Xochipilli Timeline

Xochipilli Timeline

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Film, Fire, and Frank Gehry - the Story of the Hollywood Regional Library

The Frances Howard Goldwyn Library is a unique part of the Los Angeles Public Library system. From books &ndash of course &ndash to movies, newspaper subscriptions, and downloaded music, there is enough knowledge and entertainment in this sleek Frank Gehry-designed building to fill, well, a library.

The current incarnation of the Hollywood Regional Library opened in 1986, after an arson fire destroyed the original structure. The Samuel Goldwyn Foundation built the new library, eliminating entirely the dark and musty quality of old-style libraries, with plenty of light, modern design, and lots of open space, as well as enough book shelves to house 100,000 volumes. There are plenty of airy, comfortable reading spaces, too. Samuel Goldwyn Jr., president of the foundation, wanted above all else &ldquoto excite people to come in and read.&rdquo

The Frances Howard Goldwyn Library in Hollywood hosts regular events open to the community. (Courtesy photo)

The original Hollywood library opened in 1906 in two rented rooms on what was then Prospect Ave. (now Hollywood Boulevard). A project of the Woman&rsquos Club of Hollywood, the library&rsquos first permanent home was built in 1907 by Andrew Carnegie at Ivar and Prospect. The community embraced it so much so that it outgrew its space by 1923, and moved to its present location. After the 1982 fire, only 20,000 of the library&rsquos then-90,000 book collection was salvageable community members, corporations, and other library organizations contributed their own volumes to help fill the shelves.

The Frank Gehry-designed Frances Howard Goldwyn library in Hollywood. (Photo by Gary Leonard)

Today, along with a wide-ranging selection of books on the library shelves, the facility offers an exciting series of programs and special collections which are focused on Hollywood and the local community. The special collections room is filled with books, scripts, and archival collections that directly relate to the film and television industry. Over 2,000 books and film yearbooks include a 1923 edition of the Los Angeles casting directory, The Standard, and a biography of Samuel Goldwyn. A collection of 2,500 scripts, programs, production notes, and working papers are also a key part of the special collection, including television scripts, and even rare silent film screenplays such as the 1924 shooting script from Peter Pan. There are also over 3,500 production file titles from press kits to production stills -- both contemporary and dating back to the silent-film era. Archival collections such as sketches and designs from MGM films, and personal collections of screenplays, scripts and correspondence are also held here, along with posters and lobby cards, theater and dance programs, playbills from LA theater productions from the 1900s to the 1990s. While the entertainment industry has a strong focus, so too, does the Hollywood community itself. Housed in special collections are archival materials for the Chamber of Commerce Hollywood Christmas Parade from 1928 to the present, local papers and correspondence from Hollywood artists and Hollywood Conservatory of Music and Arts founder Gladys Littell, and a rare collection of the early community newspaper Holly Leaves.

Graphic novels available at the Frances Howard Goldwyn Library in Hollywood. (Courtesy photo)

Along with offering a fascinating look at the past, today the library also plays host to a wide variety of programming that expands the scope of its role in the community. In the past year, events have included a costumed dance performance by Danza Azteca Xochipilli accompanied by live wind and percussion instruments, free books, and themed refreshments. During Women&rsquos Heritage Month, a book talk with the Punk Rock Marthas was part of a program which included a children&rsquos drawing session. The library has a strong commitment to children&rsquos programming with such events as a live reading of Tinsel Town: Tall tales of a Ballerina in Hollywood by Story Chicks.

A children's event at the Frances Howard Goldwyn Library in Hollywood. (Courtesy photo)

Upcoming events include presentations of recent films, live poetry readings, and family-focused events. Every Wednesday, the library hosts a STAR story-telling and reading session, with children who attend receiving a free book after three visits to the event. Thursdays are game days, with old favorites like chess, Monopoly or card games. Fridays, tiny tots hear stories and sing songs with the children&rsquos librarians. During the month of June, a timeline of LGBTQIA history in Los Angeles will be displayed and on Saturday, June 2 nd , in celebration of LGBT Heritage Month, the library will screen Tom Hanks&rsquo starrer Philadelphia. A Saturday Family movie screens on June 9 th , and on the 10th, the Expressions LA Poetry Reading Series provides a space to participate in open mic readings as well as listen to poets read. One of the most unique-to-Hollywood programs at the library is a Saturday Shakespeare Table Reading, a perfect activity for all the talent in the entertainment capital. Actors, Shakespeare scholars, and other creatives can put their own spin on the Bard&rsquos plays.

A live dance event at the Frances Howard Goldwyn Library in Hollywood. (Courtesy photo)

Introduction to Ancient Andean Art

The Andes region encompasses the expansive mountain chain that runs nearly 4,500 miles north to south, covering parts of modern-day Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. The pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Andes developed a stunning visual tradition that lasted over 10,000 years before the Spanish invasion of South America in 1532.

One of the most ecologically diverse places in the world, the Andes mountains give way to arid coastlines, fertile mountain valleys, frozen highland peaks that reach as high as 22,000 feet above sea level, and tropical rainforests. These disparate geographical and ecological regions were unified by complex trade networks grounded in reciprocity.

The Andes was home to thousands of cultural groups that spoke different languages and dialects, and who ranged from nomadic hunter-gatherers to sedentary farmers. As such, the artistic traditions of the Andes are highly varied.

Pre-Columbian architects of the dry coastal regions built cities out of adobe, while highland peoples excelled in stone carving to produce architectural complexes that emulated the surrounding mountainous landscape.

Artists crafted objects of both aesthetic and utilitarian purposes from ceramic, stone, wood, bone, gourds, feathers, and cloth. Pre-Columbian Andean peoples developed a broad stylistic vocabulary that rivaled that of other ancient civilizations in both diversity and scope. From the breathtaking naturalism of Moche anthropomorphic ceramics to the geometric abstraction found in Inka textiles, Andean art was anything but static or homogeneous.


While Andean art is perhaps most notable for its diversity, it also possesses many unifying characteristics. Andean artists across the South American continent often endowed their works with a life force or sense of divinity. This translated into a process-oriented artistic practice that privileged an object’s inner substance over its appearance.

Border fragment, Paracas, 4th-3rd century B.C.E., cotton and camelid fiber, 1.43 x 12.7 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Andean art is also characterized by its environmental specificity pre-Columbian art and architecture was intimately tied to the natural environment. Textiles produced by the Paracas culture, for instance, contained vivid depictions of local birds that could be found throughout the desert peninsula.

Hummigbird, Nasca geoglyph, over 300 feet in length, created approximately 2000 years ago (photo: Diego Delso, CC BY-SA 4.0)

The nearby Nazca culture is best known for its monumental earthworks in the shape of various aquatic and terrestrial animals that may have served as pilgrimage routes. The Inkas, on the other hand, produced windowed monuments whose vistas highlighted elements of the adjacent sacred landscape. Andean artists referenced, invoked, imitated, and highlighted the natural environment, using materials acquired both locally and through long-distance trade. Andean objects, images, and monuments also commanded human interaction.

A window frames a view of the surrounding mountains, Machu Picchu (photo: Sarahh Scher, CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Worn, touched, held, maneuvered, or ritually burned

Pre-Columbian Andean art was meant to be touched, worn, held, maneuvered, or ritually burned. Elaborately decorated ceramic pots would have been used for storing food and drink for the living or as grave goods to accompany the deceased into the afterlife. Textiles painstakingly embroidered or woven with intricate designs would have been worn by the living, wrapped around mummies, or burned as sacrifices to the gods. Decorative objects made from copper, silver, or gold adorned the bodies of rulers and elites. In other words, Andean art often possessed both an aesthetic and a functional component — the concept of “art for art’s sake” had little applicability in the pre-Columbian Andes. This is not to imply that art was not appreciated for its beauty, but rather that the process of experiencing art went beyond merely viewing it.

Mantle, created to wrap a mummified body (“ The Paracas Textile“ ), Nasca, 100-300 C.E., cotton, camelid fiber, 148 x 62.2 cm (Brooklyn Museum)

Detail, Mantle, created to wrap a mummified body (“The Paracas Textile”), Nasca, 100-300 C.E., cotton, camelid fiber, 148 x 62.2 cm (Brooklyn Museum)

The supernatural

A bead from a necklace buried with the Old Lord of Sipán, 300-390 C.E., gold, 3 × 5.2 × 4.5 × 8.3 cm (photo: Sarahh Scher, CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

At the same time that Andean art commanded human interaction, it also resonated with the supernatural realm. Some works were never seen or used by the living. Mortuary art, for instance, was essentially created only to be buried in the ground.

The magnificent ceramics and metalwork found at the grave of the Lord of Sipán on Peru’s north coast required a tremendous output of labor, yet were never intended for living beings. The notion of “hidden” art was a convention found throughout the pre-Columbian world. In Mesoamerica, for instance, burying objects in ritual caches to venerate the earth gods was practiced from the Olmec to the Aztec civilizations.

Works of art associated with particular rituals, on the other hand, were often burned or broken in order to “release” the object’s spiritual essence. Earthworks and architectural complexes best viewed from high above would have only been “seen” from the privileged vantage point of supernatural beings. Indeed, it is only with the advent of modern technology such as aerial photography and Google Earth that we are able to view earthworks such as the Nazca lines from a “supernatural” perspective.

Art was often conceived within a dualistic context, produced for both human and divine audiences. The pre-Columbian Andean artistic traditions covered here comprise only a sampling of South America’s rich visual heritage. Nevertheless, it will provide readers with a broad understanding of the major cultures, monuments, and artworks of the Andes as well as the principal themes and critical issues associated with them.

Additional resources:

Elizabeth Hill Boone, ed., Andean Art at Dumbarton Oaks (Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1996)

Sarahh Scher and Billie J. A. Follensbee, eds., Dressing the Part: Power, Dress, Gender, and Representation in the Pre-Columbian Americas (University Press of Florida, 2017)

Rebecca Stone. Art of the Andes: from Chavín to Inca (Thames & Hudson 2012)

Currency Spotlight: Mexican Peso

Today we’re shining a light on the currency used in Mexico – the peso. As the third most traded currency in the Americas, understanding the peso is important, especially considering the amount of trips to Mexico that Canadian’s take!

Want to learn more about Mexico?

Fast Facts: Mexican Peso

  • Peso Symbol: $
  • Mexican Currency Code: MXN
  • Coins: 50¢, $1, $2, $5, $10 – rare (5¢, 10¢, 20¢, $20)
  • Banknotes: $20, $50, $100, $200, $500 – rare ($1000)
  • Mexican GDP (nominal): US$1.2876 trillion (15th)
  • Central Bank:Bank of Mexico

History: Currency Used in Mexico

The peso (weight in English) was first used in Mexico during the period of Spanish colonial rule, when eight-real coins were issued. These ‘pieces of eight’ were well known across the world during the height of the Spanish Empire and are commonly featured as the object of pirates’ lust in popular culture.

Following Mexico’s independence in 1821, the peso continued to be used with the piece of eight remaining the largest coin. Paper money was also introduced, and soon the peso was divided into centavos (cents) for even smaller coins. Both the gold and silver content of the coins was reduced starting near the beginning of the 20th century.

The peso and the Mexican economy stayed relatively stable throughout most of the 1900’s. However, the late 70’s brought a crippling oil crisis and would later cause Mexico to default on their debt. In response to this, the government introduced the nuevo peso in 1993. To counter the high inflation, the new peso was worth 1000x the previous iteration.

In 1996, the ‘nuevo’ was dropped from the name and the currency was once more referred to simply as the peso. It kept the same currency code while coins and banknotes were more or less identical except for the name. Today, the peso is one of the most traded currencies in the world, behind only the US dollar and Canadian dollar in this hemisphere.

Peso Notes and Coins

Various series of banknotes have been issued in Mexico since independence. Today, the relevant ones are series D and series F. Series D was introduced in 1996 and is essentially the same as series C but with some small changes to the text (such as dropping the ‘nuevo’). Famous Mexicans are featured on the front, including general Ignacio Zaragoza (who defeated French forces at the Battle of Puebla), Nezahualcoyotl (a philosopher and ruler from pre-Columbian times), José María Morelos (one of the leaders of the independence movement against the Spanish), among others. The reverse generally features Mexican landmarks, places, or objects such as Puebla Cathedral, the Aztec god Xochipilli, and many more. In 2006, a new series of notes was introduced under the moniker ‘series F’ (don’t ask what happened to ‘E’). The portraits were mostly the same except for painter Diego Rivera replacing Ignacio Zaragoza on the $500 bill. The back of the notes, on the other hand, featured completely new designs ranging from the central plaza of Tenochtitlan to the aqueduct of Morelia.

In Mexico, like much of the world, coins were initially used much more extensively than notes. Today, all coins feature the state title and coat of arms on the front while depicting various famous people or designs on the reverse. Small (under 50¢) and large denomination coins are not popular and are rarely seen.

Value: MXN to USD

Since the late 1990’s, the MXN has generally floated between 9-15 MXN to 1 USD. In the last 10 years, the highest value the MXN reached relative to the USD was 9.946 to 1. The Global Financial Crisis in 2008 hurt the Mexican economy and currency greatly, and the value of the MXN has still not returned to pre-crisis levels. The value did increase from 15:1 lows in 2008 and stayed generally around the 11.5-14 to 1 mark between 2009 and 2014. Recently, the strong USD and other domestic and international economic conditions have seen the MXN hit all time relative lows. The MXN then fell to 15.65 to 1 USD on March 10, 2015.

Mexican Economy

Since the crisis and introduction of the nuevo peso in the mid 90’s, the Mexican economy had been one of the most stable and fastest growing in Latin America. However, the Global Financial Crisis hit the country hard, with GDP contracting over 6%.

Tourism is a huge industry in Mexico and the service sector overall constitutes about 70% of the Mexican economy. In addition, the banking system and stock market are also strong, though the former is heavily reliant on foreign investment.

Mexico’s industrial sector is responsible for about 25% of GDP but almost 50% of export revenue. Electronics, vehicle manufacturing (especially among Detroit’s ‘big three’), and oil (Mexico is the 6th largest producer in the world) make up some of the major components of Mexican industry. Lastly, though agriculture has a rich history in Mexico, it is worth less than 4% of the country’s GDP and continues to decline.

Though the Mexican economy is large, there are persistent, unresolved issues. High poverty levels and income disparity are some of the most important. The income gap is one of the largest in the region though there are signs that this is slowly improving. The Mexican Drug War continues to impact the economy especially in border regions and other trafficking corridors – in addition to having an effect on tourism.

Final Thoughts

The Mexican peso and economy are among the most important in the Americas and that doesn’t look to be changing anytime soon. However, even with the relative growth since the 90’s, there are many problems throughout the country – from drug violence to the large income gap. Despite this, Mexico has a bright culture and remains one of the world’s most popular tourist destinations.

For a broader understanding of Mexican history and culture check out our Country Profile. For information about traveling to Mexico then be sure to follow our Travel Guide.

Stay informed. Stay Current.

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A Timeline History of 20th Century Classical and Electronic Music

The below timeline of contemporary classical music was first inspired from Paul Griffiths' excellent book Modern Music A Concise History, which covers the years 1903 to 1988. I subsequently added many more entries based on various other sources (see links at bottom) and on personal taste (the focus of this timeline is on "innovation", as opposed to popular works, thus many "famous" repertoire works are not listed). The organization of entries within each year is generally Stockhausen's works first, followed by acoustic works, acoustic and electronic ensembles, tape/electronic works, performance art, and finally "miscellaneous".

Griffiths' more recent book Modern Music and After, 3rd Edition (also superb) lists additional works going up to 2010. Since I personally am not as familiar with the more recent era, from 1988 to 2010 the listing at this point includes all of the works cited in Griffiths' book "unedited" (comments and probably some editing added as I become more familiar with these works). An initial version of this timeline didn't include some of the more obscure electronic music pioneers, so now it has been updated to include all of the works cited in David Dunn's brilliant essay History of Electronic Music Pioneers (which unfortunately only covers up to 1970). Again, not an expert here myself on this field, but worth listing for further exploration in the future (an earlier version of this timeline without the electronic music entries can be found here). In any case, this is a "work in progress".

More detail on the works of Karlheinz Stockhausen (who I do know pretty well) can be found here.

To look for a specific year, composer, or work, use "CTRL-F" (find) and "CTRL-G" (find next) to fast navigate. Also, every entry is formatted so that you can highlight a composer/work and right click on it to open a menu which will allow you to do a quick Google/Bing search (taking you to a YouTube clip, Wikipedia entry, etc. ).

‘Filth Deity’

The name ‘Tlazolteotl’ may be translated to mean ‘Filth Deity’, and this goddess was also known as Ixcuina or Tlaelquani. As her name indicates, Tlazolteotl was a goddess of filth, which may be seen in her four guises, each associated with a particular stage of life.

In her first guise, which corresponds to the goddess as a young woman, Tlazolteotl was a carefree temptress. As she grew older, Tlazolteotl acquired her second aspect as a goddess of gambling and uncertainty. In her middle age, Tlazolteotl took on the guise of a goddess who had the power to absorb the sins of human beings. Finally, in her old age, Tlazolteotl was a hag who preyed on youths.

Tlazolteotl is known to inspire immoral behavior in people, causing them to engage in illicit sexual acts. Nevertheless, she was also capable of forgiving those who committed the acts. It has been pointed out that adultery was punishable by death in Aztec society, though the offender could escape this fate by confessing their sins to the goddess. It may be added, however, that such confessions worked only once in a person’s lifetime, so people would try to put it off as long as they could.


Cuauhtemoc's date of birth is unknown, as he does not enter the historical record until he became emperor. [1] He was the eldest legitimate son of Emperor Ahuitzotl [2] and may well have attended the last New Fire ceremony, marking the beginning of a new 52-year cycle in the Aztec calendar. [3] According to several sources his mother, Tiyacapantzin, was a Tlatelolcan princess. [4] Like the rest of Cuauhtemoc's early biography, that is inferred from knowledge of his age, and the likely events and life path of someone of his rank. [5] Following education in the calmecac, the school for elite boys, and then his military service, he was named ruler of Tlatelolco, with the title cuauhtlatoani ("eagle ruler") [6] in 1515. [7] To have reached this position of rulership, Cuauhtemoc had to be a male of high birth and a warrior who had captured enemies for sacrifice. [8]

When Cuauhtemoc was elected tlatoani in 1520, Tenochtitlan had already been rocked by the invasion of the Spanish and their indigenous allies, the death of Moctezuma II, and the death of Moctezuma's brother Cuitlahuac, who succeeded him as ruler, but died of smallpox shortly afterwards. In keeping with traditional practice, the most able candidate among the high noblemen was chosen by vote of the highest noblemen, and Cuauhtemoc assumed the rulership. [9] Although under Cuitlahuac Tenochtitlan began mounting a defense against the invaders, it was increasingly isolated militarily and largely faced the crisis alone, as the numbers of Spanish allies increased with the desertion of many polities previously under its control. [6]

Cuauhtémoc called for reinforcements from the countryside to aid the defense of Tenochtitlán, after eighty days of warfare against the Spanish. Of all the Nahuas, only Tlatelolcas remained loyal, and the surviving Tenochcas looked for refuge in Tlatelolco, where even women took part in the battle. Cuauhtémoc was captured on August 13, 1521, while fleeing Tenochtitlán by crossing Lake Texcoco with his wife, family, and friends.

He surrendered to Hernán Cortés along with the surviving pipiltin (nobles) and, according to Spanish sources, he asked Cortés to take his knife and "strike me dead immediately". [10] : 395–396,401–404 According to the same Spanish accounts, Cortés refused the offer and treated his foe magnanimously. "You have defended your capital like a brave warrior," he declared. "A Spaniard knows how to respect valor, even in an enemy." [11]

At Cuauhtémoc's request, Cortés also allowed the defeated Mexica to depart the city unmolested. Subsequently, however, when the booty found did not measure up to the Spaniards' expectations, [12] Cuauhtémoc was subjected to "torture by fire", whereby the soles of his bare feet were slowly broiled over red-hot coals, in an unsuccessful attempt to discover its whereabouts. [13] On the statue to Cuauhtemoc, on the Paseo de la Reforma in Mexico City, there is a bas relief showing the Spaniards' torture of the emperor. [14] Eventually, some gold was recovered but far less than Cortés and his men expected.

Cuauhtémoc, now baptized as Fernando Cuauhtémotzín, continued to hold his position under the Spanish, keeping the title of tlatoani, but he was no longer the sovereign ruler. [6] He ordered the construction of a renaissance-style two-storied stone palace in Tlatelolco, in which he settled after the destruction of Tenochtitlan the building survived and was known as the Tecpan or palace. [ citation needed ]

In 1525, Cortés took Cuauhtémoc and several other indigenous nobles on his expedition to Honduras, as he feared that Cuauhtémoc could have led an insurrection in his absence. [15] While the expedition was stopped in the Chontal Maya capital of Itzamkanac, known as Acalan in Nahuatl, Cortés had Cuauhtémoc executed for allegedly conspiring to kill him and the other Spaniards.

There are a number of discrepancies in the various accounts of the event. According to Cortés himself, on 27 February 1525, he learned from a citizen of Tenochtitlan, Mexicalcingo, that Cuauhtémoc, Coanacoch (the ruler of Texcoco), and Tetlepanquetzal, the ruler of Tlacopan, were plotting his death. Cortés interrogated them until each confessed and then had Cuauhtémoc, Tetlepanquetzal, and another lord, Tlacatlec, hanged. Cortés wrote that the other lords would be too frightened to plot against him again, as they believed he had uncovered the plan through magic powers. Cortés's account is supported by the historian Francisco López de Gómara. [16]

According to Bernal Díaz del Castillo, a conquistador serving under Cortés who recorded his experiences in his book The True History of the Conquest of New Spain, the supposed plot was revealed by two men, named Tapia and Juan Velásquez. Díaz portrays the executions as unjust and based on no evidence, and he admits to having liked Cuauhtémoc personally. He also records Cuauhtémoc giving the following speech to Cortés through his interpreter Malinche:

Oh Malinzin [i.e., Cortés]! Now I understand your false promises and the kind of death you have had in store for me. For you are killing me unjustly. May God demand justice from you, as it was taken from me when I entrusted myself to you in my city of Mexico!

Díaz wrote that afterwards, Cortés suffered from insomnia because of guilt and badly injured himself while he was wandering at night. [17]

Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl, a castizo historian and descendant of Coanacoch, wrote an account of the executions in the 17th century partly based on Texcocan oral tradition. [15] According to Ixtlilxóchitl, the three lords were joking cheerfully with one another because of a rumor that Cortés had decided to return the expedition to Mexico, when Cortés asked a spy to tell him what they were talking about. The spy reported honestly, but Cortés invented the plot himself. Cuauhtémoc, Coanacoch, and Tetlepanquetzal were hanged as well as eight others. However, Cortés cut down Coanacoch, the last to be hanged, after his brother began rallying his warriors. Coanacoch did not have long to enjoy his reprieve, as Ixtlilxóchitl wrote that he died a few days later. [18]

Tlacotzin, Cuauhtémoc's cihuacoatl, was appointed his successor as tlatoani. He died the next year before he could return to Tenochtitlan.

The modern-day town of Ixcateopan in the state of Guerrero is home to an ossuary purportedly containing Cuauhtémoc's remains. [19] Archeologist Eulalia Guzmán, a "passionate indigenista", excavated the bones in 1949, which were discovered shortly after bones of Cortés, found in Mexico City, had been authenticated by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH). Initially, Mexican scholars congratulated Guzmán, but after a similar examination by scholars at INAH, their authenticity as Cuauhtemoc's was rejected, as the bones in the ossuary belonged to several different persons, several of them seemingly women. The finding caused a public uproar. A panel assembled by Guzmán gave support to the initial contention. The Secretariat of Public Education (SEP) had another panel examine the bones, which gave support to INAH's original finding, but did not report on the finding publicly. [20] [21] A scholarly study of the controversy was published in 2011 and argued that the available data suggests that the grave is an elaborate hoax prepared by a local of Ichcateopan as a way of generating publicity, and that subsequently supported by Mexican nationalists such as Guzman who wished to use the find for political purposes. [22]

As Qataka [ edit | edit source ]

The Timewyrm began as Qataka, a brilliant but amoral inhabitant of the planet Anu. Obsessively fearful of death, and aware of stories of the Time Lords, she sought immortality. She experimented with cybernetics and made several breakthroughs, then began stealing brain tissue. She linked her own brain to a computer to preserve her memories and found she could use this to dominate the minds of those in whom she implanted radio receivers. Qataka's crimes were discovered and she was captured, tried and executed. However, she had uploaded her mind into a cybernetic body built by her slaves. This resembled a giant snake with platinum alloy skin. She fled Anu with her slaves, destroying the planet with a cobalt bomb. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Genesys)

As Ishtar [ edit | edit source ]

Utnapishtim and his followers had already left Anu. He pursued Qataka to the Sol system and fought her. Qataka's slaves died and her ship was destroyed, but her escape pod landed on Earth, where she met Gilgamesh. She read his thoughts, took on the identity of Ishtar, the local goddess of love and war, and tried unsuccessfully to mentally enslave him. She was later found by Dumuzi, the high priest of Ishtar in nearby Kish. She took control of his mind and was soon virtual ruler of the city-state.

Ishtar used her slaves to put copper plating around the walls of Kish. This would turn the city into a giant radio transmitter, allowing her to take control of every mind in the region before taking over Earth. Utnapishtim uploaded a computer virus into her, unaware she had programmed a cobalt bomb to detonate on her death, destroying the planet.

The Seventh Doctor disarmed the bomb by linking her computer systems to the telepathic circuits of his TARDIS. This let Ishtar upload her consciousness into the TARDIS and she tried to take control of the ship. The Doctor jettisoned Ishtar and a piece of his TARDIS into the Time Vortex, hoping to destroy her, but she survived in the Vortex, combining her mind with the power of the secondary console room that he had ejected. The Doctor had helped create the Timewyrm by allowing the fusion of the Time Lord technology with the mind of Qataka. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Genesys)

As the Timewyrm [ edit | edit source ]

The Timewyrm escaped Earth, which she decided to destroy to spite the Doctor. Looking for a suitable host, she chose Adolf Hitler, but did not count on his mind's strength and was trapped. The Doctor and Ace, having been to an alternate timeline in which Hitler used the power of the Timewyrm to win World War II, tracked the entity to Dunkirk and banished it from Hitler's mind by convincing Hitler that he didn't need it, scattering it throughout time and space. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Exodus)

The greatly weakened Timewyrm decided to travel back into the Doctor's personal timeline and strike when he was at his weakest: arriving at a point just after his first regeneration, subsequently hiding in his mind. During the Second Doctor's visit to the Panjistri homeworld in the far future, she found a suitable host in Lilith and transferred herself into her. She used most of her power extending her host's lifespan the five thousand years it took the Panjistri to complete the God Machine, which she planned to use to conquer time and space. However, when Raphael merged with the God Machine, the resulting entity banished the Timewyrm. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Apocalypse)

The Timewyrm used Chad Boyle and Anthony Rupert Hemmings as agents in a struggle on 20 December 1992. It took place simultaneously on the Moon (where she had transported St Christopher's Church from Cheldon Bonniface) and the Doctor's own mind, the Timewyrm having planted a seed of itself in his subconscious during their initial confrontation. Aware of this, the Doctor had intended to crush the Timewyrm, but when Ace was trapped in his mind as well, the Doctor took the TARDIS into the real-world/imagination interface to confront it directly. At the end of the battle, he banished the Timewyrm's power into dormancy and erased its memories. Its 'essence', however, was implanted in the mind of a baby (who had no upper brain functions before the transfer, having been a genetically-engineered infant intended to be used for disease research in the future). He gave the baby to Emily and Peter Hutchings, who lived in Cheldon Bonniface and asked they name her Ishtar. (PROSE: Timewyrm: Revelation)

According to another account, after this, the Timewyrm cast off its physical form and existed purely in Puterspace. Using Bernice Summerfield and Ace, the Doctor sent them to cause time distortion in 1981 and the 57th century, drawing the Timewyrm out to feed on the interference with the Web of Time. While it thought it trapped the Doctor in Puterspace and planned to feed on time, the Doctor revealed that his earlier attempt to destroy her using an object he spent centuries constructing had actually altered her nature. Noting that the time stream was in flux, she returned to Puterspace, no longer able to manifest in the real universe. (COMIC: The Last Word)

The Doctor later suggested that the Miracle, a breach between N-Space and a fictional sub-dimension, was caused by the Timewyrm, though in truth he knew it was created by Kadiatu Lethbridge-Stewart's time travel. (PROSE: Head Games)

As Ishtar Hutchings [ edit | edit source ]

On 24 April 2010, Ishtar met Chris Cwej at Benny's wedding in Cheldon Bonniface, had a dalliance with him and bore his child, Jasmine Surprise Cwej-Hutchings. The Doctor briefly reactivated Ishtar's powers as the Timewyrm when his old friend, the Brigadier, was killed before his allotted time. Ishtar's temporal blast not only eliminated the Master's minions, but restored the Brigadier to life and youth as well. (PROSE: Happy Endings)

Mexican Flag History

In the early 1300s, so the story goes, the wandering tribe of Mexica people were looking for a home. Persecuted and cast out from other nations, they believed that their god, Huitzilopochtli, would show them a sign - to guide them to their new settlement. The Mexica people (who would become part of the mighty Aztec Empire) believed that they would see an eagle perched on a prickly pear cactus, and that's where they would build their new city.

But then Mexican flag history took a strange turn. According to the legend the Mexica people did indeed see the sign - but it was on an unlikely spot. A small, swampy island in the middle of Lake Texcoco.

Just as the Mexican people still are today, the Mexicas were resourceful. They invented the chinampas system, which allowed them to create small garden islands, which would eventually help to dry out the land. As it dried, they built. Causeways were built across the lake to allow access to the island. In 1325, the city of Tenochtitlan was born.

When the Spanish saw this symbol of the empire - an eagle on a cactus, they misinterpreted the red and blue currents coming from the eagle's mouth. Someone thought it was a snake, and the symbolism of the eagle and snake stuck.

Chapter 2 - Revolution

The next chapter of Mexican flag history began in 1810. On September 16, the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and a group of revolutionaries began the fight for the independence of Mexico. Though this first phase of the revolution failed, eventually in 1821 Mexico gained its independence, and in 1824 the Estados Unidos Mexicanos (United Mexican States) were formed.

The flag with red and green, showing the eagle in the middle was first used in 1821, although it looked a little different than the current design.

Chapter 3 - Changes

Throughout Mexican flag history, the design has been changed several times. The current flag came into use on the 16th of September 1968. It was officially confirmed by law on the 24th of February 1984. Generally, throughout the years, there has always been an eagle and there have always been the three colours, green white and red. The ratios have changed, and the coat of arms have also changed numerous times.

The meaning of the colours has also changed. When they were originally adopted in 1821, green stood for independence, white for religion (Roman Catholicism) and red for union (between Americans and Europeans. This union between peoples native to Mexico and Spaniards in Mexico in particular was instrumental in winning the war).

Current meaning

At the end of the Mexican flag history, certain symbols and meanings were agreed upon. The new meanings of the colours are fairly recent: Green is hope, white is unity, and red is the blood of heroes. These meanings are not enforced by law, so they may continue to change.

Today the coat of arms is in the centre of the flag, showing an eagle eating a rattlesnake perched on the nopal (prickly pear) cactus. Underneath is a garland. On the left the garland is green oak, a symbol of strength. On the right is a laurel branch, symbolizing victory.

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The Panteón Civil de Dolores

The Panteón Civil de Dolores is the largest cemetery in Mexico. It takes up an enormous space between the second and third section of Chapultepec Park. Within the grounds, are an endless array of graves, sculptures, carvings, mausoleums, and funerary artefacts. One of the most famous areas is a Rotonda de los Personas Ilustres, literally the “Rotunda of Illustrious Persons,” although any list of famous Mexico City residents buried in the cemetery is quite impressive.

The main entrance is on Avenida Constituyentes and can be reached from Metro Observatorio or Metro Constituyentes.

The history of the site begins with the Civil Reformation in 19th century, when all cemeteries were controlled by the church. Permission to build this one came from the Mexican Government, a first, and was granted to the Benfield, Brecker Company in 1874. The land as part of Benfield’s ranch had been called the Tabla de Dolores, something like “Field of Sorrows,” from which the cemetery took its name. The government purchased the plot in 1879, and since then it has been a public cemetery. No new graves have been assigned since 1975 as space simply ran out.

The Rotonda de los Personas Ilustres is the final resting place for painters and artists, like David Alfaro Siqueiros, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, María Izquierdo, Gerardo Murillo “Dr. Atl” and Juand O’Gorman. There are also some very distinguished musicians like singer and composer Ángela Peralta, Manuel M. Ponce, Agustín Lara, José Pablo Moncayo, and Silvestre Revueltas. Diplomats and poets have their places, among them Ignacio Manuel Altamirano, Rosario Castellanos, Amalia González Caballero, Ramón López Velarde, Jaime Torres Bodet and Emma Godoy. The actresses Virginia Fabregas and Dolores del Río have their places here. And military and political leaders include the now nearly forgotten Pablo Letechípia, the first person to be buried within the Rotunda, and the anarchist Ricardo Flores Magón.

Watch the video: Describing the Duality; Xochiquetzal and Xochipilli (July 2022).


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