The English in New York

The English in New York

The change from Dutch to English control did not offer immediate democratic benefits to the residents. Resentment of the influence of the rich would lead to outbursts such as Leisler's Rebellion and the Zenger case.The accession of William III in 1689 opened an era of European warfare whose American component was a Contest for Empire involving the English, the native inhabitants and the French. New York played prominently in this drama because of its geographic position, which allowed control of major lakes and rivers, the superhighways of the era.Battles were fought at Crown Point, Fort Niagara and Fort Ticonderoga. The Iroquois Confederacy attempted to remain neutral during the early wars, but clearly sided with the British in the final conflict, the French and Indian War. The Algonquian usually supported the French. From the white settlers' viewpoint, the wars were significant because they delayed the development of the interior regions.Once peace was concluded in 1763, the rush was on to claim wilderness lands and conflicts between colonists and Native Americans increased.

See Indian Wars Time Table.

New York — History and Culture

With its comparatively short history, New York’s rise to the pinnacle of alpha-world cities is almost entirely due to the energy, innovation and commitment of its people and leaders over the last four centuries. New Yorkers are fortunate to live in one of the most cultural cities in the world, and are immensely proud of it.


The first European settlers were Dutch fur merchants who established trading colonies in the early 17th century. Their main town, New Amsterdam, was founded on the site of present-day New York City. During the Second Anglo-Dutch War, English forces captured the town, renaming it New York in 1664, and by the 18th century its harbor was prominent as a major colonial trading port.

The city was an important strategic player in the Revolutionary War, with the New York based Sons of Liberty a major influence is the drive for independence. A fleet of British ships containing 30,000 sailors and soldiers arrived off Staten Island in 1776, but were finally repelled at the crucial Battle of Saratoga in 1777. In 1785, New York was declared the new nation’s capital until 1790 when George Washington was inaugurated the first president of the USA.

By the early 19th century, the city became a transportation hub for its new steamboat line, and a turnpike network set up in 1810 made it the main stop for pioneer wagons heading to Michigan and Buffalo. The opening of the great Erie Canal in 1825 linked the Atlantic Ocean-based city with the Great Lakes, cementing its prominence and encouraging even more settlers. In 1831, New York welcomed America’s first railroad service.

A highly successful city by the time of the Civil War, New York saw hundreds of thousands of its young men fighting against slavery during the conflict. In the decades that followed, the city cemented its position in the banking and financial sectors and industry and immigration boomed. By the Great Depression in 1929, New York was recognized as a world leader.

WWII saw the end of the city’s last great industrial era, with the economic focus shifting to service industries post-war. The suburbs developed fast, aided by the car culture and affordable new housing. During the last several decades, New York has gained its place as a world hub for cultural entertainment and popular musical styles and is one of the greatest cities on earth.


New York’s incredibly multi-ethnic population defines the city’s culture as one of the most ecclectic anywhere. The city’s theater, dance, literature, music, art and cuisine are all reflections of the mix of traditions brought in by millions of immigrants. At the turn of the last millennium, 36 percent of New York’s population was foreign born, although no single ethnicity dominates and most are honored by official holidays denoting important milestones in their heritage.

Indian, Russian, Irish, Italian, Asian and Latin American districts exist, and the famous New York City parades celebrate the vast diversity. Respect that there will be lines, don't intentionally steal someone’s cab, avoid mentioning 9/11, and respect personal space and you'll fit right in.

The English in New York - History

Thanks to the exploration of the area by Henry Hudson, the Dutch were able to claim what became New York as “New Netherlands”. The colony was first settled in 1614, when the Dutch established a fort, at what is present day Albany. The Dutch government let a private company (the Dutch East India company) organize the colonization of the area. In 1626, the new governor of the colony, Peter Minuit purchased Manhattan Island from the Native Americans for jewelry that was valued at $24. The city of New York was founded there. The Dutch tried to settle large estates in their new colony, but few Dutchman wanted to move. William Kieft was appointed the director general of the New Netherlands. Kieft entangled the colony in a war with local Indians. Peter Stuyvesant replaced Kieft in 1647. Stuyvesant was an effective administrator, but a dictatorial leader. In 1644, the British became engaged in a war with the Netherlands and seized the colony. Governor Stuyvesant wanted to attack the English, but the citizens were unwilling to fight.

