informal meetings meetings of the Coordinating Spedial Committee and meetings of the deputies for Trieste, 1947. British record of the meetings of the German Assets Committee, 1947. Record of decisions, 1947. Briefing papers for the U.S. Delegation, 1947. Final status reports, 1947.
43.6.5 Records of the fifth session of the CFM
History: Held in London, November 25-December 15, 1947, to deal further with postwar problems, particularly those concerning the German peace settlement and the future status of Germany.
Textual Records: Subject files, 1946-48. Agendas, 1947. International conference file, 1947. Records of London meetings of the U.S., British, and French foreign ministers following the CFM session, 1947-48. U.S. Delegation position papers, 1947. Reports on economic matters, 1947. CFM numbered documents, 1947. CFM papers, 1946-48. Minutes and records of decisions, 1947. British record of meetings, 1947. Minutes of the U.S. Delegation, 1947. Provisional record of decisions, 1947. Country files, 1946- 48. Austrian Treaty Commission cables, 1947. Telegraphic reports, 1947. Telegrams, 1947. Working papers, 1947. Files, 1947, of Leonard Ungar, International Secretary of the Trieste Commission of Inquiry and of Benjamin Cohen, Legal Counselor to the U.S. Delegation of the CFM. Minutes of Tripartite Conversations, 1947. Records of the Balkan Committee and the Treaty Committee, 1946- 48.
43.6.6 Records of the sixth session of the CFM
History: Held in Paris, May 23-June 20, 1949, to deal with the continuing problem of Germany in the wake of the Berlin Blockade and the creation of a Federal Republic of Germany in the Western Zone.
Textual Records: General records, 1949. Administrative records, 1949. Subject file, 1949. Staff papers, 1949. Numbered documents, 1949. Minutes and record of decisions, 1949. Verbatim minutes, 1949. Proceedings, 1949. Record of decisions, 1949. British plenary minutes, 1949. Summary of meetings, 1949. Minutes of meetings of delegation secretaries, 1949. Proposals of the U.S., British, and French Delegations, 1949. General records, minutes of meetings, working papers, and miscellaneous records of the U.S. Delegation, 1949. Research reports, 1950. Miscellaneous records, 1949. Indexes, 1949. Records of the International Conference Division, 1949, consisting of organization files, personnel and other administrative records, and U.S. Delegation administrative records, 1949.
43.6.7 Miscellaneous records
Textual Records: Records relating to the first three sessions of the CFM (SEE 43.6.1-46.6.3) and of the Paris Peace Conference (SEE 43.5), consisting of a country file, 1945-46 a subject file, 1945-46 telegrams, 1945 and working papers, 1945-46. Records of meetings held after the CFM sixth session, consisting of general files, 1949 country files, 1949 telegrams, 1949 and telegram registers, 1945-49.
Maps (195 items): Annexes to study materials and proposals relating to Italian boundaries and colonies, the Italo-Yugoslav boundary, the Austro-Italian frontier, the Dodecanese Islands maritime frontier, the Greek-Bulgarian frontier, the Soviet- Romanian frontier, and the Czechoslovak-Hungarian frontier, 1910- 47 (140 items). Annexes to memorandums on frontiers and territorial claims of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, 1947 (21 items). Annexes to draft treaties with Bulgaria, Finland, and Hungary, 1946-47 (11 items). Maps relating to the peace treaty with Italy, with accompanying charts and tables, 1910-46 (23 items). SEE ALSO 43.14.
43.7 RECORDS OF OTHER MEETINGS OF FOREIGN MINISTERS AND DEPUTY
43.7.1 Records relating to the "Big Four" Foreign Ministers
History: Foreign ministers of the "Big Four" (United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China) met in Washington, DC, April 1945, to discuss the Polish question and the forthcoming San Francisco Conference.
Textual Records: Minutes of meetings, 1945.
43.7.2 Records relating to the Tripartite Foreign Ministers
History: At the urging of the United States, the foreign ministers of the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union met with Secretary of State James F. Byrnes in Moscow, December 1945, to try to resolve the impasse that had developed at the first session of the Council of Foreign Ministers (CFM), September- October 1945 (SEE 43.6.1).
Textual Records: General records, 1945.
43.7.3 Records relating to informal meetings of the CFM
History: Held by the "Big Four" during the Paris Peace Conference, August 29-October 14, 1946, to discuss relations with Germany, the Franco-Italian frontier, and procedures for the peace conference plenary session.
Textual Records: Minutes of meetings, 1946.
43.7.4 Records relating to Deputy Foreign Ministers (DFM) meetings
History: Held in London, January-December 1946, in the intervals between formal CFM sessions, to consider the "understandings" reached by the CFM in its first plenary session in London, September 11-October 2, 1945 (SEE 43.6.1).
Textual Records: Minutes of CFM and DFM meetings, 1945-46. Summary minutes of meetings of the Subcommittee on the Balkans, 1946. Numbered documents, 1945-46. Records of decisions, 1946. Records of the Division of International Conferences relating to DFM meetings, 1945-46.
43.7.5 Records of a special CFM meeting
History: Held in Paris, September 1948, to deal with the final disposition of the former Italian colonies.
Textual Records: General records, 1948. Record of decisions, 1948.
43.7.6 Records of a foreign ministers' meeting on Germany and the
History: Held in Paris, November 19, 1948.
Textual Records: Minutes, 1948.
43.7.7 Records of the foreign ministers' meetings on the future
History: Held in Washington, DC, March 31-April 30, 1949, to establish the basis for a German federal republic.
Textual Records: General records, 1949. Numbered documents, 1949. Minutes, 1949. Position papers, 1949.
43.7.8 Records of a meeting of the foreign ministers of France,
the United States, and the United Kingdom
History: Held in Washington, DC, September 17, 1949, to discuss reparations, security, plant dismantling in Germany, the Austrian treaty, and attitudes toward Germany.
Textual Records: Minutes of meetings, 1949. Memorandums of conversations, 1949.
43.7.9 Records relating to the "September Talks"
History: Meetings held in Washington, DC, September 1949, with the foreign ministers of several nations friendly to the United States, to discuss various aspects of U.S. foreign policy, including the North Atlantic Treaty and the use of uranium.
Textual Records: General records, 1949.
43.7.10 Records of CFM informal meetings on Austria
History: While in New York for the United Nations General Assembly meeting, May 26-October 6, 1949, CFM met informally to discuss the deadlock of the CFM deputies for Austria on an Austrian peace treaty.
Textual Records: Minutes of the U.S. and United Kingdom delegations, 1949.
43.7.11 Records of meetings of the foreign ministers of the
United States, the United Kingdom, and France
History: Held in Paris, November 9-22, 1949, to discuss problems of common interest connected with the Federal Republic of Germany, the Organization of European Economic Cooperation, and the Council of Europe. Held in London, May 11-13, 1950, to discuss the German and Austrian situations, international monetary problems, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Held in New York, September 12-18, 1950, followed by a special meeting of foreign and defense ministers, also in New York, September 22-23, 1950. Held in Brussels, December 19, 1950, to discuss various aspects of the situation in Germany, including changes in the occupation statute and the charter of the Allied High Commission. Held in Washington, DC, September 10-14, 1951 and London, October 16-18, 1953.
Textual Records: Records of the Paris meeting, 1949, including administrative records U.S. Delegation minutes of meetings briefs on the current German situation the official communique working file of Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs George W. Perkins and notes of Special Assistant to the Secretary of State for Economic Affairs Jacques J. Reinstein. General records of the London meeting, April-May 1950 the New York meeting (including also a defense ministers meeting), September 1950 the Brussels meeting, December 1950 the Washington meeting, September 1951 and the London meeting, October 1953.
43.7.12 Records of DFM meetings
History: Held in Paris, January-June 1951, to prepare an agenda for the next CFM meeting.
Textual Records: Synopses of meetings, 1951. Telegraphic reports, 1951.
43.7.13 Records relating to a meeting of the foreign ministers of France, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Federal Republic of Germany
History: Held in Paris, November 22, 1951.
Textual Records: General records, November 1951. Records relating to the Steering Group on Possible U.S.-U.K. Talks, November 1951. Records relating to Tripartite Conversations, November 1951.
43.7.14 Records relating to meetings of the foreign ministers of
France, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Federal
Republic of Germany
History: Foreign ministers of the United States, the United Kingdom, and France met in London, February 17-19, 1952. In addition to meeting among themselves, the three foreign ministers met, February 18-19, 1952, with the foreign minister of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Textual Records: Records relating to discussions of the status of Germany at the foreign ministers' meetings in London, February 13-19, 1952, and Lisbon, February 20-26, 1952. Records of North Atlantic Treaty Council preparations, Lisbon, February 1952.
