World History 1970-1971ָ
|1970 War in Vietnam Spreads to Cambodia In 1969, large numbers of North Vietnamese troops entered Cambodia. In March 1970, the Cambodian government requested their removal. Premier Lon Nol took control of the government while Prince Sihanouk was in Peking (March 18) and pledged to force the removal of the Vietnamese troops. Initially, the Vietnamese agreed to withdraw, but then announced their support for Sihanouk, who had promised to fight the new government.|
On April 30, President Nixon announced that US troops would join with South Vietnamese troops to invade the border area of Cambodia and eliminate Communist sanctuaries. He also pledged that all US troops would be out by the end of June. Meanwhile, Communist forces advanced on Phnom Penh.
|1970 Biafra Capitulates, Ending Civil War Civil war in Nigeria lasted for three years. Most countries in Africa supported the central government since all feared a similar breakup in their own countries. The British, Italians and the Soviet Union supplied the central government with arms, while the French supplied limited quantities of arms to the Biafrans. The Biafrans held their own in the war, until the end of 1969, when the superior fire power of the central government overwhelmed them. On January 13th, Biafran forces surrendered.|
|1970 Four Killed at Kent State American generals had always wanted the authority to attack Vietnamese sanctuaries in Cambodia. President Johnson had resisted their requests. Finally, in March 1970, after a change of government in Cambodia and after the North Vietnamese began attacking Cambodian forces, Nixon approved a massive incursion into Cambodia.|
Nixon went on national television on April 30. He announced that the invasion was for a limited period, and was to save American lives, and claimed that American forces would not advance more than 21 miles into Cambodia.
American campuses erupted in protest. At Kent State University, in Ohio, National Guardsmen killed four unarmed protesters.
|1970 Salvador Allende becomes President of Chile Salvador Allende Gossens was elected President of Chile in 1970. Allende was the first Marxist ever elected in free elections. He immediately established diplomatic relations with Cuba and China, and nationalized a number of U.S.- owned companies.|
|1970 Aswan Dam finished The Aswan Dam was completed in Egypt in 1970. The dam is 364 feet high and 121,565 feet long. It dammed the Nile River on Upper Colorado.|
|1970 India Invades Pakistan In December 1970, elections were held in Pakistan. In Eastern Pakistan, the Awami League, led by Mujibur Rahman, won 160 out of 162 seats in the Parliament. The Awami League demanded complete internal autonomy for East Pakistan. Pakistani leader, Ali Bhutto, refused this demand. The Pakistani government resorted to violence to suppress the Awamis, and hundreds of thousands were slaughtered. The Awami leadership fled to India along with millions of refugees and declared the independent state of Bangladesh.|
The Indians gave the declaration full support and helped to equip a guerrilla army. Pakistan reacted by launching a surprise attack on Indian air bases. The attack failed, and India responded with a full-scale attack on East Pakistan, routing the Pakistani army. Pakistan was forced to accept the creation of a separate state of Bangladesh in the former eastern province of Pakistan.
|1971 Communist China Joins UN, Replacing Taiwan On October 25, the U.N. approved the membership of Communist China, thereby replacing Taiwan. For the first time, the United States did not use its veto power to block mainland China's admission. The change in US position came about as the result of a gradual thaw in US– Chinese relations. The US trade embargo was lifted, and a US table tennis team made the first semi-official visit to mainland China in twenty years.|
|1971 Idi Amin Seizes Power in Uganda In January, while the Ugandan President Milton Obote was out of the country, Colonel Idi Amin staged a coup to oust the President. Amin soon began a reign of terror under which hundreds of thousands of Ugandans were killed.|
Apollo Guidance Computer read-only rope memory is launched into space aboard the Apollo 11 mission, which carried American astronauts to the Moon and back. This rope memory was made by hand, and was equivalent to 72 KB of storage. Manufacturing rope memory was laborious and slow, and it could take months to weave a program into the rope memory. If a wire went through one of the circular cores it represented a binary one, and those that went around a core represented a binary zero.
ARPAnet Interface Message Processor (IMP)
Rock 'n' Roll Timeline 1960 - 1969
The 1960s gave the rock world The Beatles, The Beach Boys, The Rolling Stones, the British invasion, surf music, folk rock, funk, soul, psychedelic music and ended with Woodstock. The war in Vietnam, racial strife, political assasinations, the peace/hippie movement, communes, and recrenational drugs fueled the music scene.