King Charles then granted the colony to the Duke of York’s brother. The first British governor of the colony was Colonel Richard Nicolis. He met with the settlers in what became Long Island and Westchester. Nicolis promised the colonists both religious freedom and limited local autonomy. In 1682 Thomas Dongan became the governor. He created a representative assembly, which passed the “Charter of Liberties and Privileges” that provided rights for the residents of the colony. Before the Charter could be put into effect the Duke of York became King. He decided to combine New York with the royal colony of New England. This angered the residents of New York. New York was quickly returned to an independent colony. As the New York colony developed the British distributed large plots of lands especially along the Hudson River.

In 1689, James was overthrown in the “Glorious Revolution”. The British governor was captured in Boston. Jacob Liesler, a German born merchant led a revolt against the colonial government. Liesler established a local assembly. In 1691, King William, who had replaced James, sent Colonel Henry Slaughter to regain control of the colony. Colonel Slaughter had Leisler executed.

New York was a cosmopolitan city, with a diverse population. The first Jewish immigrants to North America came to New York. The city of New York had a diverse amalgamation of houses of worship. New York City established itself as a leading trade center.

The Immigrant History of the NYC Neighborhood Behind ‘In the Heights’

The setting of Lin-Manuel Miranda’s In the Heights is as central to the musical’s plot as its characters. Home to a vibrant Latino community, Washington Heights, known colloquially as “Little Dominican Republic,” comes alive on stage and on screen, imbuing every scene with an unmistakable, pulsating presence. Situated in the northernmost part of Manhattan, between 155th Street and 195th Street, the neighborhood’s story is one of hardship, prosperity and communal spirit—themes aptly mirrored in the Tony Award–winning musical. The movie adaptation of In the Heights debuts in theaters and on HBO Max this week.

Involved in stage acting from an early age, Miranda says that it was the lack of Latino representation in Broadway and Hollywood that, in part, inspired him to create a work that shined a positive light on Latino immigrants, as opposed to the one-dimensional gang members seen in the classic 1957 musical West Side Story. As someone who grew up in Inwood, the neighborhood next door, that desire to break away from violent stereotypes was personal for Miranda. In the writing stages—he famously wrote the play during his sophomore year at Wesleyan University—he drew from his own life experiences to create something that was “honest,” and he talks about how many of his own life’s most important memories actually took place in Washington Heights, where he still lives today.

By the time Miranda was growing up, the neighborhood had long been considered a refuge for immigrants in search of the American dream. But when it was first developed in the 1800s, it was the area that wealthy New Yorkers called home. Regal estates, like that of famed naturalist John James Audubon, took advantage of the area’s rolling hills and waterfront views. In addition to the neighborhood’s physical beauty, it drew interest for its historical significance, having been the site of Fort Washington, a strategic point of defense in the Continental army’s efforts to protect New York from the British during the Revolutionary War.

By the year 1900, the face of Washington Heights began to change. As affluent families moved their estates south—developing alongside today’s Fifth Avenue and the Upper East Side—Washington Heights became an enclave for immigrants from Europe. The Irish, escaping the Great Potato Famine, settled in the neighborhood after the Lower East Side proved inhospitable. A few decades later, German Jews, fleeing anti-Semitism in the wake of the Nazi regime’s rise to power, arrived in Washington Heights in such numbers that the neighborhood became known as “Frankfurt-on-the-Hudson.” Later, immigrants from Greece, whose population in New York peaked in the 1960s, settled there.