43.7.15 Records relating to a meeting of the foreign ministers of
the United States, the United Kingdom, and France with the
Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany
History: Held in Bad Godesberg, Germany, May 1952.
Textual Records: General records, May 1952.
43.7.16 Records relating to ministerial talks
History: Held in London, June 1952.
Textual Records: General records, June 1952.
43.7.17 Records relating to conversations between Secretary of
State John Foster Dulles and British Foreign Secretary Anthony
History: Discussions held while both parties were in New York for a session of the United Nations, March 1953.
Textual Records: Briefing papers, March 1953.
43.8 RECORDS OF DEPUTIES AND DEPUTY FOREIGN MINISTERS FOR
43.8.1 Records of meetings of the deputies for Germany and
History: Four deputies for Germany and four for Austria were appointed pursuant to CFM meeting, December 1946. Deputies met jointly in London, January 1947, and separately in Moscow, March 1947.
Textual Records: Records of the deputies for Germany, consisting of numbered documents, 1946 and minutes of meetings, a record of decisions, and reports, 1947. Records of the deputies for Austria, consisting of numbered documents, 1946 and minutes of meetings and a record of decisions, 1947. U.S. Delegation minutes of joint meetings of the deputies for Germany and Austria, 1946. U.S. Delegation minutes of meetings of the deputies for Austria concerning economic matters, 1947. Minutes of the German Assets Committee, 1947.
43.8.2 Records of meetings of the deputies for the former Italian
History: CFM deputies met in London, October 1947-July 1948, pursuant to provisions of the Treaty of Peace with Italy, February 10, 1947, to determine the final disposition of Italy's former territories in Africa. The deputies created the Four Power Commission of Investigation (Former Italian Colonies).
Textual Records: Deputies' records, 1947-48, including administrative records, numbered documents, a record of decisions, and verbatim minutes. Records of the Four Power Commission of Investigation (Former Italian Colonies), 1947-48.
Related Records: Main body of records of the Four Power Commission of Investigation (Former Italian Colonies) UNDER 43.11.28.
43.8.3 Records of meetings of the deputies for Germany
History: Held in London, November 1947, to discuss procedures for the German treaty and the structure of a central government for the German state.
Textual Records: Administrative records, 1947. Numbered documents, 1947. Record of decisions, 1947.
43.8.4 Records of meetings of the deputies for Austria
History: Met periodically, 1948-53, in an effort to resolve major points of dispute between the Soviet Union and the Western Allies over the future of Austria.
Textual Records: General records, 1951-54. Administrative records, 1948-50. Numbered documents, 1948-49. Record of decisions, 1947-49. Minutes of meetings, 1948-50. Copies of British records of the meetings, 1949. Telegraphic reports, 1948, 1951.
43.9 RECORDS OF MEETINGS CONCERNING THE MILITARY GOVERNMENT OF
43.9.1 Records of the Tripartite Military Governors Conference
History: Held in Berlin during the recess of the London Conference on Germany (SEE 43.10.3), June-July 1948, to implement the decisions of that conference.
Textual Records: General records, minutes, and memorandums, 1948. Records relating to working parties established by the conference, 1948, including working parties' papers and final reports U.S. briefs on the reports and general records of the political working party on the implementation of the London decisions, 1948. Numbered documents, memorandums, and minutes of meetings of the military governors and ministers president of the three western zones on the future of Germany's political organization, 1948. Records relating to the occupation statute for Germany, 1948-51.
43.9.2 Records of the meetings of the military governors of the
three western zones
History: Held March 4-September 15, 1949, to deal with the continuing German political and economic problems referred to them by various higher level conferences, including the Berlin Blockade, the status of Berlin, and the future political organization of Germany.
Textual Records: Numbered documents military governors' decisions memorandums and verbatim transcripts of the meetings of deputy military governors and of special experts, 1949.
43.9.3 Records relating to the Quadripartite Meeting of the
History: Held January 7-17, 1954.
Textual Records: General records, January 1954.
43.10 RECORDS OF OTHER INTERNATIONAL MEETINGS ON POSTWAR POLICY
43.10.1 Records of the Austrian Treaty Commission
History: Established at the CFM meeting in Moscow, April 24, 1947 (SEE 43.6.4). Met, May 12-October 11, 1947, to consider the question of German assets, Austrian frontiers, a new Austrian Government, and economic problems of the Austrian state and to examine concrete claims cases. Austrian State Treaty signed in Vienna, May 15, 1955.
Textual Records: Subject file numbered documents minutes of meetings verbatim record record of decisions minutes of the Committee of Experts industrial surveys summary of issues studies and reports and studies on Austrian oil, 1947. Austrian Treaty file, 1945-55.
Maps (96 items, in Washington Area): Oil fields, oil exploration sites, oil concessions, refining facilities, and existing and proposed pipelines, 1947. SEE ALSO 43.14.
43.10.2 Records of Tripartite Talks on Germany and Bizonal
History: The Tripartite Talks among the United States, the United Kingdom, and France, August 1947 and the Bizonal Financial Talks between the United States and the United Kingdom, October 1947, laid the foundations for the unification of the western zones of Germany.
Textual Records: Records of the Tripartite Talks, 1947, consisting of general records, minutes of meetings, verbatim texts of proceedings, and numbered documents. Records of the Bizonal Financial Talks, including general records, 1946-49 U.S. Delegation minutes and documents, 1947 and conference minutes, with summary record and documents, 1947.
43.10.3 Records of the London Conference on Germany
History: After the failure to arrive at any quadripartite agreement and the adjournment of the London CFM meeting in 1947 (SEE 43.6.5), a tripartite meeting was held in London, February- May 1948, to deal with pressing problems of Germany left unresolved.
Textual Records: General records, 1948. Subject file, 1948. Administrative records, 1947-48. U.S. position papers for the resumption of Germany talks, 1948. U.S. Delegation minutes, 1948. Papers prepared for the London conference by the Office of Military Government for Germany (U.S.) [OMGUS], 1948. British records of meetings, 1948. Numbered documents, 1948. Telegraphic reports, 1948. Records relating to German western frontiers, 1948-52 and the Saarland, 1946.
43.10.4 Records of the Intergovernmental Working Group on the
Protection of Foreign Interests in Germany
History: Met in Paris, October 25-November 11, 1948, to consider measures to safeguard the holdings, in the future German state, of the nationals of United Nations members.
Textual Records: Minutes, 1948.
43.10.5 Records of the tripartite discussions in London
History: Held December 1948-January 1949, to deal with reparations problems and plant dismantling.
Textual Records: General records, 1948-49.
43.10.6 Records of the International Authority of the Ruhr (IAR)
History: Established at the London Conference on the Ruhr, November 11-December 24, 1948, to assure the disarmament and demilitarization of Germany and to promote European recovery and economic association.
Textual Records: Subject files, 1945-53. Telegrams and airgrams, 1948-52. Records of the Interdepartmental Preparatory Committee on the Ruhr Coal Talks with the British, 1947. Records of the London Conference on the Ruhr, 1948-49. Records relating to the IAR meetings, 1946-52. Records of the IAR Council, 1949-53 the Permanent Financial Committee, 1949-52 the Secretary General, 1949-53 IAR working parties, 1949-52 and the Informal Working Group on International Control of the Ruhr, 1949-50. Working files of U.S. delegate Wayne Jackson, 1948-49.
43.10.7 Records of the Jessup-Malik conversations
History: Conversations held, March-May 1949, between Phillip Jessup, Deputy Chief of the U.S. Delegation to the United Nations, and Yakov A. Malik, Soviet Ambassador to the United Nations, led to an agreement of May 4, 1949, lifting the Berlin Blockade and opening Berlin to the Western Powers.
Textual Records: Summaries of the conversations, 1949. Text of Jessup-Malik agreement, 1949.
43.10.8 Records of discussions concerning a Swiss-Allied accord
History: Held in Washington, DC, May-June 1949, to deal with the question of German assets in Switzerland.
Textual Records: Summaries of discussions, 1949. Official report of the U.S. Delegation, 1949.
43.10.9 Records of the United States-United Kingdom-Canadian
History: Held in Washington, DC, September 7-12, 1949, to seek a solution to sterling dollar difficulties and other mutual economic problems.
Textual Records: Records relating to planning and preparation for the talks, 1949, including a subject file, records of the Trade and Commercial Policy (TCP) Committee, and records of the working group on Britain. Records of the U.S. Delegation, 1949, including general records, minutes, and numbered documents of both the U.S. Delegation and the TCP Committee.
43.10.10 Records of the first meeting of the North Atlantic
History: Held, September 17-October 4, 1949, to implement the North Atlantic Treaty.
Textual Records: General records, 1949.
43.10.11 Records of meetings of the U.S. ambassadors
History: Held in Paris, October 21-22, 1949, and London, October 24-26, 1949, to discuss problems of Western European cooperation and to make recommendations on U.S. policy toward Eastern Europe. Held in Rome, March 22-24, 1950, to discuss the establishment of a permanent tripartite (United States, United Kingdom, and France) Council of Foreign Ministers. Held in Frankfurt, February 1951 and London, September 1952, June 1954. Planned for Frankfurt, July 1950, but not held.
Textual Records: General records, 1949. General records, Rome meeting, 1950. General records, Frankfurt meeting (planned), 1950. General records, Frankfurt meeting (held), February 1951. General records, London meeting, September 1952. Summary minutes of the London meeting, June 1954.
43.10.12 Records of discussions in Bonn, Federal Republic of
History: Secretary of State Dean Acheson met with FRG leaders, November 13, 1949, to discuss the German position and to request German cooperation with the Allied High Commissioners in forthcoming discussions.
Textual Records: General records, 1949. Summaries of the discussions, 1949.
43.10.13 Records relating to meetings of the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization (NATO)
History: NATO established by the North Atlantic Treaty (signed, April 4, 1949 entered into force, August 14, 1949) as an alliance for the collective defense of Western Europe and North America, particularly against the Soviet bloc. Consisted initially of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Expanded to include Greece and Turkey, 1952 Federal Republic of Germany, 1955 and Spain, 1982.
Textual Records: Records relating to the NATO meeting, New York, September 1950. General records relating to NATO ministerial meetings in Paris, December 1952, April 1953, and April 1954.
43.10.14 Records relating to the North Atlantic Council (NAC)
History: NAC, with headquarters in Brussels, established by article 9 of the North Atlantic Treaty to set and coordinate NATO policies.
Textual Records: Records concerning the seventh session of NAC, Ottawa, September 1951. Records dealing with preparations for a NAC meeting, Rome, November 1951. Records relating to a ministerial meeting of NAC, Paris, December 14-16, 1953.
43.10.15 Records relating to the four power meeting, nine power
meeting, and ministerial meeting of the North Atlantic Council
History: Meetings held in Paris, October 20-23, 1954.
Textual Records: Records of the Steering Group on the Results of the London Conference, October 1954. Preparation papers for the Paris meetings, October 1954.
43.10.16 Records relating to meetings between President Harry S.
Truman and foreign heads of state, Washington, DC
Textual Records: Records relating to meetings with British Prime Minister Clement Attlee ("Truman-Attlee Conversations"), December 1950. Records relating to meetings with French Premier Rene Pleven ("Truman-Pleven Talks"), January 1951. Records relating to meetings with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill ("Truman- Churchill Talks"), January 1952.
43.10.17 Records relating to bilateral talks
Textual Records: Minutes of U.S.-French talks, New York, October 1950. Records relating to U.S.-French political talks, Washington, March 1953 U.S. conversations with Italian Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi, Washington, September 1951 U.S.- British political talks, Washington, March 1953 discussions involving French Premier Rene Mayer and French Foreign Minister Georges Bidault ("Mayer-Bidault Talks"), Washington, March 1953 U.S.-German political talks, Washington, April 1953 and U.S.- French conversations, Paris, April 1953.
43.10.18 Records relating to tripartite conversations on Austria
History: Conversations between State Department representatives and personnel of the British and French embassies in Washington concerning the situation in Austria, July 23-August 5, 1950.
Textual Records: General records, 1950.
43.10.19 Records relating to tripartite meetings (United States-
Textual Records: Records relating to tripartite talks, Paris- Rome, November-December 1951. Records concerning talks involving British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman, and Secretary of State Dean Acheson, New York, November 1952. Records dealing with tripartite talks, Paris, April 1953 Washington, July 1953 and Paris, October-December 1953.
43.10.20 Records relating to the Four Power Exploratory Talks
History: Held in Paris, March 5-June 21, 1951, among representatives of the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet Union.
Textual Records: General records, 1950-51. Records relating to exploratory talks with the Soviets, March-June 1951. Records concerning tripartite conversations in Washington between the U.S. ambassador-at-large and the French and British ambassadors, February 1951. Records dealing with tripartite and quadripartite conversations, Paris, March 1951.
43.10.21 Records relating to the Indo-China Talks
History: Held in Paris, March 9-13, 1953.
Textual Records: Miscellaneous documents of the American-French Working Group, March 1953.
43.10.22 Records relating to talks in Paris
History: Held April 1953.
Textual Records: General records, April 1953.
43.10.23 Records relating to the Four Power Conference
History: Held in Berlin, January 25-February 18, 1954, with representatives of the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet Union participating.
Textual Records: General records, January-February 1954.
43.10.24 Records relating to the Paris Talks
History: Held July 13-14, 1954.
Textual Records: General records, July 1954.
43.10.25 Records relating to visits to the United States by heads
of state and foreign ministers
Textual Records: Records concerning visits by French President Vincent Auriol, March 1951 Jean Monnet, president of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community, June 1953 Herbert Blankenhorn, political director of the German Foreign Office, June 1953 and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, June 1954.
43.10.26 Miscellaneous records
Textual Records: Records relating to a visit to the United States (February 1951) of six members of the Bundestag of the Federal Republic of Germany, 1950-53. Records concerning the German Study Mission of a special subcommittee of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, November 1951. Records pertaining to signing ceremonies in Europe, May 1952. Records concerning a visit of Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and Mutual Security Administrator Harold Stassen to several European capitals, February 1953. Records dealing with proposed talks with the Soviets, September 1953. Records relating to possible tripartite or bilateral discussions in Berlin, January 1954.
43.11 RECORDS RELATING TO U.S. MEMBERSHIP ON INTERNATIONAL
COMMISSIONS AND COMMITTEES
43.11.1 Records of the American Commissioners of the American-
British Joint High Commission
History: American-British Joint High Commission established by an agreement reached through exchange of notes, January 26 and 30, and February 1 and 3, 1871, to consider the question of fishing rights along the coast of British possessions in North America and other questions affecting the relationship between the United States and British possessions in North America.
Textual Records: Credentials, appointment letters, and other records of the American Commissioners, 1871.
43.11.2 Records of the Intercontinental Railway Commission (IRC)
History: Created as the result of a report of the Committee on Railway Communication adopted by the First International Conference of American States, held in Washington, DC, 1889-90 (SEE 43.2.7), to survey a railroad route that would connect the existing systems of the United States and Mexico with those of Central and South America.
Textual Records: Correspondence, 1890-99. Minutes of meetings, 1891-98. Telegrams and cablegrams, 1891-99. Commission reports, 1891-98. Field notes of survey corps, 1891-93. Memorandums relating to the survey, 1887-92. Newspaper clippings, 1890-98. Reference material pertaining to Central and South American countries, 1891-97. Aneroid profile computation notebooks, 1891- 92. Sketch books, 1891-92. Meteorological observations, 1892-93. Triangulation and topographical station observations, 1892.
Maps and Charts (1,259 items): Manuscript and printed maps, field sheets, elevation profiles, and a few panoramic views prepared for the Intercontinental Railway Survey, 1890-98 (1,045 items). Estimated cost charts, n.d. (8 items). Plotted sheets of railroad elevations and distances in Nicaragua, n.d. (85 items). Tabular charts, 1891-92 (6 items). "Railroad System of Argentina," n.d. (112 items, in Washington Area). Miscellaneous maps, 1891-93 (3 items). SEE ALSO 43.14.
Photographs (533 images): Guatemala (376 images), El Salvador (2 images), Nicaragua (25 images), Ecuador (76 images), Costa Rica (13 images), Peru (9 images), Colombia (29 images), and Panama (3 images), taken by IRC field parties (engineer corps), 1890-99 (IRC). SEE ALSO 43.17.
43.11.3 Records of the International American Monetary Commission
History: Met in Washington, DC, January 7-April 4, 1891, at the invitation of the United States, to consider the creation of an international monetary unit.
Textual Records: Minutes of meetings, 1891. Records relating to meetings, 1891. Reports of committees, 1891. Papers regarding appointments to the commission, 1890-91.
43.11.4 Records relating to the Joint High Commission
History: Established pursuant to a conference between representatives of the United Kingdom and the United States held in Washington, DC, May 25-30, 1898, to consider questions that had arisen between the United States and Canada concerning the Alaskan boundary, the boundary between the United States and Canada, Atlantic and Pacific Ocean fisheries, naval vessels on the Great Lakes, commercial reciprocity, alien labor laws, the transit of merchandise across boundaries, mining rights, and fur seals.
Textual Records: Printed materials furnished by Reciprocity Commissioner of the United States John A. Kasson, 1892-98.
43.11.5 Records relating to the Paris Peace Commission
History: Established pursuant to an agreement signed by representatives of the United States and Spain, August 12, 1898, to negotiate and conclude a treaty of peace between the two countries.
Textual Records: Correspondence, 1897-98. Dispatches, 1895-98. Miscellaneous letters and reports, 1898-99. Protocols of the commission, 1898. Instructions of the U.S. commissioners, 1898. Telegrams, 1898. Department of State circulars, 1898. Miscellaneous and German newspaper clippings relating to the war with Spain, 1898. Report on the Federated Malay States, ca. 1897. Naval reports concerning the Philippine Islands, 1879-98. Printed materials relating to Spanish possessions and the war with Spain, 1892-98.
Microfilm Publications: T954.
43.11.6 Records relating to the Samoan High Commission
History: Established, April 1898, pursuant to an agreement between the United Kingdom, the United States, and Germany, to restore peace and order through a provisional government and to consider a plan for the future government of the Samoan Islands.
Textual Records: Newspaper clippings relating to Samoa and the commission, 1898-99.
Photographs (104 images): Commission members, and Samoa, 1898-99 (S). SEE ALSO 43.17.
Related Records: Records of the First and Second Samoan Conferences UNDER 43.2.6. Records of the Government of American Samoa, RG 284.
43.11.7 Records relating to the International Institute of
History: Established at a conference held in Rome, May-June 1905. Began operations as a clearinghouse for agricultural information on a worldwide level, 1908.
Textual Records: Institute reports, 1909.
43.11.8 Records maintained by the U.S. Section of the
International High Commission
History: International High Commission established in accordance with a resolution of the First Pan American Financial Conference, 1915, to bring about uniformity in the commercial law and administrative regulations of the American republics, as well as more stable financial relations between the United States and Latin America. First met in Buenos Aires, April 1916. U.S. Section authorized by an act of February 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 8), to study the legislation of various countries and to compile and analyze their provisions. U.S. Section ceased to function, July 1, 1933, upon expiration of final appropriation.
Textual Records: General records, 1915-26. Records relating to the commission's programs, 1915-33. Registers of letters sent, 1918-33. Minutes of meetings of the Executive Council and the U.S. Section, 1915-23. Reports prepared for the Central Executive Council, 1915-33. Speeches and articles relating to the commission, 1916-21. Administrative correspondence of the U.S. Section, 1926-33. Memorandums and letters sent by the Secretary of the Pan American Committee on Standardization, 1924-33. Card records of inter-American conventions, projects, and resolutions, 1924-28. Foreign language booklets, glossaries and catalogs, 1925-32. Statistics on trade and finance, 1900-17. Lists of members of group committees, ca. 1921.
43.11.9 Records of the U.S. Commissioners of the American and
Mexican Joint Commission
History: American and Mexican Joint Commission established, 1916, to develop means of reducing depredations on American life and property in Mexico and to arrange for the compensation of past losses, the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Mexico, and the pacification of the international border. First meeting held in New York, NY, September 4, 1916, with subsequent meetings in New London, CT, Atlantic City, NJ, and again in New York. Last meeting held January 15, 1917.
Textual Records: Memorandums furnished by the State Department, 1916. Dispatches, radiograms, and telegrams of Special Representatives of the State Department in Mexico, John R. Sillman, 1914-15 and James Lewis Rodgers, 1916.
43.11.10 Records of the Advisory Commission of Railway Experts to
the Russian Railway Service Corps, and the Interallied Railway
History: Advisory Commission created, June 1917, to advise and assist the Russian Government in solving its railway problems. IARC established by an interallied railway agreement, 1918, to provide general supervision of the railways in those regions where Allied troops were operating. IRC ceased to function when the last foreign military forces were withdrawn from Siberia, October 1922.
Textual Records: Records of the Chairman of the Advisory Commission of Railway Experts to Russia, 1917-18. General records of the IARC, 1918-22. Registers of letters of the IARC, 1919-22. Minutes of meetings of the Interallied Technical Board, 1919-22. General and "confidential" records and correspondence of the President of the Interallied Technical Board, 1919-22. Operating financial statements for the Chinese Eastern Railway, 1921-22. Minutes of the meetings of the Interallied Military Transportation Board, 1920-22. General records and minutes of meetings of the Interallied Purchasing Commission, 1919-22. Records of and relating to the Russian Railway Service Corps (RRSC), including administrative records, 1917-20 records concerning railroad operations, 1919-20 general records of the RRSC commander and commanding officer, and of the chief inspector of the Technical Board, 1919-22 records of district inspectors, 1920-22 records of the Division of Inspectors, 1919-22 subject index to records of the Division of Inspection for the USSURI Railway, 1919-22 records of the telegraph and telephone inspector, 1919-20, and the dental surgeon, 1919-20 records of the Accounting Department Inspector, 1917-22, and the Mechanical Inspector, 1918-20, for the Chinese Eastern Railway records of the Quartermaster Corps at Vladivostok and Harbin, 1918-23 records of the Washington office, 1917-22 and records relating to RRSC accounts, 1917-22.
43.11.11 Records of the U.S. unofficial delegation to the
History: Reparations Commission established by the Treaty of Versailles, 1919, to determine the amount of damages for which compensation was to be made by Germany to the Allied and Associated governments to draw up a schedule of payments to be made by Germany and to interpret provisions of the treaty relating to the entire reparations problem. The United States did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles, but maintained an unofficial delegation to the Reparations Commission.
Textual Records: General correspondence, 1920-24. Minutes of meetings of the Reparations Commission, 1920-31. Annexes, 1920- 31. Press clippings, 1919-21. Minutes of meetings of the Organization Committee, 1925-26. Minutes of meetings of the Permanent Managing Committee, 1925-26, with annexes. Records of the Committee of Guarantees, 1921-24. Records of the Finance Service, 1920-30. Records of the Legal Service, 1920-27. Records of Col. James A. Logan, U.S. member of the Financial Committee of the Reparations Commission, 1919-23. Records of the Austrian Section, 1920-27 Hungarian Section, 1921-26 and Maritime Section, 1920-30. Records of the Section of Reparations and Restitutions in Kind, 1919-30. Records of the Reparations Conferences, 1920-30. Records of the Hague Conference, 1929-30. Records of the Geneva Conference on Disarmament, 1932-35. Records of the Reparations Committee for Dyestuffs, 1919-22.
43.11.12 Records of the U.S. Electoral Mission in Nicaragua
History: Supervised elections under the Nicaraguan Constitution, 1928, 1930, and 1932, in accordance with an agreement between the Presidents of Nicaragua and the United States.
Textual Records: Records of the 1928 mission, including general records, with indexes records of the chairman minutes of meetings of the National Board of Elections reports of U.S. and Nicaraguan members of local election boards lists of persons against whom orders of arrest were outstanding and notes, drafts, and correspondence concerning the "McCoy Law," 1928. Records of the 1930 mission, including general records records of the chairman minutes of National Board of Elections, with index documents considered by the National Board of Elections electoral mission log correspondence regarding complaints of election irregularities and reports of departmental chairmen, 1930. Records of the 1932 mission, including general records, records of the chairman, reports of departmental chairmen, lists of personnel for the departmental election boards, reports of election results, and records of the Intelligence and Legal Sections, 1930 newspaper clippings, 1931-32 and copies of La Gaceta, 1927-32.
43.11.13 Records of the U.S. Representative on the Lytton
History: Commission, chaired by the 2d Earl of Lytton (V.A.G.R. Bulwer-Lytton), was established pursuant to League of Nations resolution, December 10, 1930, to investigate the dispute between member nations China and Japan resulting from the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, September 1930. Commission submitted report, September 1932, censuring both disputants. Japan subsequently withdrew from League of Nations.
Textual Records: Documents compiled by the U.S. Representative, Gen. Frank McCoy, 1930-32.
43.11.14 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the International
Technical Commission of Aerial Legal Experts (Comite International Technique d'Experts Juridiques Aeriens, CITEJA)
History: CITEJA established by a resolution adopted at the First International Conference on Private Air Law, which met in Paris, October 27, 1925, to establish a program for the study of private aerial law, prepare texts of international conventions, and elaborate a single international code for Aerial Law.
Textual Records: Correspondence, 1935-48. Documents of the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Commissions, 1928-48 and a collection of published commission documents, 1919-46.
43.11.15 Records relating to the third meeting of the International Technical Consulting Committee on Radio Communications (ITCCRC)
History: ITTCCRC established as a result of the International Radiotelegraph Conference held in Washington, 1927 (SEE 43.2.15), and reestablished by the International Radio and Telegraph Conferences held in Madrid, 1932 (SEE 43.2.25), to study and provide opinions on technical radio questions submitted to it by government regulatory bodies and radio operating companies. Third meeting held in Lisbon, September 22-October 10, 1934, to review opinions.
Textual Records: Reports on radio questions, 1934.
43.11.16 Records of the U.S. Committee of the Joint Economic
Committees, United States and Canada
History: Joint Economic Committees established by the United States and Canada, June 17, 1941, to explore the possibilities for greater economic cooperation. Dissolved by agreement of both governments, May 14, 1944.
Textual Records: General records, 1941-44. General correspondence, 1941-44. Minutes of meetings, 1941-43. Memorandums, 1941. Records relating to an aviation project, 1943 and the North Pacific Planning Project, 1941-44.
43.11.17 Records of the British-American Joint Patent Interchange
History: Established in accordance with the British-American Patent Interchange Agreement, August 24, 1942, providing for the interchange of patent rights, inventions, technical information, designs, and processes between the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom for war production purposes. Terminated, April 8, 1946.
Textual Records: Subject file, 1941-46. Agendas, minutes, and reports, 1941-46.
43.11.18 Records of the Emergency Advisory Committee for
History: Established at the third meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, Rio de Janeiro, January 1942 (SEE 43.2.37), to assist member nations in providing for defense against subversion by Axis agents.
Textual Records: Subject file, 1942-47. Country file, 1942-47. Miscellaneous records of the U.S. Representatives, 1946-57.
43.11.19 Records relating to the Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory Committee (IAFEAC), and Subcommittee on Post- War Problems, 1942-45
History: IAFEAC was created at the first meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, Panama, September 1939 (SEE 43.2.37), to promote closer commercial, financial, and economic relations among the republics of the Western Hemisphere. Subcommittee on Post-War Problems was created, 1942, to help plan the transition from a wartime to a peacetime economy in the hemisphere.
Textual Records: General records, 1942-45.
43.11.20 Records relating to the European Advisory Commission
History: Created at the Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers, October 1943 (SEE 43.3.4), to study European problems connected with the termination of World War II.
Textual Records: Records of Philip E. Mosely, chief of the Division of Territorial Studies, State Department, in his capacity as adviser to John G. Winant, U.S. Representative to the EAC, 1943-45.
43.11.21 Records of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry
(AACI) regarding Palestine
History: Created at the invitation of the British Government, December 10, 1945, to examine the situation of Jewish survivors in Europe and the problem of resettlement in Palestine.
Textual Records: AACI reports, 1945-46. Reference files, 1938-46. Evidence submitted to the committee, 1945-46. Transcripts of hearings, 1946. General records of the Anglo-American Cabinet Committee, 1946-48.
43.11.22 Records relating to the Allied Control Council for
History: Established, June 5, 1945, pursuant to agreement of the "Big Three" (United States, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union) at the Yalta Conference (SEE 43.4.1), to administer Germany after the war.
Textual Records: Records of the European Advisory Commission relating to the establishment of the Allied Control Council, 1944-45. Allied Control Council documents, 1945-49. Documents of the informal policy committee on Germany, 1945. Weekly intelligence reports, 1949-50.
43.11.23 Records relating to the Far Eastern Commission (FEC)
History: Established at the Tripartite Foreign Ministers meeting in Moscow, December 1945 (SEE 43.7.2), to control Japan during the Allied occupation after World War II. Succeeded the Far Eastern Advisory Commission (FEAC), established early 1945 to recommend, to the United Nations, postsurrender policies and objectives with regard to Japan.
Textual Records: Records of the FEAC, consisting of numbered documents, 1945-46, with index, 1946 memorandums for information, 1945-46 confidential minutes, 1945 and records of the working committees, 1945-46. Records of the FEC, consisting of numbered policy documents, 1946-52 U.S Delegation subject file, 1945-52 subject file on the Secretariat General, 1945-52 reference subject files, 1945-51 French- , Russian- , and Chinese-language translations of minutes and documents, 1946-49 memorandums for information, 1946-52 orders and directives of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP), 1945-52, with indexes miscellaneous directives of SCAP, 1940-49 directives to SCAP from the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1945-52 miscellaneous records of SCAP, 1945-49 and records of SCAP sections, 1945-48. Records of the following FEC committees: I (Reparations), 1946- 50 II (Economic and Financial Affairs), 1946-50 III (Constitutional and Legal Reform), 1946 IV (Strengthening of Democratic Tendencies), 1946 V (War Criminals), 1946-49 VI (Aliens in Japan), 1946-50 VII (Disarmament of Japan), 1946-47 and the Joint Committee on Labor, 1949. General records of the Allied Council for Japan, 1946-52 Inter-Allied Trade Board for Japan, 1946-50 and Reparations Technical Advisory Committee, 1947-50.
Related Records: Records of the U.S. Element of the Allied Council for Japan UNDER 43.11.27.
43.11.24 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the US-USSR Joint
Commission on Korea
History: US-USSR Joint Commission established as a result of the Moscow Agreement reached at the Tripartite Foreign Ministers meeting, December 27, 1945 (SEE 43.7.2), to provide for the establishment of a Joint Commission on Korea to consider long- range political and economic problems, including the making of recommendations on the formation of a provisional government for all of Korea.
Textual Records: General records, 1946-47. Minutes of the meetings of the Joint Conference, 1946 the Joint Commission, 1946-47 and the U.S. Delegation, 1947. Reports of meetings, 1946. Transcripts of meetings, 1946-47. Joint communiques and bulletins, 1946-47. Decisions of the Joint Commission, 1946-47. U.S. Delegation records, consisting of general records, 1945-47 numbered papers, 1947 telegrams, 1945-47 minutes of meetings of a joint Korean-American conference, 1946 State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee (SWNCC) documents, 1945-47 and report of the U.S. Delegation, 1947. Records of Subcommissions I, 1946-47 II, 1946-47 and III, 1947.
Microfilm Publications: M1243.
43.11.25 Records relating to the United Nations Temporary
Commission on Korea (UNTCOK)
History: Established by the United Nations General Assembly, November 14, 1947, to try to break the impasse between the Soviet Union and the United States on matters concerning Korean unification. Superseded by the United Nations Commission on Korea, pursuant to a General Assembly resolution, December 12, 1948, declaring that a lawful government had been established in South Korea.
Textual Records: General records, 1947-48. Subject files, 1947- 48. Telegrams, 1947-48. Summary of the verbatim record of UNTCOK meetings, 1948. General records of Subcommittee I, 1947.
Microfilm Publications: M1243.
43.11.26 Records relating to the South Pacific Commission
History: In September 1946, the United States was invited to participate in a conference of governments having administrative control over "non-self-governing territories" in the South Pacific region. Conference, known as the South Seas Conference, convened in Canberra, Australia, January 28, 1947. South Pacific Commission established by an agreement, February 6, 1947, and ratified by the United States, July 29, 1948.
Textual Records: Records relating to the South Seas Conference, 1946-48 the Preparatory Conference, 1947 and the establishment of the South Pacific Commission, 1947-48. Records relating to the sessions of the South Pacific Commission, consisting of subject files, 1948-60 correspondence of the U.S. Delegation, 1947-53 telegrams, 1950-53, press releases, 1949-53 progress reports, 1949-61 working committee files, 1948-50 U.S. Commissioner's files, 1948-62 records relating to the South Pacific Conferences, 1950-59, and South Pacific Commission Review Conference, 1957 records relating to budget matters, 1948-60 and technical assistance files, 1949-60. Records of the South Pacific Commission Research Council, 1948-61.
43.11.27 Records of the U.S. Element of the Allied Council for
History: Allied Council for Japan, established at the Tripartite Foreign Ministers meeting in Moscow, December 1945 (SEE 43.7.2), was an international body charged with advising the Supreme Commander Allied Powers, Gen. Douglas MacArthur, on the occupation of Japan in accordance with the surrender terms.
Textual Records: General records, 1945-52.
Related Records: Records relating to the Far Eastern Commission UNDER 43.11.23.
43.11.28 Records of the Four Power Commission of Investigation
(Former Italian Colonies)
History: Established by the Council of Foreign Ministers in accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Peace with Italy, February 10, 1947, to investigate conditions in Italy's former African colonies. Dissolved July 31, 1948.
Textual Records: Official commission documents, 1947-48. Hearings, 1947-48. Commission accounts, 1947-50. Records relating to commission field tours, political and ethnic organizations, and other matters in Eritrea, 1944-48 and in Somaliland, 1945- 48. Records of the U.S. Delegation, 1947-48.
Related Records: Additional commission records UNDER 43.8.2.