- Singer/songwriter Jesse Belvin dies in a car crash following a concert in February. Two months later Eddie Cochran dies at 21 in a car crash while on tour in England with Gene Vincent.
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Rock, Rap, R&B, Blues, Country, and more music lists,
Click "Main Music Page".
Drought and war
1969 - Muhammad Siad Barre assumes power in coup after Shermarke is assassinated.
1970 - Barre declares Somalia a socialist state and nationalises most of the economy.
1974 - Somalia joins the Arab League.
1974-75 - Severe drought causes widespread starvation.
1977 - Somalia invades the Somali-inhabited Ogaden region of Ethiopia.
1978 - Somali forces pushed out of Ogaden with the help of Soviet advisers and Cuban troops. Barre expels Soviet advisers and gains support of United States.
1981 - Opposition to Barre's regime begins to emerge after he excludes members of the Mijertyn and Isaq clans from government positions, which are filled with people from his own Marehan clan.
1988 - Peace accord with Ethiopia.
1991 - Mohamed Siad Barre is ousted. Power struggle between clan warlords kills or wounds thousands of civilians.
Other computer events in 1969
The Unibus is developed by Gordon Bell and Harold MacFarland at Carnegie Mellon University.
The Computer Terminal Corporation began shipping the DataPoint 3300 which was the first computer terminal meant to replace the teleprinter.
The first artificial heart was placed into Haskell Carp on April 4, 1969, for 64 hours until a donor's heart became available.
Steve Crocker released RFC #1 on April 7, 1969, introducing the Host-to-Host and talking about the IMP software.
At 20:18 UTC on July 21, 1969, the Apollo 11 spacecraft landed on the moon, and Neil Armstrong became the first human to walk on the moon.
Ralph Baer filed for a US patent on August 21, 1969, that describes playing games on a television and would later be a part of the Magnavox Odyssey.
The first U.S. bank ATM went into service at 9:00 A.M. on September 2, 1969.
CompuServe, the first commercial online service, was established in 1969.
Charles Sie publishes a dissertation at Iowa State University where he described and demonstrated PRAM (Phase-change memory). Although PRAM has still never been commercially practical, it is still being developed at companies like Samsung.
The field of quantum computing was first proposed in 1969.
The Dream of Flight Timeline of Flight
English King Bladud is apparently killed attempting to fly.
Archytas of Tarentum is reported to have made a steam-propelled pigeon.
Roger Bacon, English cleric, writes about mechanical flight.
Leonardo da Vinci designs flying machines and parachute.
Francesco de Lana Terzi publishes a design for lighter-than-air ship.
Giovanni Borelli, Italian mathematician, concludes human muscle is inadequate for flight.
Bartolomeu Laurenço de Gusmao designs model glider.
Jean François Pilâtre de Rozier and Marquis d'Arlandes make the first free aerial voyage in a Montgolfier hot-air balloon
Jacques Alexandre César Charles and M.N. Robert fly in a hydrogen balloon..
Jean-Pierre Blanchard and John Jeffries cross the English Channel by balloon.
Jean François de Rozier and Pierre Romain are the first ballooning fatalities.
André Jacques Garnerin makes the first human parachute descent, from a balloon.
George Cayley publishes classic treatise on aviation.
William Henson's design for aerial steam carriage is published.
George Cayley's biplane design is published.
Henri Giffard's steam-powered airship makes first flight.
Alphonse Pénaud experiments with twisted rubber to power model helicopter.
Otto Lilienthal publishes Der Vogelflug als Grunlage der Fliegekunst.
Otto Lilienthal begins successful gliding experiments.
Otto Lilienthal flies biplane gliders.
James Means. The Problem of Manflight. Boston, Massachusetts: W.B. Clark & Co., 1894. (111)
Octave Chanute begins biplane gliding experiments in Michigan.
Samuel P. Langley produces successful steam-powered models that fly.
Otto Lilienthal crashes while gliding and dies next day.
Alberto Santos-Dumont, Brazilian aviator, circles Eiffel Tower in airship.
Samuel Langley's full-size manned &ldquoAerodrome A&rdquo crashes on take-off.
Orville and Wilbur Wright make first powered, sustained, and controlled flight in a heavier-than-air flying machine.
Alberto Santos-Dumont makes first successful powered flight in Europe.
Louis Bleriot, French aviator, makes first airplane crossing of English Channel.