But as these groups gained steadier footing in the city, they began trading in Washington Heights for more attractive real estate, creating the opportunity for a new wave of immigrants, this time from Latin America, to call the area their own. As documented by the Center for Puerto Rican Studies at Hunter College, roughly 4,000 Puerto Ricans migrated to the United States, each year, between the years of 1946 and 1956. As Europeans moved out and Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Mexicans and soon after, Dominicans, moved in, the neighborhood transformed into a largely Latino barrio, a characteristic that has held on through today.

Locals call Washington Heights "Little Dominican Republic." Pictured here is a scene from the film adaptation of In the Heights. (Macall Polay)

Robert Snyder, a historian at Rutgers University, says that Dominican immigrants made such a deep impact on the area because they were quick to set up hometown associations, political organizations, sporting clubs and restaurants. What was particularly unique about the Dominican community, according to Snyder, was that, with the advent of air travel, they were also able to travel back home, send kids to their grandparents for the summer, and check in on businesses that were still based in the D.R., the Dominican Republic.

“They put one foot in the D.R. and one foot in N.Y.C.,” says Snyder, of the particular proximity that helped Dominicans set up a community whose sounds and smells—the ubiquity of Spanish, the presence of the Dominican flag, the botanicas selling fragrant incenses—were things that Dominicans brought along with them to New York.

Like the Cubans, the Mexicans, and the Puerto Rican immigrants that came before them, the Dominican community of Washington Heights arrived “looking to make their mark,” adds Ramona Hernandez, a sociologist and the director of the City College of New York’s Dominican Studies Institute. It was their determination to resist, combined with their “energy, that desire, that willingness to do whatever it takes to make it to progress,” she says, that lent a type of permanency to the area.

Small residential buildings, capable of housing multiple families within a single apartment, were characteristic of the neighborhood. With five or six floors each, these small buildings reminded Dominicans of the casitas back home, says Hernandez, who explains that those buildings were also what enabled so many Dominicans to actually concentrate in the same place. Upper Manhattan, including Washington Heights, possesses the largest population of Dominicans in all of New York.

As Latinos moved in, though, the conversation around Washington Heights started to change. “Once Latinos begin to move there, something interesting begins to happen,” explains Hernandez. Even though white residents started to leave the Heights for all kinds of reasons, she says, “the perception was that that you have a neighborhood that was in decline. When people leave, they take with them their businesses, what they brought in there. This was the vision you had back in the 󈨊s.”

A 1910 photograph of the Riviera at 156th Street and Riverside Drive (Public domain via Wikimedia Commons)

Billie Holiday

The possessor of a languid, low-key purr, Billie Holiday (1915-1959) was one of the greatest jazz and blues singers of the 1930s and 1940s. She was born Eleanora Fagan (or Elinore Harris) in Philadelphia. She had a troubled childhood, in part due to the absence of her jazz-musician father. In 1929, Holiday and Sadie, her mother, moved to Harlem, New York, where she worked as a cleaner.

After failing an audition as a dancer, Holiday began to sing in clubs and made her first recording in 1933. She honed her intimate, improvisatory style and in just a few years had achieved star status and become an influence on other singers. Through her songs Holiday painted an image of herself as a melancholy loser in love. In real life, she fell prey to exploitative men. A heavy drinker and heroin user, she died in Harlem. Nothing has eclipsed the emotional intensity of her voice.

New York State History – Colonial Period

A section of the plan of Fort William Henry, from "A Set of Plans and Forts in America."

The New York State Library has a wide variety of primary documents and published material on the history of Colonial New York. The collection includes muster rolls of colonial troops, accounts of explorers, land purchase agreements, correspondence of early settlers, orderly books, diaries, maps, records of Rensselaerwyck Manor, colonial laws, documents of New Netherland, histories of the French and Indian War, accounts of relations with Native Americans, and personal papers such as those of Sir William Johnson.