43.11.29 Records of the U.S. Section of the Joint Brazil-U.S.
History: Established as a result of 1947 conversations between President Truman and President Dutra of Brazil, to analyze factors in Brazil that tended to promote or retard economic development, and to make broad recommendations on programs that would encourage the flow of private capital to Brazil. Members of U.S. Section arrived in Rio de Janeiro, September 7, 1948 and final report was approved by the commission, February 7, 1949.
Textual Records: Subject files, 1947-48.
43.11.30 Records of the U.S. Section of the International Refugee
History: IRO established as a United Nations organization, 1947, succeeding the abolished United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA, established 1943). Became operational, 1948, with responsibility for registering, repatriating, and resettling refugees and displaced persons residing in Austria, Germany, and Italy. Abolished, 1952, with residual functions assumed by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (established 1951).
Textual Records: General records, 1946-52.
43.11.31 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the inaugural meeting
of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank
History: IMF and World Bank established pursuant to decisions made by the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference at Bretton Woods, NH, 1944 (SEE 43.3.7). Inaugural meeting of IMF and World Bank held in Savannah, GA, March 8-18, 1946.
Textual Records: Security-classified records, 1946.
43.11.32 Records of the U.S. Section of the Anglo-American
Caribbean Commission and its successor, the Caribbean Commission
History: Anglo-American Caribbean Commission established by exchange of notes, March 9, 1942, to encourage and strengthen social and economic cooperation between the United States and the United Kingdom in the Caribbean area. Expanded to include the Netherlands and France, and redesignated Caribbean Commission, October 1946.
Textual Records: Subject files, 1940-48.
43.11.33 Records of the U.S. Section of the United States-Mexico
Commission for Border Development and Friendship
History: Commission established by an exchange of notes, November 30 and December 3, 1966, with responsibility for promoting improved relations among cities along the U.S.-Mexican border and for improving economic conditions in the border region. Terminated December 12, 1969, due to failure of appropriations.
Textual Records: General correspondence and subject files, 1966-69.
43.11.34 Records of the U.S. Delegation to the Paris Conference
History: Negotiations conducted intermittently in Paris, May 1968-January 1973. Ended with the signing of the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam, commonly known as the Paris Peace Accords, January 27, 1973.
Sound Recordings (157 items): Security-classified recordings of the plenary sessions, 1969-72. SEE ALSO 43.16.
43.12 RECORDS RELATING TO U.S. PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITIONS AND EXHIBITIONS HELD OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES 1857-1959
43.12.1 Records relating to the Universal Agricultural Prize Exhibition (Paris, 1856-57)
Textual Records: Exhibition program, 1857.
43.12.2 Records of the U.S. Commission, Paris Universal Exposition (1867)
Textual Records: Copy of the Joint Resolution of Congress relating to the exposition, 1867. Letters of the Commissioner General to the Secretary of State, 1866-69. Correspondence between the Commissioner General and the New York agent, 1865-68. Letters sent by the State Department, 1865-68, with register, 1865-67. Minutes of commission meetings, 1867, and meetings of the commission's advisory committee, 1866-67. Lists of commissioners and advisory committee members, 1866-67. Commission report, 1867. Applications for exhibit privileges, 1866-67, with registers of applications received, 1866-67. Record of articles exhibited, 1866-67. Receipts for awards to exhibitors, 1867. Record of catalogs sent to Paris, 1866-67. Catalog of mineral specimens sent from eastern Nevada to the exposition, 1866-67. Information pamphlets, 1865.
Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Paris Universal Exposition (1867) in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
43.12.3 Records of the U.S. Commission, Vienna International Exposition (1873)
Textual Records: Letters sent, 1872-73. Communications received by the Chief Commissioner, 1872-73. Correspondence of the Assistant Commissioner for the New England states, 1872-73. Report of the special commission to supervise the commission, 1873. Minutes of meetings of the commission's Artisan and Scientific Committee, 1873. Floor plans of the buildings, 1873. Register of applications for exhibit space, 1872. Report on electrical and telegraphic apparatus at the exposition, 1873. List of exhibitors and commissioners of the nations represented at the exposition, 1873. Catalogs and lists of foreign exhibits, 1873. List of the items in the Chinese customs collection, 1873. Records of exhibits transported, 1873. Registers of American visitors to the exposition, 1873. Newspaper clippings, 1872-73.
Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Vienna International Exposition in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
43.12.4 Records of the U.S. Commission, Paris Universal Exposition (1878)
Textual Records: Letters sent, 1877-79. Letters received by the Commissioner General, 1878-79, with index. Letters received regarding awards, 1878-80. Index to applications for exhibit privileges, n.d. List of exhibitors, 1878. Permits for exhibit space, 1878. Record of agents and firms, 1878. Floor plans for the Agricultural Building, 1878-79. Certificates of award, 1878. Receipts for diplomas and medals awarded, 1879-81. Register of American visitors, 1878. German-language publication on the steam engine, 1879.
Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Paris Universal Exposition (1878) in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
43.12.5 Records of the U.S. Commissions, Sydney (1879-80) and
Melbourne (1880-81) International Exhibitions
Textual Records: Proceedings of both commissions, 1879-80. Register of applications for exhibit hall space at Sydney, 1879, and Melbourne, 1880. Letters received and miscellaneous records of the U.S. Commission at Sydney, 1879-80. Records of the U.S. Commission at Melbourne, consisting of correspondence of the Commissioner and of the U.S. agent for the commission, 1879-81 a list of awards granted, 1880 receipts for medals and degrees of merit awarded, 1881 and a register of American visitors to the exhibition, 1880.
Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Melbourne International Exhibition in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
43.12.6 Records of the U.S. Commission, International Exposition
of Electricity (Paris, 1881)
Textual Records: Letters sent by the Acting Commissioner General, based in the United States, 1881-82.
43.12.7 Records of the U.S. Commission, Centennial International Exposition (Melbourne, 1888-89)
Textual Records: Letters sent, 1888-89. Minutes of commission meetings, 1888-89. Commission reports, 1888-89. Reports and speeches of the Executive Commissioner, 1882-88. Exhibitors' applications for space, 1888. List of U.S. exhibits, 1888. Certificates of award, and a record of awards to U.S. exhibitors, 1888. Official exhibit catalog, 1889. Reports of juries and circulars of exposition trustees, n.d. Miscellaneous publications, 1888-89.
Photographic Prints (10 images): U.S. exhibits and the Centennial International Exposition Building, 1888 (EX). SEE ALSO 43.17.
43.12.8 Records of the U.S. Commission, Paris Universal Exposition (1889)
Textual Records: General records, 1889-91.
Architectural and Engineering Plans (79 items, in Washington Area): Blueprints and sketches of machinery exhibited, 1889. SEE ALSO 43.14.
Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Paris Universal Exposition (1889) in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
43.12.9 Records relating to U.S. participation in the Universal Exposition (Antwerp, 1894)
Textual Records: Printed material relating to the exposition, 1893.
Photographic Prints (6 images): U.S. industrial exhibits, 1894 (EX). SEE ALSO 43.17.
43.12.10 Records of the U.S. Commission, Paris Universal Exposition (1900)
Textual Records: Correspondence and miscellaneous records of Assistant Commissioner General B.D. Woodward, 1898-1903. Correspondence of the Business Department, 1899-1901 Exhibit Department, 1899-1900 and Building Department, 1899-1900. Indexes to correspondence of directors, 1899-1900. Miscellaneous printed materials, 1900, including the official catalog of U.S. exhibits.
Architectural and Engineering Plans (41 items, in Washington Area): Blueprints showing spaces for industrial exhibits, n.d. SEE ALSO 43.14.
Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Paris Universal Exposition (1900) in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
43.12.11 Records relating to the Exposition of Arts and History (Rome, 1911) and the Exposition of Industry and Labor (Turin, 1911)
Textual Records: State Department correspondence with applicants for positions with the U.S. Commission, 1909-11.
43.12.12 Records of the U.S. Commission appointed for the
proposed Grand Exhibition of Japan
History: U.S. participation in the proposed 1912 exhibition approved by an act of May 22, 1908 (35 Stat. 183). Exhibition postponed to 1917 by Japanese Government announcement, 1911. Project abandoned, February 1912.
Textual Records: Correspondence of the Commissioners General, 1908. Minutes of commission meetings and related reports, 1908.
43.12.13 Records of the U.S. Commission, Brazilian Centennial Exposition (Rio de Janeiro, 1922-23)
Textual Records: General records, 1922-23. Administrative correspondence, 1922-23. Records of the director of exhibits, 1922-23. Correspondence with supply agents, 1922-23. Final report of the Commissioner General, 1922-23. Photostatic copies of laws relevant to U.S. participation in the exposition, 1921-22. Descriptive pamphlets on Brazil, 1922.
Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Brazilian Centennial Exposition in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
43.12.14 Records of the U.S. Commission, International Exposition
Textual Records: General correspondence of the Commissioner General, 1927-30. Letters sent by the commission secretary, 1927- 30. Correspondence with the Department of State and the General Accounting Office, 1926-29. Records relating to exhibit shipments, 1928-29. Ledger, 1926-29. Pamphlets, 1921-29. Congressional publications concerning U.S. participation in the exposition, 1925-29.
43.12.15 Records of the U.S. Commission, International Colonial
and Overseas Exposition (Paris, 1931)
Textual Records: General correspondence, 1930-32. Letters sent, 1930-32. Record of disposition or shipment of exhibits, 1931-32. Miscellaneous records, including pamphlets, a catalog, and postcards, 1931-32.
Architectural and Engineering Plans (10 items, in Washington Area): Plans of U.S. buildings, and plans for exhibits of the U.S. Territories, 1930-31. SEE ALSO 43.14.
Photographic Prints (204 images): Exhibits of the U.S. Territories and of the former European colonies in North America, including a replica of Mount Vernon, home of George Washington, 1930-32 (EX). SEE ALSO 43.17.
Drawings (8 images): Mount Vernon, including George Washington's bedroom and layout of the colonial exhibits, 1930 (EX). SEE ALSO 43.17.
43.12.16 Records relating to U.S. participation in the Brussels Universal and International Exhibition ("Brussels World's Fair," 1958)
Textual Records: Subject file, 1957-59. Records of the Secretary of State and the Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs concerning planning and funding, and the policy aspects of U.S. participation, 1957. Records of the Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs relating to propaganda aspects of U.S. participation, 1954-58. Records relating to Congressional hearings on U.S. participation, 1956-59. News releases from the Office of the U.S. Commissioner General, 1958. Printed materials, 1958.
Sound Recordings (1 item): German-language interview of Gerson Lush, U.S. Committee for the Brussels World's Fair, for broadcast over the Voice of America network, 1958. SEE ALSO 43.16.
43.12.17 Other records
Photographic Prints (10 images): Of various international expositions, 1868-1929 (MX). SEE ALSO 43.17.
43.13 RECORDS RELATING TO U.S. PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITIONS AND EXHIBITIONS HELD IN THE UNITED STATES 1876-1964
43.13.1 General records
Textual Records: Records concerning items loaned for exhibit at various exhibitions, 1895-1906. Diplomas conferred upon the State Department at various exhibitions, 1884-1926.
43.13.2 Records relating to the Centennial International Exhibition (Philadelphia, 1876)
Textual Records: Letters received by the U.S. commissioner acting for Tunis, 1876. Printed materials relating to the exhibit, 1876.
Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Centennial International Exhibition in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
43.13.3 Records relating to the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition (New Orleans, 1884-85)
Textual Records: Correspondence of the State Department representative, 1884-85. Reports on the State Department exhibit, 1884-90.
43.13.4 Records relating to the World's Columbian Exposition
Textual Records: General records, 1890-96. Letters sent by the State Department to its representative on the Board of Government, Management, and Control, 1892-93. Minutes of meetings of the Council of Administration, 1892-93. Final reports of the president and secretary of the exposition, 1896. List of awards granted, 1893, with index. Lists of exhibits, 1893. Records concerning the transfer of the State Department exhibits to the Columbian Museum of Chicago, 1893-95. Government vouchers, 1891- 94.
Photographs (181 images, in Washington Area): Copper plates (24), glass negatives (6), and photographs (151) of officials and exhibits, 1893. SEE ALSO 43.17.
Related Records: Record copies of publications of the World's Columbian Exposition in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
43.13.5 Records relating to the Cotton States and International
Exposition (Atlanta, 1895)
Textual Records: Correspondence regarding the U.S. Government exhibit, 1894-95. Certificate of award accorded the State Department exhibit, 1895.
43.13.6 Records relating to the Tennessee Centennial Exposition (Nashville, 1897)
Textual Records: Letters sent by the State Department representative on the Board of Management, 1897-99.
Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Tennessee Centennial Exposition in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
43.13.7 Records relating to the Pan American Exposition (Buffalo,
Textual Records: Correspondence of the State Department with the Board of Management, 1900-1. Catalog of the State Department exhibit, 1901. Newspaper clippings, in album, 1899-1901. The Pan American Magazine, 1901.
43.13.8 Records relating to the South Carolina Interstate and
West Indian Exposition (Charleston, 1901-2)
Textual Records: Correspondence relating to the State Department exhibit, 1901-2.
43.13.9 Records relating to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
(St. Louis, 1904)
Textual Records: General correspondence of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission, 1901-5, with an additional file of letters sent, 1901-5. Letters received by the State Department representative on the U.S. Government Board, 1903-4. Letters received regarding foreign participation in the exposition, 1901- 4. Correspondence of the New York dispatch agent relating to the exposition, 1901-5. Diaries kept by the commission secretary, 1901-5. Minutes of commission meetings, 1901-5. Report of the Board of Lady Managers to the commission, 1905. Original draft of a report from the commission to the President, 1903. Correspondence concerning final reports, 1905. Report of the commission concerning the exhibits of states and foreign countries, 1905. Original draft of the final report, 1905. Records relating to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, including the articles of agreement, 1901 a list of company officers 1891 and financial reports, with related correspondence, 1901-4. Commission cashbook, 1901-5. Vouchers, 1901-5. List of jurors to determine awards, 1904. Records concerning disputes and complaints over awards, 1904-5. Newspaper clippings, in album, 1901-4. Exposition bulletins, 1901.
Photographic Prints (196 images): Exhibits of 18 American states and 14 foreign countries exposition buildings and portraits of commissioners from various U.S. states, 1904 (EX). SEE ALSO 43.17.
Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
43.13.10 Records relating to the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition (Portland, OR, 1905)
Textual Records: Correspondence of the State Department representative on the U.S. Government Board of Managers, 1905.
43.13.11 Records relating to the Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition (Hampton Roads, VA, 1907)
Textual Records: Correspondence concerning the State Department exhibit, 1906-7.
43.13.12 Records relating to the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition
Textual Records: Correspondence concerning the State Department exhibit, 1908-9.
43.13.13 Records relating to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (San Francisco, 1915)
Textual Records: State Department correspondence with applicants for positions with the National Exposition Commission, 1911-15.
43.13.14 Records relating to the Sesquicentennial International Exposition (Philadelphia, 1920)
Textual Records: Records of the U.S. Commission, including administrative files, 1926-27 correspondence with government agencies and with the National Advisory Committee to the Sesquicentennial Exhibition Association, 1926-27 and reports on government exhibits, 1927 and n.d. Records of the National Advisory Commission to the Sesquicentennial Exhibition Association, 1926-27. Sesquicentennial Exhibition Association pamphlets, 1926. Records maintained by State Department contact officers with the U.S. Commission, including plans of and a guide to government exhibits, 1926.
Photographic Prints (268 images): Exhibits of various component organizations of the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, the Navy, and the Treasury and exhibits of the Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National Capital, 1926 (EX). SEE ALSO 43.17.
Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Sesquicentennial International Exposition in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
43.13.15 Records relating to the Chicago World's Fair Centennial Celebration (1933-34)
Textual Records: General correspondence of the Chicago World's Fair Centennial Commission, 1932-33. Correspondence and reports regarding government agencies' exhibits, 1932-34. Report on the State Department exhibit, 1933. Specifications and construction orders for the U.S. Government building, 1932-34. Invitations, with replies, 1932-34.
Photographic Prints (87 images): Government agencies' exhibits, 1933 (EX). SEE ALSO 43.17.
43.13.16 Records relating to the Seattle World's Fair (1962)
Textual Records (in Seattle): General records, 1959-63. Exhibit files, 1959-63. Publicity material, 1960-62. Miscellaneous records, 1959-62.
Architectural and Engineering Plans (1,980 items, in Seattle): Various sections of the U.S. science exhibit, ca. 1959-62. SEE ALSO 43.14.
Motion Pictures (36 reels): U.S. exhibit, 1962-63. SEE ALSO 43.15.
Sound recordings (13 items): U.S. exhibit, 1962-63. SEE ALSO 43.16.
Photographs (3,856 images, in Seattle): Scenes of the fair, 1962. SEE ALSO 43.17.
Related Records: Additional photographs under Records of the U.S. Expositions Staff, Bureau of International Commerce, in RG 489, Records of the International Trade Administration.
43.13.17 Records relating to the New York World's Fair (1964-65)
Motion Pictures (2 reels): Voyage to America, 1964. SEE ALSO 43.15.
43.14 CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS (GENERAL)
SEE Maps and Charts UNDER 43.2.12 and 43.11.2.
SEE Maps UNDER 43.2.31, 43.6.7, and 43.10.1.
SEE Architectural and Engineering Plans UNDER 43.12.8, 43.12.10, 43.12.15, and 43.13.16.
43.15 MOTION PICTURES (GENERAL)
SEE UNDER 43.2.31, 43.13.16, and 43.13.17.
43.16 SOUND RECORDINGS (GENERAL)
SEE UNDER 43.2.42, 43.11.34, 43.12.16, and 43.13.16.
43.17 STILL PICTURES (GENERAL)
Photographs: Triangulation stations, Upper Niagara River, taken during a field survey for the International Waterways Commission, 1909-10 (NR).
SEE Photographs UNDER 43.2.7, 43.2.32, 43.11.2, 43.11.6, 43.13.4, and 43.13.16.
SEE Photographic Prints UNDER 43.12.7, 43.12.9, 43.12.15, 43,12.17, 43.13.9, 43.13.14, and 43.13.15.
SEE Drawings UNDER 43.12.15.
Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
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The Hague, Dutch ’s-Gravenhage or Den Haag, French La Haye, seat of government of the Netherlands. It is situated on a coastal plain, with the city centre just inland from the North Sea. The Hague is the administrative capital of the country and the home of the court and government, though Amsterdam is the official capital.
The city’s name recalls the hunting lodge of the counts of Holland, which was located in a woodland area called Haghe, or “hedge” (whence ’s-Gravenhage, “the counts’ private enclosure”). Count William II built a castle there in 1248, around which several buildings came to be clustered, and these became the principal residence of the counts of Holland. These buildings now form the Binnenhof (“Inner Courtyard”) in the old quarter of the city. Among the great halls around this courtyard are the Ridderzaal (Knight’s Hall c. 1280) and the Armistice or Truce Hall, designed by Daniel Marot in 1697. An artificial lake, the Hofvijver, just to the north of the Binnenhof, was dug about 1350 and still forms one of the many attractions of the city.
A commercial district grew up around the Binnenhof in the 13th and 14th centuries, and it survives on shopping streets such as Venestraat, Spuistraat, Gravenstraat, and Hoogstraat. In the 16th century Holland became the chief centre of Dutch resistance to Spanish Habsburg rule, and in 1559 William I, stadtholder of the Netherlands, made The Hague his capital. About 1585 the States-General, along with other bodies of the Dutch Republic’s central government, established themselves in the Binnenhof. William’s son, Prince Maurice of Orange, soon took up residence in The Hague, and at his initiative in 1616 a web of canals was constructed around the city that continued to define its borders to the mid-19th century. Around this time, imposing aristocratic mansions were constructed on the eastern side of the Binnenhof. To the southeast grew the Spui (craftsmen’s district) and small inner harbours, and to the west the Prinsegracht (home to the wealthy middle class), which was connected to the horticultural area of the Westland by the Loosduinse canal.
In the 17th century, when the Dutch Republic played a leading role in Europe, The Hague became a centre of diplomatic negotiation. From 1795 to 1808 The Hague served as the capital of the French-controlled republic of Holland, and, with liberation from the French, the city alternated with Brussels as the meeting place of the States General of the enlarged Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1815 to 1830. After 1850, when the revenues from the Dutch East Indies started to pour in, the city prospered, and many of the older canals were filled in to allow for development. As a result of the international conferences ( Hague Convention) held there in 1899 and 1907, The Hague became a permanent centre of international law. After a long sojourn in Amsterdam, the Dutch central government returned to The Hague in 1913.
The city expanded rapidly in the early 20th century, with growth being characterized by broad avenues, parks, and public gardens. In the north the Benoordenhout quarter was built, and the fine residential park district of Marlot was constructed near Wassenaar. In the southwest the Zuiderpark districts were laid out, containing many blocks of residential flats. Along the dunes in the west and near the Laan van Meerdervoort and Loosduinseweg small villas were built, and middle-class housing was constructed in the Bomen- en Bloemenbuurt and the Fruit Quarter. These new districts linked The Hague with the popular seaside resort of Scheveningen, Rijswijk, Voorburg, and other adjoining municipalities.
There is little heavy industry in The Hague, which is basically a centre of government and corporate administration. The States General (parliament) meets in the Knights’ Hall, and government departments and foreign embassies occupy other buildings in the old quarter of the city. Most of the city’s business firms are engaged in trade, banking, insurance, or other services. Several large oil companies also have their international headquarters in the city. The Hague is also a leading centre for international conferences. The city’s industries include printing and publishing, electronics, food processing, and the production of ceramics, furniture, glass, and various luxury consumer items.
The Binnenhof is surrounded by buildings dating from the 15th to the 18th century. Among these historical landmarks are the Great Church of St. Jacob (Jacobskerk 1399), which has a hexagonal tower and a richly decorated late Gothic choir, as well as the largest carillon in the Netherlands the Protestant New Church (1654) the royal palace on the Noordeinde (16th century) the royal palace known as the House in the Wood (Huis ten Bosch 1645–47) and the old Renaissance-style town hall (1564), which was subsequently enlarged several times.
South of the Binnenhof is the Buitenhof, a centre of the town’s activities and the site of several hotels and restaurants. The original entrance to it was the Gevangenpoort (Prisoner’s Gate), a tower and gate built about 1400. It is now a museum dedicated to the history of punishment and torture in the Netherlands. Just north of the Binnenhof lies the Hofvijver (Court Pond), a rectangular artificial pond with a small island in the centre. Close by is the Old Catholic Church (1722), which has a beautiful Baroque interior. The Hague is home to two residences of the Dutch royal family. The Noordeinde Palace was first built in the 16th century. The other royal palace, Huis ten Bosch, dates from 1640 and was designed by Pieter Post and Jacob van Campen. It has a beautiful hall with a domed roof.
To the north the Permanent Court of Arbitration and the United Nations’ International Court of Justice are housed in the Peace Palace, an imposing building that was completed in 1913 with an endowment from the American industrialist Andrew Carnegie. Among the city’s more striking modern buildings are the headquarters of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group (1941), the KLM (Royal Dutch Airlines) building (1949), the United States Embassy (1959), Dr. Anton Philips Hall (1987), a concert venue, and the headquarters of the International Criminal Court (2015).
The numerous museums in the city comprise a wide range of collections. The Royal Picture Gallery, housed in the famous building known as the Mauritshuis (1633–44), has a remarkable collection of the works of the Dutch masters: Rembrandt, Johannes Vermeer, Jan Steen, and others. The Bredius Museum (1645) also has a fine collection of old paintings of the Dutch school. Other notable museums are the Mesdag Museum, the Mesdag Panorama, the Municipal Museum, and the Museum for Communication. The Royal Library, established in 1798, has the most important collection of old books and manuscripts in the country. There are several art academies, and musical life is dominated by The Hague Philharmonic orchestra. The city also has some notable parks and recreation areas. It has excellent road and rail connections with Rotterdam, Amsterdam, and Utrecht. Pop. (2017 est.) 524,882.
These treaties are known as “The Hague Conventions” because they were adopted at the Peace Conferences that were held in The Hague, Netherlands, in 1899 and 1907. They establish the laws and customs of war in the strict sense, by defining the rules that belligerents must follow during hostilities. These rules are presented in the entry on ▸ Methods (and means) of warfare .
This branch of international law is known as the laws of war, as opposed to the one governing the right to receive relief, as defined in the Geneva Conventions that establish the protection of victims of conflict as well as the limitation of methods of warfare.
The Conventions and Declarations adopted at The Hague on 29 July 1899 concern issues such as the pacific settlement of international disputes and the laws and customs of war, which were strengthened in the 1907 Conventions. They also concern
- the prohibition on the use of projectiles that disperse asphyxiating gas and
- the prohibition on the use of bullets that expand or flatten easily in the human body.
The Hague Conventions of 18 October 1907, address
- the pacific settlement of disputes (based on The Hague Convention I of 1899)
- the opening of hostilities (The Hague Convention III)
- the laws and customs of war (Convention IV, with annexes and regulations, which develops Convention II of 1899 and cases of military occupation)
- the rights and duties of neutral powers in case of war on land (V)
- the status of merchant ships at the outbreak of hostilities (VI)
- the conversion of merchant ships into war ships (VII)
- the laying of automatic submarine contact mines (VIII)
- the bombardment by naval forces in time of war (IX)
- the adaptation to maritime war of the principles of the Geneva Convention of 1906 (X)
- restrictions with regard to the exercise of the right of capture in naval war (XI)
- the establishment of an international prize court (XII)
- the rights and duties of neutral powers in naval war (XIII).
Other treaties regulate the rules for the use or prohibition of certain weapons.
For Additional Information: Dinstein, Yoram. The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, esp. chap. 1.