Robert H. Goddard makes first free flight of a liquid-fueled rocket.
Charles A. Lindbergh completes first solo, nonstop trans-Atlantic flight.
Frank Whittle, British inventor, invents the jet engine.
Amelia Earhart is the first woman to fly a solo non-stop trans-Atlantic flight.
A modern airliner, Boeing 247, flies for the first time.
Germany's Heinkel 178 is the first fully jet-propelled aircraft to fly.
Charles E. Yeager pilots Bell X-1&mdashthe first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound in level flight.
Soviet Union launches first man-made earth satellite, Sputnik 1.
Soviet cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, is the first man in space.
John H. Glenn, Jr., is the first American to orbit the earth.
U.S. astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., are the first to walk on the moon.
First space station, Soviet Salyut 1, is launched into earth's orbit.
U.S. launches the first reusable spacecraft, the Columbia shuttle.
First two modules of the International Space Station are launched and joined together in orbit.
First crew arrives to take up residence in the International Space Station.
African National Congress Timeline 1960-1969
This period began with the intensification of the anti-pass campaign, which resulted in the banning of the ANC and the PAC following the Sharpeville Massacre. In response to the banning, the parties were forced to set up underground structures and networks to continue with their political activities. The period also saw the continuation of the 1956 Treason Trial to its conclusion in 1961. That same year, the ANC and SACP jointly set up uMkhonto we Sizwe (MK) to engage in the armed struggle.
A number of high profile arrests – such as those of members of the MK High Command at Liliesleaf Farm which led to the Rivonia Trial, and other prominent MK operatives in the Little Rivonia trial – severely crippled the armed struggle. In addition, the ANC worked on establishing itself in exile, working closely with countries and individuals who were sympathetic to the anti-apartheid cause. Towards the end of the decade, the ANC held the Morogoro Consultative Conference and adopted the ‘Strategy and Tactics’ document as a way of giving new impetus to the struggle.
Timeline: Major Events of the 1960s
1968 Presidential conventions were held amid protest and violence, with Republican Richard Nixon eventually winning the contest. Meanwhile the youth culture was full of protest against the war and the universities which they attended.
Timeline for Events in 1970-1974– Lists the most important events occurring in the early 1970s. During these years Richard Nixon was President, the country was still in turmoil over Vietnam. Nixon’s presidency was marked by a detente with the Soviet Union, an opening up of diplomatic relations with China. As well the Nixon implemented a Vietnamization of the War in Vietnam, bringing American soldiers home.
These positives were marred by presidential scandal in 1972, when Five men were arrested on June 17, 1972 trying to bug the offices of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate hotel and office complex. It was soon discovered the that the burglary had ties to the White House. Eventually this lead to the President’s own involvement. Articles for Nixon’s impeachment were voted on in 1974, and after the release of the “smoking gun” tape, Nixon decided to resign from the Presidency, the first to do so on August 9, 1974 at noon.
Watergate Timeline – This is a detailed timeline of the events of the Watergate crisis from the Washington Post’s 25th anniversary site.
The Sixties: A Journey Through Politics and Culture.
Web design and content by Bonnie K. Goodman, BA, MLIS
Liberation history Timeline 1960-1969
The 1960s witnessed the banning of both the ANC and the PAC in the aftermath of the Sharpeville Massacre. In response to the banning, both parties were forced to establish underground structures to continue the struggle. The PAC launched its armed wing Poqo while the ANC, working closely with SACP, jointly set up uMkhonto we Sizwe (MK). Several members of the ANC, SACP and PAC skipped the country and went into exile where they established offices, military training bases and camps.
In South Africa, the government passed a series of security laws which enabled it to arrest, detain and imprison political activists. Both the PAC and ANC were severely crippled by the arrest, detention and imprisonment of their leaders and members. For instance, the early Poqo Trials, Rivonia trial, the Little Rivonia and Bram Fisher trials, among others, affected the PAC and the ANC. Attempts to bring the PAC and ANC together by forming a united front failed. In exile, the Anti Apartheid Movement sprang up in Britain, Holland, Sweden and other countries and put pressure on the South African government to dismantle apartheid. With the liberation movements severely crippled inside the country, the formation of SASO had an impact that spun into the following decade, the 1970s.