Listed below are publications that have been digitized from items in the New York State Library’s collection. As the State Library digitizes other materials related to New York State's Colonial Period, links to the digital copy will be added to this list. The titles listed below are also available in print copy at the NYSL for use onsite. Additional materials relating to the colonial period in New York State can be found by searching the NYSL online catalog and the Finding Aids to Special Collections.

For more information, contact the Reference Desk at 518-474-5355 or via email, or see the Digital Collections FAQ.

Agreement for the Purchase of Indian Lands, 1697 October: This is an agreement for the purchase of land at Ramapo, Rockland County (New York) between Blandina Bayard and the following Native Americans: Zerickham, Mettissiena, Eghkenem, Onarkommagh, Kraghkon, Saeuwapigh Kim, and Nanawaron.

Annual Report of the State Historian: In 1895, Governor Morton appointed a state historian, whose duties were "to collect … edit, and prepare for publication all official records … and data, relative to the colonial wars, war of the revolution, war of 1812, Mexican war and war of the rebellion." The 1st Annual Report (1895), 2nd Annual Report (1896) and 3rd Annual Report (1897) were digitized from volumes in the State Library's collection. Volume 1 of the Colonial Muster Rolls for 1664-1760 can be found in Appendix H of the 2nd Annual Report. Volume II of the Colonial Muster Rolls for 1664-1760 can be found in Appendix M of the 3rd Annual Report. An index of names contained in the Colonial Muster Rolls can be found on pages 899-1130 of the 3rd Annual Report.

Champlain and the French in New York: A short publication by William G. Tyrrell on the history of Samuel De Champlain and the French in New York State.

Contract of Sale of Land Along the Hudson River From the Mahican Indians to Kiliean Van Rensselaer, 6 August 1630: This document is a copy of an original parchment copy of the land title that established the Colony of Rensselaerwyck within the province of New Netherland. It relates to the patroonship plan of colonization, under the auspices of the West India Company, that allowed an investor, called a patroon (lord of manor), to negotiate with natives for a tract upon which he was obligated to settle 50 colonists at his own expense. The patroon was granted complete jurisdictional rights and could hold the land in perpetual fief of inheritance with the right to dispose of colony by last will and testament. Kiliaen van Rensselaer became the first patroon of Rensselaerwyck. The lands in the conveyance comprised much of present Albany and Rensselaer counties of New York State. Peter Minuit, Director General of New Netherland, signed this document along with others on the governing council. The original document is in Dutch an English translation by A.J.F. van Laer with revisions by Charles Gehring is included with the original.

Conveyance, 1761, October 1: This document certifies the conveyance of title to a certain tract of land held by John Klein to John Jones. The tract of land was situated at the time in Albany County, New York, being north of the Mohawk River and between two creeks "called George Creek and Caicharon or Canida Creek." The land was granted to Klein and others by settlers patent in 1760.

Correspondence of Maria van Rensselaer, 1669-1689: This volume was translated and edited by A.J.F. van Laer and published by University of the State of New York in 1935. Maria van Rensselaer was the wife of Jeremias van Rensselaer. After her husband's death, she carried on a regular correspondence with her husband's youngest brother, Richard van Rensselaer, in regard to the administration of Rensselaerwyck. The volume also contains correspondence between Maria and her brother, Stephanus van Cortlandt, and other members of the Van Cortlandt family.

Letter to Spencer Phips, 1750 December 18: This is a digital copy of a letter that Governor George Clinton wrote to Governor Spencer Phips of Massachusetts proposing that all the colonial governors assemble in Albany for the purpose of meeting with the Six Nations of Indians to attempt to end the influence of the French on the Indians. The letter was written at Fort George in New York City.

A Letter to the Freemen and Freeholders of the City of New-York: Relating to the Approaching Election of Their Representatives. Wherein the Several Papers That Have Lately Appeared on the Subject of Politicks, Are Briefly Considered: the Conduct of the Authors Exposed, and the Controversy Represented in its True Light: The pamphlet was signed "Feb. 10, 1752, A Lover of Liberty." It was printed and sold by J. Parker at the New Printing Office Beaver-Street New York in 1752. Bound with this pamphlet is a second pamphlet, "An Answer to a Pamphlet, Entitled, A Letter to the Freemen and Freeholders Of the City of New-York. Wherein Is Fully Shown, the True Causes Of the Defection Of the Six Nations Of Indians With Some Historical Collections Never Yet Made Publick." This second pamphlet is "By a Contemner [sic] of Licentiousness" and was also printed and sold by J. Parker in New York in 1752.

Orderly Books, 1759-1760, 1762: These are the orderly books of Captain Amos Hitchcock's Connecticut provincial companies during the French and Indian War. The orderly books are the companies' official record of all military orders, and include courts martial, disciplinary actions, and promotions. The volumes also provide a record of troop movements in northern New York and Canada and encampments at Albany, Fort Edward, Lake George, Crown Point, and Fort Ontario.

Papers of Sir William Johnson: In his official capacity as Indian agent or military officer, Sir William Johnson corresponded with people from all walks of life. His papers, covering the time period of 1738-1808, form an invaluable source of information on the political, military, social and agricultural history of the period. (As Johnson had died in 1774, the few papers we have for those years relate to matters with which his relatives were connected.) The 14 volume set that has been digitized is the most comprehensive source of printed transcripts from the original manuscripts.

    : This booklet was published by the Office of State History, New York State Education Department, in 1967. The foreward notes that "There is a vast literature dealing with Indian and white relations, but little of it is readily and easily accessible to teachers, students, and general readers. To bring together the main points of this exciting and vivid history, Dr. Milton W. Hamilton has written this booklet on Sir William Johnson and the Indians. As trader, Indian agent, soldier, and Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Johnson was a key figure in the Indian story. He is as important for his great work during the momentous events of the 18th century as for his ability to understand the Indians and to work well with them . To tell this significant story of Johnson and the Indians, Dr. Hamilton drew extensively on the 13 volumes of the Sir William Johnson Papers."

Patent for the Manor of Rensselaerwyck: This is a copy of the original manuscript, from November 5, 1685. This document confirmed the right of the former Dutch colony known as Rensselaerwyck to continue its existence under the suzerainty of the British Crown. The boundaries were clearly defined and included all of the lands originally granted to Rensselaerwyck in 1630 as a colony under the jurisdiction of New Netherland, with the exception of lands reserved for the settlement called Albany and special right away connecting said settlement on the Hudson River to the Mohawk River. Many of the feudal rights and privileges of the Patroon were reconfirmed too, excepting the legislative and judicial powers held under Dutch authority. The document was signed and sealed by Thomas Dongan, Governor of the Colony of New York.

A Set of Plans and Forts in America, Reduced From Actual Survey: This volume was published in 1763 in London. The author is John Rocque. The volume consists of 30 maps of forts in America, such as Fort William Henry and the Redoubts at Crown Point. The volume also includes a "Map of the British Dominions in North America according to the Treaty of 1763."

"A map of Ye English Empire in Ye Continent of America," c. 1685.

Belgii Novi, Angliae Novae, et Partis Virginiae: Novissima Delineation: This map was prepared by Jan Jansson between 1660 and 1663 in Amsterdam. The map was dedicated to Gualthero de Raet.

A Map of the Hardenbergh [sic] Patent: Shewing the Original Partition, That of Ebenezer Worster in 1749 of Part and the Subsequent One of the Residue in 1751 With the Adjoining Patents, Mostly From Actual Survey: This hand colored map was made in 1810 by John Kiersted. In 1707, Major Johannes Hardenbergh, a merchant of Kingston, Ulster Co., purchased a large tract of land from the Indians. The Hardenbergh Patent included all of the western part of Ulster County. (This area is now known as Sullivan Co. and parts of Delaware and Ulster Counties.) On April 20, 1708, the patent was officially granted to Hardenbergh and his associates by Governor Edward Hyde Cornubury. In 1749, the patent was divided into "Great Lots" apportioned by lot among the proprietors. These were further subdivided into tracts and divisions of various sizes.

[Map of the Land Patents in Greene County Circa 1735]: This hand colored map is believed to have been prepared sometime in the 1800s and shows drainage, locations of structures, and names of landowners.

A Map of the Manor Renselaerwick: This area was surveyed and laid down by a scale of 100 chains to an inch by Jno. R. Bleeker, surveyor. This map is a copy made by David Vaugnam from the original that was held by Stephen Van Rennselaer. It includes landforms, drainage, roads and farmstead locations. The scale in D. Vaughan's copy was reduced to 200 chains to an inch.

A Map of the Patent Granted [?]th of April 1673 to Bart. Petersen Coejemans: As Claimed by Abm. Lott Esqr. In Behalf of the Heirs of the Said Barrent Petersen Coejemans: This hand colored map was drawn and printed by Simon Metcalfe around 1770. The map shows drainage, landmarks, and names of some landowners.

Nova Anglia, Novum Belgium, et Virginia: This map was drawn by Jan Jansson and published in Amsterdam in 1636(?). The map shows the eastern seaboard of North American including parts of New France, New England, New Netherland, and Virginia.

Pas-Kaart Vande zee Kusten van Niew Nederland Anders Genaamt Niew York: Tusschen Renselaars Hoek en de Staaten Hoek: This hand colored map was prepared by Claes Janszoon Vooght and printed in Amsterdam circa 1719. The map covers the Hudson River as far as Albany, the New York region and the coast of Long Island, and New England as far as Nantucket Island.

Plan of the Town and Fort of Carillon at Ticonderoga: This map includes information on the attack made by the British Army commanded by Gen. Abercrombie, 8 July 1758. The engraving was made by Thomas Jefferys, geographer to the Prince of Wales, in London in 1758.

A Plott of Ye Situations of the Towns & Places on Ye Wester End of Long Island to Hempstead Rounds, Dated July 3, 1666: This map is commonly referred to as the "Hubbard Map." The original 1666 map made by W. Hubbard was destroyed in the 1911 Capital Fire. The digital reproduction was made from a negative blueprint. The digital reproduction includes inverted (i.e. positive polarity) image of the original negative blueprint. The towns of Brooklyn and Bushwick are missing from the map.

Renselaerswyck [sic]: map: This is a copy of the original manuscript map on vellum that was part of the Rensselaerwyck Manor Records. The map "represents the land along the Hudson River from Barren Island, just south of Coeymans to the Mouth of the Mohawk. The map is without date or makers name . [but] is commonly ascribed to Gillis van Schendel and to the year 1630, but . was probably executed in Holland shortly after July 20, 1632 from rough drafts and surveys of different parts of the colony . " (From the Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts (Albany, 1908), p. 33.)

New York State Library
University of the State of New York - New York State Education Department

New York State Culture

Religion in New York State

Catholics represent 40% of New York's population, while 30% of New Yorkers identify as Protestant. Smaller Jewish and Muslim minorities comprise 8.5 and 3.5% of the population, respectively. Approximately 13% of New Yorkers say they have no religious affiliation.

Social Conventions in New York State

While visitors' perceptions of New York State may be that of a liberal state, keep in mind that that perception is shaped primarily by and about New York City. It is often forgotten that there is more to New York State than the New York metropolitan area, where because of their heavy accents and fast-paced lifestyle downstate New Yorkers are prone to being stereotyped as abrasive, loud and snobbish.

Though they are not an insignificant part of the state's population (indeed, they number more than 8 million of the state's 19.5 million residents), they are also not representative of the larger norm. Practices, behaviours, and forms of dress and speech that are perfectly acceptable in New York City may be considered inappropriate in other parts of the state.

Outside of New York City, it is generally considered impolite to discuss religious or political beliefs among acquaintances. People meeting for the first time typically shake hands rather than kiss or embrace. Outside of the city New Yorkers are known for their friendliness.

From downstate to upstate, New York has a very diverse population. Because of the myriad cultures and religions New York possesses an eclectic mix of social conventions, but while cultural diversity is visible in other parts of the state, it is not as evident as in New York City.

New York History Timeline

When the first European explorer sailed into New York harbor in 1524, the native civilization found on the banks of the Hudson was a complex and ancient one. The natives' ancestors had entered the Hudson Valley some twelve thousand years earlier, after the last continental glacier receded from North America. The Dutch first settled along the Hudson River in 1624 two years later they established the colony of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island. In 1664, the English took control of the area and renamed it New York.

One of the original 13 colonies, New York played a crucial political and strategic role during the American Revolution.

16th Century New York History Timeline

1524 - Jan 17 - Giovanni da Verrazano, commissioned by France's Francis I, sails from the Madeiras, in la Dauphine, for the New World, probably accompanied by Jacques Cartier.

17th Century New York History Timeline

  • Hudson River was first explored by Henry Hudson.
  • Samuel de Champlain explores the northeastern New York area .

1614 - Fort Nassau is built near present-day Albany

1624 - The Dutch settled here permanently and for 40 years they ruled over the colony of New Netherland

1625 - The Dutch purchase Manhattan Island from the local Indians

1664 - Expedition led by Colonel Sir Richard Nicolls, one of four Commissioners appointed by the Crown to carry out military acquisition of the Dutch territories in America. Nicolls selected Sir Robert Carr to subdue the Dutch on the South (Delaware) River. Sir Robert Carr drives the Dutch off the Delaware and claims the land for James, Duke of York. Delaware becomes an English colony. Colony of New Netherland was conquered by the English and was then named New York in honor of the Duke of York.

18th Century New York History Timeline

1765 - New York City hosts a colony conference dealing with the King of England's Stamp Act

1776 - July 9 - Existing as a colony of Great Britain for over a century, New York declared its independence becoming one of the original 13 states of the Federal Union

  • April 20 - New York's first constitution was adopted
  • June - Election for the first governor took place.
  • July 9 - George Clinton was declared elected
  • July 30 - George Clinton was inaugurated as Governor at Kingston

1777 - The Battle of Saratoga, one of the decisive battles of the world, was the turning point of the Revolution leading to the French alliance and thus to eventual victory. New York City, long occupied by British troops, was evacuated

  • September 19th (The Battle of Freeman Farm)
  • October 7th (The Battle of Bemis Heights)

1783 - December 4 - At Fraunces Tavern, General George Washington bade farewell to his officers.

1784 - "The Empire State," an expression possibly originated by George Washington

1788 - With the Revolutionary War ended, New York becomes the 11th US State
1797 - January - Albany became the capital of the State

1789 - April 30 - New York City became the first capital of the new nation, where President George Washington was inaugurated

1792 - The New York Stock Exchange, founded, and has become the center of world finance.

19th Century New York History Timeline

1809 - Robert Fulton's "North River Steamboat," the first successful steam-propelled vessel, began a new era in transportation.

1812 - Robert Fulton's steamboat churns up the Hudson River

1825 - Erie Canal, completed

1831 - Short Lines started

1853 - Railroads started

1860s - The State of New York supplies almost one-sixth of all Union forces during the Civil War

1880s- Overland transportation grew rapidly from a system of turnpikes established in the early 1880s to the modern day Goveror Thomas E. Dewey New York State Thruway.

1886 - The Statue of Liberty, with its famous inscription, "Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free," was the first symbol of America's mission.

20th Century New York History Timeline

1900s - Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin D. Roosevelt achieved the presidency and Nelson Rockefeller served as vice president. Governors Charles E. Hughes, Alfred E. Smith and Thomas E. Dewey all were candidates for the presidency.

1901 - President William McKinley is assassinated in Buffalo

1918 - The Erie Canal was replaced by the Barge Canal

1929 - New York stock market crashes

1932 - Lake Placid hosts the Olympic Winter Games

1939 - World's Fair opens in New York City

1946 - New York City is chosen as the site of the United Nations

1959 - St. Lawrence Seaway opens

1964 - World Fair opens (again) in New York City

2001 - World Trade Center attacked by terriorist

21st Century New York History Timeline

  • New York Yankees won World Series
  • former first lady Hillary Clinton elected to U.S. Senate
  • 9/11 - Terrorists hijacked, then crashed two planes into World Trade Center, nearly 3,000 killed, with billions in property loss.
  • Later in the year, American Airlines plane crash in New York City kills 260
  • Power outage across eastern U.S. and Canada
  • Staten Island ferry crash kills 10, injures 43

2005 - Strike by workers shut down New York City transit system

2006 - Yankees pitcher, Cory Lidle and flight instructor, killed in airplane crash first beam of the new Freedom Tower placed


Becker, Carl Lotus. The History of Political Parties in the Province of New York, 1760–1776. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1960.

Goodfriend, Joyce D. Before the Melting Pot: Society and Culture in Colonial New York City, 1664–1730. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Kammen, Michael. Colonial New York: A History. New York: Scribners, 1975.

Kim, Sung Bok. Landlord and Tenant in Colonial New York: Manorial Society, 1664–1775. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1978.

Rink, Oliver A. Holland on the Hudson: An Economic and Social History of Dutch New York. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Ritchie, Robert C. The Duke's Province: A Study of New York Politics and Society, 1664–1691. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1977.

A Brief History of Puerto Ricans in New York

A city of immigrants, New York is home to over eight million people, many belonging to ethnic groups with colorful histories in the city. Hosting the largest Puerto Rican population of any city in the world, New York has a rich past with Puerto Rican immigrants, migrants, and eventually, natives.

One-time citizens under Spanish rule, Puerto Ricans began immigrating to New York during the 19th century, first as subjects of Spain and later as newly baptized Puerto Rican citizens of American dominion. In 1917, the group would undergo yet another transformation of identity awarded American citizenship by Congress, Puerto Ricans were now permitted to travel freely between Puerto Rico and the U.S. mainland, run for local office, and serve in the U.S. military. Accessible air travel further enabled mass migrations of Puerto Ricans, who journeyed to New York City in order to explore their newfound identities in a new frontier.

Relegated at first to barrios in the furthest reaches of the city, the migrants quickly sought and gained footholds in New York. In 1954, the first native-born Puerto Rican was appointed the head of a major New York City political party. Just four years later, migrants marched in the first-ever New York Puerto Rican Day Parade, now a locally beloved annual tradition. Steadily, the group worked toward what many older New York-based Puerto Ricans recall as something of a heyday in the 1970s–1990s, the city’s Puerto Rican population reached its peak, spiking at nearly 12% of the city’s overall population and almost 80% of its Hispanic population.

The 20th century also marked a crucial cultural movement for Puerto Ricans living in New York. Founded by writer Jesús Colón, the artist-built Nuyorican Movement set out to empower Puerto Rican migrants while highlighting the unique issues and challenges they faced. Evolving eventually into a local phenomenon, a prominent subculture of self-identifying “Nuyoricans” emerged, and they continue to call the city home even today. With this movement, the identities of New Yorker and Puerto Rican were inseparably merged, thereby solidifying the historically unstable Puerto Ricans’ position here in New York City.

Today, New York boasts the largest Puerto Rican population of any city in the world, with the 2013 Census reporting 1,103,067 Puerto Ricans living in New York State. Naturally, the barrios have long since been left behind, and each of the city’s five boroughs houses significant Puerto Rican populations. Like many immigrant and migrant groups, Puerto Ricans have made major contributions to many New York industries, including arts, music, and entertainment, and have helped make this already great city even greater.

Watch the video: The Sound of the New York City English accent UDHR, Numbers, Greetings, Sample Text, Story (January 2022).