The 'Track the History Timeline' documents the history of the separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families, a history known as 'The Stolen Generations'. It details the history of the forcible removal of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families, recognises the individuals and groups that supported the Indigenous rights movement and acknowledges the achievements of Indigenous peoples throughout this history. Information is primarily taken from the findings of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families.
*This timeline is a support to 'The Stolen Generations' teachers resource for the years 9 and 10 National Curriculum History.
45 000 years ago
Rock engravings in South Australia suggest evidence of land inhabitancy.
James Cook claims possession of the whole east coast of Australia. Cook raises the British flag at Possession Island, off Cape York Peninsula in Queensland.
The First Fleet lands in Port Jackson – British settlement in Australia begins. Clashes between Aboriginal people and the settlers are reported over the next 10 years in the Parramatta and Hawkesbury areas.
Tasmanian Aboriginal people are resettled on Flinders Island without success. Later, the community is moved to Cape Barren Island.
British Select Committee examines the treatment of Indigenous people in all British colonies and recommends that 'Protectors of Aborigines' be appointed in Australia.
The Aborigines Protection Act (Vic) establishes an Aborigines Protection Board in Victoria to manage the interests of Aborigines. The Governor can order the removal of any child from their family to a reformatory or industrial school.
The Aboriginal Protection and Restriction of the Sale of Opium Act (Qld) allows the Chief Protector to remove local Aboriginal people onto and between reserves and hold children in dormitories. Until 1965 the Director of Native Welfare is the legal guardian of all 'aboriginal' children whether their parents are living or not.
Australia becomes a Federation. The Constitution states that Aboriginal People will not be counted in the census, and that the Commonwealth has the power to make laws relating to any race of people In Australia with the exception of Aborigines. The federated states therefore retain exclusive power over Aboriginal affairs until the Constitution is amended in 1967.
The Aborigines Act (WA) is passed. Under this law, the Chief Protector is made the legal guardian of every Aboriginal and 'half-caste' child under 16 years old. In the following years, other states and territories enact similar laws.
- Bringing them home – Appendix 5: Western Australia. Laws applying specifically to Aboriginal children: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/stolen/stolen68.html
- Some information on one of the NT Chief Protectors: http://www.abc.net.au/100years/EP4_3.htm
The Aborigines Protection Act (NSW) gives the Aborigines Protection Board power to assume full control and custody of the child of any Aborigine if a court found the child to be neglected under the Neglected Children and Juvenile Offenders Act 1905 (NSW).
The Aborigines Act (SA) makes the Chief Protector the legal guardian of every Aboriginal and `half-caste' child with additional wide-ranging powers to remove Indigenous people to and from reserves.
The Northern Territory Aboriginals Ordinance (Cth) gives the Chief Protector to assume `the care, custody or control of any Aboriginal or half caste if in his opinion it is necessary or desirable in the interests of the Aboriginal or half caste for him to do so'. The Aborigines Ordinance 1918 (Cth) extends the Chief Protector’s control even further.
The Aborigines Protection Amending Act (NSW) gives power to the Aboriginal Protection Board to separate Indigenous children from their families without having to establish in court that they were neglected.
The introduction of the Infants Welfare Act (Tas) is used to remove Indigenous children on Cape Barren Island from their families. From 1928 until 1980 the head teacher on Cape Barren is appointed as a special constable with the powers and responsibilities of a police constable, including the power to remove a child for neglect under child welfare legislation.
The first Commonwealth/State conference on 'native welfare' adopts assimilation as the national policy:
"The destiny of the natives of aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in ultimate absorption … with a view to their taking their place in the white community on an equal footing with the whites."
In 1951, at the third Commonwealth/State Conference on 'native welfare', assimilation is affirmed as the aim of 'native welfare' measures.
Australian Aborigines Conference held in Sydney. Meeting on January 26, the 150th Anniversary of NSW, Aborigines mark the 'Day of Mourning'.
- The Resolution from the Australian Aborigines Conference: http://www.abc.net.au/frontier/education/shutstu.htm#1938
- Australian History Reclaims its Indigenous Past: http://www.australiaday.org.au/australia-day/history/1938-the-sesquicen…
The NSW Aborigines Protection Board loses its power to remove Indigenous children. The Board is renamed the Aborigines Welfare Board and is finally abolished in 1969.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is adopted by the newly-formed United Nations, and supported by Australia.
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide is ratified by Australia. It comes into force in 1951.
A national referendum is held to amend the Constitution. Australians confer power on the Commonwealth to make laws for Aboriginal people. Aborigines are included in the census for the first time.
By 1969, all states had repealed the legislation allowing for the removal of Aboriginal children under the policy of ‘protection’. In the following years, Aboriginal and Islander Child Care Agencies (“AICCAs”) are set up to contest removal applications and provide alternatives to the removal of Indigenous children from their families.
Neville Bonner is sworn in as Australia’s first Aboriginal Senator.
The Aboriginal Tent Embassy is pitched outside Parliament House in Canberra to demonstrate for Land Rights.
The Commonwealth Government passes the Racial Discrimination Act 1975
The Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act is passed by Commonwealth Parliament in 1976. It provides for recognition of Aboriginal land ownership, granting land rights to 11, 000 Aboriginal people and enabling other Aboriginal people to lodge a claim for recognition of traditional ownership of their lands.
Link-Up (NSW) Aboriginal Corporation is established. It is followed by Link-Up (Brisbane) in 1984, Link-Up (Darwin) in 1989, Link-Up (Tas) in 1991, Link-Up (Vic) in 1992, Link-Up (SA) in 1999, Link-Up (Alice Springs) in 2000, and Link-Up (WA – seven sites) in 2001. Link-Up provides family tracing, reunion and support for forcibly removed children and their families.
The Aboriginal Child Placement Principle, developed principally due to the efforts of Aboriginal and Islander Child Care Agencies (“AICCAs”) during the 1970s, is incorporated in NT welfare legislation to ensure that Indigenous children are placed with Indigenous families when adoption or fostering is necessary. This is followed in NSW (1987), Victoria (1989), South Australia (1993), Queensland and the ACT (1999), Tasmania (2000) and Western Australia (2006).
Northern Territory elections are held and for the first time voting is compulsory for Aboriginal people.
The Bicentennial of British Settlement in Australia takes place. Thousands of Indigenous people and supporters march through the streets of Sydney to celebrate cultural and physical survival.
The Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation is set up, funded by the Commonwealth Government. Parliament noted that there had not been a formal process of reconciliation to date, 'and that it was most desirable that there be such a reconciliation’ by 2001.
The Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody presents its report to the Commonwealth Government. It finds that of the 99 deaths it investigated, 43 were of people who were separated from their families as children.
The High Court of Australia hands down its landmark decision in Mabo v Queensland. It decides that native title exists over particular kinds of lands – unalienated Crown Lands, national parks and reserves – and that Australia was never terra nullius or empty land.
International Year of Indigenous People.
The Commonwealth Government passes the Native Title Act 1993. This law allows Indigenous people to make land claims under certain situations. Claims cannot be made on freehold land (privately-owned land).
The position of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner is established within the Australian Human Rights Commission. The Commissioner's role is to monitor and report to Commonwealth Parliament on the human rights of Indigenous Australians.
The Going Home Conference in Darwin brings together over 600 Aboriginal people removed as children to discuss common goals of access to archives, compensation, rights to land and social justice.
The High Court hands down its decision in the Wik case. Wik concerned land, which is, or has been, subject to pastoral leases.
The Commission presents Bringing them home, its report on the findings of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families to the Commonwealth Government.
The parliaments and governments of Victoria, Tasmania, ACT, New South Wales, South Australia and Western Australia all issue statements recognising and publicly apologising to the ‘Stolen Generations’.
The Commonwealth Government amends the Native Title Act. This restricts the way in which native title can be claimed.
Federal Parliament passes a motion of ‘deep and sincere regret over the removal of Aboriginal children from their parents’.
Mandatory sentencing in Western Australia and the Northern Territory becomes a national issue. Many call for these laws to be overturned because they have greater impact on Indigenous children than on non-Indigenous children.
- Statement from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commissioner on mandatory sentencing: http://archive.is/cDBpb 2000
The People's Walk for Reconciliation on 28 May occurs in state/territory capitals throughout Australia.
Australia appears before the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. The Committee criticises the Commonwealth Government's inadequate response to recommendations from Bringing them home:
"While noting the efforts by the State party to address the tragedies resulting from the previous policy of removing indigenous children from their families, the Committee remains concerned about the continuing effects of this policy."
The Northern Territory Government repeals its mandatory sentencing laws.
The Northern Territory Government presents a parliamentary motion of apology to people who were removed from their families.
The Social Justice Report 2001 and Native Title Report 2001 are presented to Commonwealth Parliament. Both reports express serious concerns about the nation's progress in achieving the exercise of Indigenous rights.
- Whatever happened to Reconciliation? Speech by Dr William Jonas at the media conference to launch the Social Justice Report 2001 and the Native Title Report 2001: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/news/speeches/site-navigation
- Social Justice Report 2001 – Reconciliation Progress Report: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/social-justice-report-2001-…
National Library of Australia Oral History Project, Many Voices: Reflections on Experience of Indigenous Child Separation published.
The first member of the Stolen Generations is awarded compensation in the NSW Victims Compensation Tribunal for the sexual assault and injuries she suffered after authorities removed her from her family.
As part of the Victorian Government's response to the Bringing them home Report, Victoria establishes a Stolen Generations taskforce.
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner publicly criticises the failure of governments to provide financial and social reparations for members of the Stolen Generation, a national apology, or the appropriate mechanisms for individuals that were forcibly removed to reconnect with their culture.
The Commonwealth Government establishes a memorial to the Stolen Generations at Reconciliation Place in Canberra.
461 ‘Sorry Books’ recording the thoughts of Australians on the unfolding history of the Stolen Generations are inscribed on the Australian Memory of the World Register, part of UNESCO’s programme to protect and promote documentary material with significant historical value.
The National Sorry Day Committee announces that in 2005, Sorry Day will be a ‘National Day of Healing for All Australians’ in an attempt to better engage the non-Indigenous Australian community with the plight of the Stolen Generations.
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) is dismantled by the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission Amendment Act 2005 (Cth) and replaced by a Commonwealth Government appointed advisory board.
Volume two of the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey is released. The report says that 12.3% of the carers of Indigenous children aged 0–17 in Western Australia were forcibly removed from their families. Compared with other Indigenous children, the children of members of the ‘Stolen Generations’ are twice as likely to have emotional and behavioural problems, to be at high risk for hyperactivity, emotional and conduct disorders, and twice as likely to abuse alcohol and drugs.
The first Stolen Generations compensation scheme in Australia is set up in Tasmania by the Stolen Generations of Aboriginal Children Act 2006 (Tas).
The tenth anniversary of the Bringing them home report is recognised around Australia with a number of different events.
The first Stolen Generations compensation case is successful in the Supreme Court of South Australia. The Trevorrow judgment recognised the existence of the policy of removing Aboriginal children from their families and the detrimental long-term effects of that policy on both the removed children and on the wider Aboriginal community. It found that even though the State of South Australia had guardianship powers over Aboriginal children, those powers were formulated for the 'care and protection' of Aboriginal children, and did not extend to removal of children from their natural parents.
The federal government publically apologises to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia for the forced removals of their children throughout history.
Response to Government to the National Apology to the Stolen Generations' by Tom Calma – 13 February 2008.
The Federal Parliament opens for the year with a Welcome to Country, for the first time ever.
The Federal Government establishes the National Congress of Australia’s First Peoples.
The Australian Government formally endorses the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The Declaration specifically recognises that even though everyone is equally entitled to human rights, Indigenous people have not always enjoyed those rights.
The Expert Panel on Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is established. The Panel’s job is to hear from Australians about the best way to recognise indigenous people in our Constitution.
An Act of Recognition Bill is passed through parliament. The Bill demonstrates the Parliament’s commitment to acknowledging Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ unique and special place in our nation’s history.
A 10-year National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan was released. The plan outlines state and federal government priorities in order to close the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander life expectancy gap by 2030.
The Australian Parliament passes the Aboriginal and Torre Strait Islander People’s Recognition Act 2013 with bi-partisan support, which recognises the need to acknowledge Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Australia’s constitution.
The Victorian Government appointed Aboriginal man Andrew Jackomos as Victoria’s first Commissioner for Aboriginal Children and Young People. The appointment of an Aboriginal children’s commission was a result of the Protecting Victoria’s Vulnerable Children’s Inquiry recommentations.
Adnyamathanha man Adam Goodes, an AFL player and community leader, receives the Australian of the Year Award for his “leadership and advocacy in the fight against racism both on the sporting field and within society”
Faith Bandler, a political activist and writer, dies at the age of 96. She was well known for her 10 year campaign leading up to the 1967 Referendum.
For the latest up-to-date information about the status of the recommendations of the report go the Social Justice section of the website at: