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Bunce Island and the Gate of No Return

Bunce Island and the Gate of No Return


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One of the greatest atrocities committed against humanity throughout history was the slave trade which involved the enslavement of millions of men, women, and children. Many monuments have been erected to mark this dark period and one of the most striking is the former slave fort on Bunce Island in Sierra Leone as it once played a major role in the Atlantic slave trade.

The Savagery History of Bunce Island

Bunce Island was first settled by English slave traders in the 1670s who chose the island because of its strategic position. They built a small fort on the island to protect them from their bitter rivals, the Portuguese.

The Royal African Company controlled the fort and purchased slaves from mainly African middlemen. Although the initial settlement was not successful, it was an important symbol of British power in this part of Africa and was rebuilt several times after attacks by the French, as well as pirates.

When local Africans involved in the slave trade attacked the island in the 1740s, the British withdrew from Bunce Island. The slave trade, however, was very lucrative and a new British slave company was able to establish a fortified outpost on the island, which eventually became a slave fort. From this period on thousands of slaves were sent to the West Indies and the American colonies where many were eventually sold in Georgia and South Carolina. By the 1790s the island was one of the major slave entrepôts on the coast of West Africa.

A British abolitionist campaign had started in the 1780s. They helped to establish a colony of freed slaves that would become Freetown, the capital of modern Sierra Leone. The slavers from Bunce Island tried to destroy the fledging settlement but failed.

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View of Freetown on the way to Bunce Island, Sierra Leone (Joelle/ CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 )

When the British Parliament banned slavery in 1833, the island went into rapid decline and was abandoned a decade later. The fort was forgotten for more than a century. The former slave station became Sierra Leone’s first protected heritage site and the US government has helped to finance its restoration and preservation. Many of the ruins were badly damaged by a hurricane in the 1970s.

Although the island is now uninhabited, many African Americans visit the island every year in order to learn more about their ancestors and their heritage.

The Remains of Bunce Island

The island lies at the mouth of the Rokel River and is not far from the city of Freetown. Bunce Island is small, measuring only 1650 by 350 feet (500 by 100m) and mostly covered with vegetation. The remains of the British fort are situated on the northern side of the island and overlooks the sea.

The entrance to the fort, which is still standing but largely overgrown, is locally known as the ‘gate of no return’. In the center of the fort is Bunce Island House, the headquarters of the British and home to the chief officer who oversaw the slave trade in the region. Originally it was a two-story building, but it is now roofless and parts of it have collapsed.

A cannon bearing the coat of arms of George III ( robertonencini/Adobe Stock)

Near the headquarters is the open-air slave yard. Men and women were kept separate until they were loaded onto slave ships and taken across the Atlantic Ocean.

Some of the fortifications of the old British fort can still be seen such as the original powder magazine and the rampart with eight cannons that bear the coat of arms of King George III. To the south of the fort is a graveyard that has many headstones belonging to slave traders.

Visiting Bunce Castle, Sierra Leone

The island can only be visited as part of a tour group and there are several who organize day trips from Freetown and nearby resorts. Boats dock at the island and tour guides provide information on the dark history of the slave trade. Visitors usually spend an hour or two here.

A museum in Freetown holds many artifacts dating back to Bunce Island’s role in the brutal trade of human beings.


Bunce Island and the Gate of No Return - History

In response to COVID-19, and in the interest of safety, visits by the public to United Nations Headquarters have been suspended until further notice. Meanwhile, the Ark of Return, the Permanent Memorial to Honour the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade at the United Nations, continues to stand as a reminder that the legacies of slavery – including racism and inequality – still affect us all. During these times of physical isolation, the United Nations Remember Slavery Programme invites you to visit the Ark of Return virtually.

The Permanent Memorial was unveiled on 25 March 2015, which marks the International Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade. The memorial, located on the United Nations Visitors Plaza in New York, will invite people everywhere to contemplate the legacy of the slave trade and to fight against racism and prejudice today.

Visitors can pass through the Ark of Return to intimately experience three primary elements. The first element, Acknowledge the Tragedy, is a three-dimensional map that depicts the global scale of the triangular slave trade.

The second element, Consider the Legacy, is a full scale human figure lying in front of a wall inscribed with images of the interior of a slave ship. This element illustrates the extreme conditions under which millions of African people were transported during the Middle Passage.

The third element, Lest We Forget, is a triangular reflecting pool where visitors can honour the memory of the millions of souls who were lost.

In 2007, the United Nations General Assembly agreed to establish a Permanent Memorial in the grounds of the United Nations in New York City to honour the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade.

In 2011, together with UNESCO the Permanent Memorial Committee launched a design competition. The Ark of Return by Haitian-American architect Rodney Leon was chosen among 310 entries from 83 countries.

The project is funded through generous voluntary contributions from Member States, complemented by funding from foundations and private individuals.

Mission Statement

Over four centuries, more than 18 million people were forcefully removed from Africa to the Americas (including the Caribbean) and Europe.

For those who survived the horrific middle passage, thousands of them would later perish as a result of the cruel and inhumane treatment meted out to them and from the appalling conditions in which they had to exist on the plantations.

The Permanent Memorial will serve as a reminder of the legacy of the slave trade. It will provide future generations an understanding of the history and consequences of slavery and serves as an educational tool to raise awareness about the current dangers of racism, prejudice and the lingering consequences that continue to impact the descendants of the victims today.

The Permanent Memorial acknowledges one of the most horrific tragedies of modern history. It is a reminder of the heroic actions of the slaves, abolitionists and unsung heroes who acted in the face of grave danger and adversity.

The Memorial's placement at United Nations Headquarters is a significant symbol of what the world body represents: the promotion and preservation of the dignity and worth of all human beings - principles that are central to its Charter.

Weekly Briefings

Weekly briefings at the Memorial are held every Wednesday from 10:30 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. – except during the annual General Debate of the United Nations General Assembly (mid-September to early October) and the months of December, January and February.

The briefings are free to attend and no advance reservation is needed. Tours begin at the Memorial, in the United Nations Visitors Plaza at 1st Avenue and 46th Street. Visitors are taught about the Memorial and the history of the Transatlantic Slave Trade.

The Remember Slavery Programme, which is managed by the United Nations’ Education Outreach Section, conducted the first briefing on 3 June 2015.

Free group visits of the memorial are available on demand. Please contact [email protected] for information and scheduling.

Visit of official delegation from Senegal’s Gorée Memorial, 28 June 2018

Videos

The Unveiling of the Permanent Memorial "The Ark of Return"

25 March 2015 - The Permanent Memorial "The Ark of Return" honours the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade.

Ark of Return, Unveiling of Permanent Memorial: Save the date

Rodney Leon, Architect and designer of the Permanent Memorial in honour of Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade explains his design.

News and Radio

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  • 24 March 2015: 'UN to unveil permanent memorial in New York honouring victims of transatlantic slave trade'
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  • 23 Sept 2013: Winning design &ldquoThe Ark of Return&rdquo for the Permanent Memorial in Honour of the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade unveiled by UN Secretary-General

Press conferences

25 March 2015: Press conference on the occasion of the unveiling of the Permanent Memorial to honour the victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade


Pequot War

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Pequot War, war fought in 1636–37 by the Pequot people against a coalition of English settlers from the Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and Saybrook colonies and their Native American allies (including the Narragansett and Mohegan) that eliminated the Pequot as an impediment to English colonization of southern New England. It was an especially brutal war and the first sustained conflict between Native Americans and Europeans in northeastern North America.

To best understand the Pequot War, one needs to consider the economic, political, and cultural changes brought about by the arrival of the Dutch on Long Island and in the Connecticut River valley at the beginning of the 17th century and of English traders and settlers in the early 1630s. The world into which they entered was dominated by the Pequot, who had subjugated dozens of other tribes throughout the area during the 1620s and early ’30s in an attempt to control the region’s fur and wampum trade. Through the use of diplomacy, coercion, intermarriage, and warfare, by 1635 the Pequot had exerted their economic, political, and military control over the whole of modern-day Connecticut and eastern Long Island and, in the process, established a confederacy of dozens of tribes in the region.

The struggle for control of the fur and wampum trade in the Connecticut River valley was at the root of the Pequot War. Before the arrival of the English in the early 1630s, the Dutch and Pequot controlled all the region’s trade, but the situation was precarious because of the resentment held by the subservient Native American tribes for their Pequot overlords. When the English entered upon the scene, those other tribes sought alliance with them, shifting the balance of regional power and bringing about conflict as the competition for control of trade heated up anew. Although the immediate impetus for the war is often identified as the killing of English traders, those deaths were the culmination of decades-long conflict between Indian peoples that was exacerbated by the presence of the Dutch and the English.

Among the seminal events was the murder of a trader (John Stone) and his crew on the Connecticut River by the Pequot in early 1634. Although the Pequot provided several explanations for the deaths of Stone and his crew—all of which suggested that the Pequot viewed their actions as justified—the English felt that they could not afford to let any English deaths at the hands of Native Americans go unpunished. As tensions grew, another trader, John Oldham, was found murdered on a ship off Block Island (now part of the state of Rhode Island) in July 1636. That time, the perpetrators were assumed to have been Manisses Indians. Those incidents sparked the military response by the English of Massachusetts Bay that began the Pequot War. In late August the Massachusetts Bay Colony sent a force of about 90 soldiers under the command of Col. John Endecott to Block Island and Pequot territory in southeastern Connecticut in order to exact retribution for the traders’ deaths. After skirmishing with the Manisses and setting fire to villages and cornfields, the expedition sailed to Pequot territory, disembarked along the Thames River, and, failing to incite the Pequot to combat, again burned villages and cornfields. That spurred in turn the Pequot’s successful attack and siege of the fort at Saybrook (September 1636–April 1637), the war’s longest engagement, during which the Pequot destroyed English provisions, set fire to English warehouses, and attacked any settlers who strayed far from the palisade fortress.

The war lasted 11 months and involved thousands of combatants who fought several battles over an area encompassing thousands of square miles. In the first six months of the war, the Pequot, with no firearms, won every engagement against the English. Both sides showed a high degree of sophistication, planning, and ingenuity in adjusting to conditions and enemy countermeasures. While the Pequot War was the first time that the English had confronted Native American battle formations, tactics, and weapons in New England, the Pequot had already encountered European battle formations and methods during a brief war they fought with the Dutch in 1634, as a result of which they had adjusted their tactics to battle the English. In fact, on the eve of the war, the Pequot were a highly effective experienced military force, having honed their combat skills through decades of warfare against their Native American neighbors. Although the English muskets were superior to Pequot bows in terms of range and penetration, the Pequot were able to use the terrain and their mobility to great advantage and employed a number of stratagems to negate the English advantage in firearms. Indeed, the English suffered dozens of casualties in the early stages of the war before they were able to adapt their Old World military experiences to the battlefields of the New World and win decisive engagements.

The turning point in the conflict came when the Connecticut colony declared war on the Pequot on May 1, 1637, following a Pequot attack on the English settlement at Wethersfield—the first time women and children were killed during the war. Capt. John Mason of Windsor was ordered to conduct an offensive war against the Pequot in retaliation for the Wethersfield raid. The most-significant battles of the war then followed, including the Mistick Campaign of May 10–26, 1637 ( Battle of Mistick Fort), during which an expeditionary force of 77 Connecticut soldiers and as many as 250 Native American allies attacked and burned the fortified Pequot village at Mistick. Some 400 Pequot (including an estimated 175 women and children) were killed in less than an hour, half of whom burned to death. Those who tried to escape the burning structure were shot by the English or by their Mohegan and Narragansett allies, who formed a secondary outer ring around the fortress and fired on any Pequot who managed to escape through the English lines. The English estimated that there were only a dozen survivors, seven of whom were taken prisoner. Following the “Mistick Massacre,” the English fought the 10-hour so-called Battle of the English Withdrawal against more than 500 Pequot as they sought to reach the safety of their ships at least 7 miles (11 km) away. The Pequot lost half of their fighting men in those two battles, which led directly to the disintegration and defeat of the Pequot tribe as it fled its homeland following the massacre. In the following months, the English of Connecticut and Massachusetts Bay pursued the fleeing Pequot communities, executing leaders and fighting men and enslaving women and children.

The Battles of Mistick Fort and the English Withdrawal were significant victories for the English, and they led to their complete victory over the Pequot six weeks later at the Swamp Fight in Fairfield, Connecticut—the last battle of the war. The English victories were won by carefully planned and executed attacks led by commanders and officers who had decades of experience in the Thirty Years’ War and were eventually able to translate that experience to the battlefields of the New World. They were a well-trained and experienced core of combat veterans who could make the necessary tactical adjustments in an unfamiliar terrain against a determined and experienced enemy.


Sea Pines Plantation

A portion of Sea Pines' extensive bike path system Matt Benzing

One of the island’s most renowned places to bike is Sea Pines Plantation. There is a fee to enter if you’re not staying in Sea Pines, but once you’re in you have access to 17 miles of some of the island’s most beautiful bike trails. There is also a good deal of shopping and restaurants within Sea Pines gates. For nature lovers, the Sea Pines Forest Preserve is a beautiful expanse of wooded land and wetlands with bike trails that weave through it. The entry fee for Sea Pines is $6 per vehicle plus an additional dollar for every bike you bring in. If you don’t have bikes with you, there are a number of rental options within Sea Pines' gate. Some, like South Beach Bike Rentals, even provide hourly rates. Unfortunately you cannot ride bikes into Sea Pines, so you’ll have to drive them in or rent inside.

You can begin your Sea Pines journey at either Harbor Town or South Beach. Both locations are home to some of Hilton Head’s most iconic attractions: The Lighthouse and The Salty Dog Cafe, respectively. We recommend choosing where you’d like to eat when you’re done with your ride and starting there. That way, after a day of biking you can return to your car, get off your saddle, and unwind with some great food. CQ’s, a delicious upscale restaurant, and Crazy Crab, a Hilton Head seafood classic, are your best bets in Harbor Town. South Beach has Salty Dog Cafe, home to casual seafood and sandwiches Jake’s Pizza, a small pizza parlor and The Wreck, a more upscale seafood restaurant.

You can get bike maps at the gate to Sea Pines and most bike rental companies will have them as well, use these to plan your day of biking. History buffs will enjoy the Stoney-Baynard Ruins – stucco ruins from an old plantation house on the property – as well as the Native American shell ring that can be found in the Forest Preserve. No matter where you start, the Lighthouse is not to be missed there are incredible views from the top. The viewing deck closes shortly before sundown, so plan accordingly.


Frequently Asked Questions

What are the hours of operation?
The hours of operation vary with the season. Departures from San Francisco are available throughout the day beginning at 8:45am. The ferry, operated by Alcatraz City Cruises, runs approximately every thirty to forty minutes to and from Alcatraz. You may return to San Francisco on any ferry. The island closes for the day at 6:30pm in the summer, and 4:30pm in fall, winter and spring. For schedules, prices, and to purchase tickets in advance (recommended) please visit the Alcatraz City Cruises website.

Will the island be open? Are tickets available?
Alcatraz is open 362 days a year! The island is closed only on Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Year's Day, or (rarely) due to extreme weather.

Is there a nighttime program?
The Alcatraz Night Program runs Tuesday-Saturday. This program differs from the day time visits in several ways. Evening visits feature park guide-led tours to the cellhouse, the audio tour, Alcatraz Map & Guide, special programs on a variety of Alcatraz topics, and dramatic evening views of the San Francisco skyline. Some sections of the island open during the day are not open to the public at night. For schedules, prices, and to purchase tickets in advance please visit the Alcatraz City Cruises website.

How's the weather?
The weather on the island can be unpredictable and may change suddenly. It's often chillier on Alcatraz than on the mainland -- we recommend layers! Fog is common in the summer, rain in the winter. Annual temperatures fluctuate between 70-45 degrees F.

Should I purchase tickets in advance?
Advance ticket sales are strongly recommended. Tickets to Alcatraz may sell out several weeks ahead during summer months and around holiday weekends. Tickets can be purchased in advance from Alcatraz City Cruises.

What rules and regulations do I need to follow on Alcatraz?
Some sections of Alcatraz are unsafe to visit. These areas closed to the public are well marked by fences or barricades. Collecting of any sort is prohibited. Plant and animal life are protected by law - do not feed birds on Alcatraz. No food service is available on Alcatraz, however there is a picnic area located at the dock. Food, drinks (including candy and gum) are only allowed on the dock. (An exception is bottled water, which is available in the bookstore on the dock on Alcatraz.) Smoking is only permitted in designated sections of the dock.

Is Alcatraz accessible?
The distance from the dock to the cellhouse at the top of the island is about 1/4 mile, the elevation change is 130 feet (equivalent to a thirteen story climb). Visitors unable to make the climb up Alcatraz's steep road may take advantage of SEAT - Sustainable Easy Access Transport, an electric shuttle which runs once every half hour from the dock to the cellhouse, and once every half hour from the cellhouse to the dock. Other accessibility features include:

  • Tactile Model of Island and Pier 33
  • Accessible Parking at Pier 33
  • Accessible Restroom Facilities
  • Audio Described Tour
  • Assistive Listening Devices
  • Open Captioning
  • Braille Transcript of Cell House Tour
  • An American Sign Language version of the cell house audio tour is available on an individual hand held digital device. This new tour is free, and requires no reservation. Now Deaf visitors can experience the cell house tour in the same way as hearing and blind visitors, with the ability to skip, repeat, or fast forward through segments of the tour.


Are guided tours available?
Interpretive walks and guided programs are offered throughout the day by National Park Rangers and volunteers. These programs are included in the price of your ticket, and include conversations around the Occupation of Alcatraz by the Indians of All Tribes, cell door demonstrations, discussions of Alcatraz's legacy, and more. Program titles and locations are posted on the dock and in the cellhouse.

Are self-guided tours available?
Explore the history of Alcatraz at your own pace with a map and written guide. Pick up the Self Guide brochure in English, Spanish, Italian, Spanish, German or Japanese at the dock for $1.00 per copy. A companion brochure on escapes is available in the bookstore near the dock or in the cellhouse.

What about the Cellhouse recorded Audio Tour?
Join former Alcatraz inmates and correctional officers as they remember life on Alcatraz in this award winning 35-minute recorded tour, included in the price of your ticket to Alcatraz. Pick up the tour inside the Cellhouse. Available in English, Spanish, Italian, German, Japanese, Mandarin, Dutch and French.

What else can I do on Alcatraz?
Attend a 17-minute video presentation of the Island's 200 year history - an excellent introduction to Alcatraz. The theater is 50 yards up the road from the dock. For hearing impaired visitors, the video is open captioned. The video is subtitled in Spanish as well. Several exhibits are located behind the theater. An award winning video (captioned) exhibit, "We Hold the Rock", presents the story of the occupation by Indians of All Tribes (1969-1971). The New Industries Building (former prison workshops, often home to a current art exhibit) is typically open during limited daytime hours.

Can I purchase souvenirs on Alcatraz?
Memorabilia, film, videos, and books about the Island's rich history are available for sale by the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, at the bookstores near the dock and in the cellhouse, and online.


Bunce Island and the Gate of No Return - History

"Evacuees feared and resented the changes forced by life in the centers, particularly the breakdown of family authority. Children unsettlingly found their parents as helpless as they."
- "Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians"

"There were shootings. At Topaz, an elderly evacuee thought to be escaping was killed. At Gila River, a Guard shot and wounded a mentally deranged evacuee. At Tule Lake, after segregation, an evacuee in an altercation with a guard was shot and killed."
- Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians.

August 18, 1941
In a letter to President Roosevelt, Representative John Dingell of Michigan suggests incarcerating 10,000 Hawaiian Japanese Americans as hostages to ensure "good behavior" on the part of Japan.

November 12, 1941
Fifteen Japanese American businessmen and community leaders in Los Angeles Little Tokyo are picked up in an F.B.I. raid. A spokesman for the Central Japanese Association states: "We teach the fundamental principles of America and the high ideals of American democracy. We want to live here in peace and harmony. Our people are 100% loyal to America."

December 7, 1941
The attack on Pearl Harbor. Local authorities and the F.B.I. begin to round up the leadership of the Japanese American communities. Within 48 hours, 1,291 Issei are in custody. These men are held under no formal charges and family members are forbidden from seeing them. Most would spend the war years in enemy alien internment camps run by the Justice Department.

February 19, 1942
President Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066 which allows military authorities to exclude anyone from anywhere without trial or hearings. Though the subject of only limited interest at the time, this order set the stage for the entire forced removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans.

February 25, 1942
The Navy informs Japanese American residents of Terminal Island near Los Angeles Harbor that they must leave in 48 hours. They are the first group to be removed en masse.

February 27, 1942.
Idaho Governor Chase Clark tells a congressional committee in Seattle that Japanese would be welcome in Idaho only if they were in "concentration camps under military guard." Some credit Clark with the conception of what was to become a true scenario.

March 2, 1942
Gen. John L. DeWitt issues Public Proclamation No. 1 which creates Military Areas Nos. 1 and 2. Military Area No. 1 includes the western portion of California, Oregon and Washington, and part of Arizona while Military Area No. 2 includes the rest of these states. The proclamation also hints that people might be excluded from Military Area No. 1.

March 18, 1942
The president signs Executive Order 9102 establishing the War Relocation Authority (WRA) with Milton Eisenhower as director. It is allocated $5.5 million.

March 21, 1942
The first advance groups of Japanese American "volunteers" arrive at Manzanar, CA. The WRA would take over on June 1 and transform it into a "relocation center."

March 24, 1942
The first Civilian Exclusion Order issued by the Army is issued for the Bainbridge Island area near Seattle. The forty-five families there are given one week to prepare. By the end of October, 108 exclusion orders would be issued, and all Japanese Americans in Military Area No. 1 and the California portion of No. 2 would be incarcerated.

March 28, 1942
Minoru Yasui walks into a Portland police station at 11:20 p.m. to present himself for arrest in order to test the curfew regulations in court.

May 1, 1942
Having "voluntarily resettled" in Denver, Nisei journalist James Omura writes a letter to a Washington law firm inquiring about retaining their services to seek legal action against the government for violations of civil and constitutional rights and seeking restitution for economic losses. He was unable to afford the $3,500 fee required to begin proceedings.

May 13, 1942
Forty-five-year-old Ichiro Shimoda, a Los Angeles gardener, is shot to death by guards while trying to escape from Fort Still (Oklahoma) internment camp. The victim was seriously mentally ill, having attempted suicide twice since being picked up on December 7. He is shot despite the guards' knowledge of his mental state.

May 16, 1942
Hikoji Takeuchi, a Nisei, is shot by a guard at Manzanar. The guard claims that he shouted at Takeuchi and that Takeuchi began to run away from him. Takeuchi claims he was collecting scrap lumber and didn't hear the guard shout. His wounds indicate that he was shot in the front. Though seriously injured, he eventually recovered.

May 29, 1942
Largely organized by Quaker leader Clarence E. Pickett, the National Japanese-American Student Relocation Council is formed in Philadelphia with University of Washington Dean Robert W. O'Brien as director. By war's end, 4,300 Nisei would be in college.

June 1942
The movie "Little Tokyo, U.S.A." is released by Twentieth Century Fox. In it, the Japanese American community is portrayed as a "vast army of volunteer spies" and "blind worshippers of their Emperor, " as described in the film's voice-over prologue.

June 17, 1942
Milton Eisenhower resigns as WRA director. Dillon Myer is appointed to replace him.

July, 27 1942
Two Issei -- Brawley, CA farmer Toshiro Kobata and San Pedro fisherman Hirota Isomura -- are shot to death by camp guards at Lourdsburg, New Mexico enemy alien internment camp. The men had allegedly been trying to escape. It would later be reported, however, that upon their arrival to the camp, the men had been too ill to walk from the train station to the camp gate.

August 4, 1942
A routine search for contraband at the Santa Anita "Assembly Center" turns into a "riot." Eager military personnel had become overzealous and abusive which, along with the failure of several attempts to reach the camp's internal security chief, triggers mass unrest, crowd formation, and the harassing of the searchers. Military police with tanks and machine guns quickly end the incident. The "overzealous" military personnel are later replaced.

August 10, 1942 The first inmates arrive at Minidoka, Idaho.

August 12, 1942 The first 292 inmates arrive at Heart Mountain, Wyoming.

August 27, 1942 The first inmates arrive at Granada, or Amache, Colorado.

September 11, 1942 The first inmates arrive at Central Utah, or Topaz.

September 18, 1942 The first inmates arrive at Rohwer, Arkansas.

October 20, 1942
President Roosevelt calls the "relocation centers" "concentration camps" at a press conference. The WRA had consistently denied that the term "concentration camps" accurately described the camps.

November 14, 1942
An attack on a man widely perceived as an informer results in the arrest of two popular inmates at Poston. This incident soon mushrooms into a mass strike.

December 5, 1942
Fred Tayama is attacked and seriously injured by a group of inmates at Manzanar. The arrest of the popular Harry Ueno for the crime triggers a mass uprising.

December 10, 1942
The WRA establishes a prison at Moab, Utah for recalcitrant inmates.

February 1, 1943
The 442nd Regimental Combat Team is activated, made up entirely of Japanese Americans.

April 11, 1943
James Hatsuki Wakasa, a sixty-three-year-old chef, is shot to death by a sentry at Heart Mountain camp while allegedly trying to escape through a fence. It is later determined that Wakasa had been inside the fence and facing the sentry when shot. The sentry would stand a general court-martial on April 28 at Fort Douglas, Utah and be found "not guilty."

April 13, 1943
"A Jap's a Jap. There is no way to determine their loyalty. This coast is too vulnerable. No Jap should come back to this coast except on a permit from my office." Gereral John L. DeWitt, head, Western Defense Command before the House Naval Affairs Subcommittee.

June 21, 1943
The United States Supreme Court rules on the Hirabayashi and Yasui cases, upholding the constitutionality of the curfew and exclusion orders.

September 13, 1943
The realignment of Tule Lake as a camp for "dissenters" begins. After the loyalty questionnaire episode, "loyal" internees begin to depart to other camps. Five days later, "disloyal" internees from other camps begin to arrive at Tule Lake.

November 4, 1943
The Tule Lake uprising caps a month of strife. Tension had been high since the administration had fired 43 coal workers involved in a labor dispute on October 7.

January 14, 1944
Nisei eligibility for the draft is restored. The reaction to this announcement in the camps would be mixed.

January 26, 1944
Spurred by the announcement of the draft a few days before, 300 people attend a public meeting at Heart Mountain camp. Here, the Fair Play Committee is formally organized to support draft resistance.

March 20, 1944
Forty-three Japanese American soldiers are arrested for refusing to participate in combat training at Fort McClellan, Alabama, as a protest of treatment of their families in U.S. camps. Eventually, 106 are arrested for their refusal. Twenty-one are convicted and serve prison time before being paroled in 1946.

May 10, 1944
A Federal Grand Jury issues indictments abgainst 63 Heart Mountain draft resistors. The 63 are found guilty and sentenced to jail terms on June 26. They would be granted a pardon on December 24, 1947.

May 24, 1944
Shoichi James Okamoto is shot to death at Tule Lake by a guard after stopping a construction truck at the main gate for permission to pass. Private Bernard Goe, the guard, would be acquitted after being fined a dollar for "unauthorized use of government property" --a bullet.

June 30, 1944
Jerome becomes the first camp to close when the last inmates are transferred to Rohwer.

July 21, 1944
Seven members of the Heart Mountain Fair Play Committee are arrested, along with journalist James Omura. Their trial for "unlawful conspiracy to counsel, aid and abet violators of the draft" begins on October 23. All but Omura would eventually be found guilty.

October 27-30, 1944
The 442nd Regimental Combat Team rescues an American battalion which had been cut off and surrounded by the enemy. Eight hundred casualties are suffered by the 442nd to rescue 211 men. After this rescue, the 442nd is ordered to keep advancing in the forest they would push ahead without relief or rest until November 9.

December 18, 1944
The Supreme Court decides that Fred Toyosaburo Korematsu was indeed guilty of remaining in a military area contrary to the exclusion order. This case challenged the constitutionality of the entire exclusion process.

January 2, 1945
Restrictions preventing resettlement on the West Coast are removed, although many exceptions continue to exist. A few carefully screened Japanese Americans had returned to the coast in late 1944.

January 8, 1945
The packing shed of the Doi family is burned and dynamited and shots are fired into their home. The family had been the first to return to California from Amache and the first to return to Placer County, having arrived three days earlier. Although several men are arrested and confess to the acts, all would be acquitted. Some 30 similar incidents would greet other Japanese Americans returning to the West Coast between January and June.

May 7, 1945
The surrender of Germany ends the war in Europe.

August 6, 1945
The atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima. Three days later, a second bomb is dropped on Nagasaki. The war in the Pacific would end on August 14.

March 20, 1946
Tule Lake closes, culminating "an incrediblle mass evacuation in reverse." In the month prior to the closing, some 5,000 internees had to be moved, many of whom were elderly, impoverished, or mentally ill and with no place to go.

July 15, 1946
The 442nd Regimental Combat Team is received on the White House lawn by President Truman. "You fought not only the enemy but you fought prejudice -- and you have won," remarks the president.

June 30, 1947
U.S. District Judge Louis E. Goodman orders that the petitioners in Wayne Collins' suit of December 13, 1945 be released native-born American citizens could not be converted to enemy aliens and could not be imprisoned or sent to Japan on the basis of renunciation. Three hundred and two persons are finally released from Crystal City, Texas and Seabrook Farms, New Jersey on September 6, 1947.

July 2, 1948
President Truman signs the Japanese American Evacuation Claims Act, a measure to compensate Japanese Americans for certain economic losses attributable to their forced evacuation. Although some $28 million was to be paid out through provision of the act, it would be largely ineffective even on the limited scope in which it operated.

July 10, 1970
A resolution is announced by the Japanese American Citizen League's Northern California-Western Nevada District Council calling for reparations for the World War II incarceration of Japanese Americans. This resolution would have the JACL seek a bill in Congress awarding individual compensation on a per diem basis, tax-free.

November 28, 1979
Representative Mike Lowry (D-WA) introduces the World War II Japanese-American Human Rights Violations Act (H.R. 5977) into Congress. This NCJAR-sponsored bill is largely based on research done by ex-members of the Seattle JACL chapter. It proposes direct payments of $15,000 per victim plus an addtional $15 per day interned. Given the choice between this bill and the JACL-supported study commission bill introduced two months earlier, Congress opts for the latter.

July 14, 1981
The Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC) holds a public hearing in Washington, D.C. as part of its investigation into the internment of Japanese Americans during Workd War II. Similar hearings would be held in many other cities throughout the rest of 1981. The emotional testimony by more than 750 Japanese American witnesses about their wartime experiences would prove cathartic for the community and a turning point in the redress movement.

June 16, 1983
The CWRIC issues its formal recommendations to Congress concerning redress for Japanese Americans interned during World War II. They include the call for individual payments of $20,000 to each of those who spent time in the concentration camps and are still alive.


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History

Before InGen

The Spanish navigator Diego Fernandez was the first European to discover the island in 1525. The naming of Isla Nublar is often credited to cartographer Nicolas de Huelva. While mapping the western coast of Costa Rica on the Spanish carrack La Estrella (The Star), de Huelva described seeing a "cloud island" ("Isla Nublar").

InGen

In 1985, after John Hammond abandoned the idea of a small Jurassic Park: San Diego, his company InGen looked for a large isolated preserve. Costa Rica agreed to lease the island to InGen. In 1987, the last remaining Bribri Tribe descendant resettled off Isla Nublar. In 1988, construction began on Jurassic Park. Β]

InGen had to build two docks to easily transport supplies and workmen to the island, the East Dock. In the south the Isla Nublar Heliport was built. For an efficient distribution, a network of roads was built.

The structures for Jurassic Park were mainly built in the eastern and northern part of the island. When the Electric Fences around the paddocks were built, dinosaurs from Isla Sorna were transported to Isla Nublar.

Jurassic Park Incident

When the electricity power of the fences was cut and the dinosaurs began to roam freely, the Jurassic Park came to an end.

During a tropical cyclone storm in 1993, Nedry hacked into InGen and uploaded a virus that shut down the electricity power and unleashed the dinosaur population onto the people on the island. In the end, 4 people, including Nedry, had died and all survivors were sworn to secrecy, although Malcolm went against this and tried to reveal what had happened only to become an outcast, Γ] the island was kept from the public for years, until the San Diego Incident, although some people confused the two islands as one.

After the Jurassic Park Incident, dinosaurs took over Isla Nublar.

In 1994, an InGen clean-up team went to the island to perform an analysis of the accident and record the current state of the island's dinosaur inhabitants. Their report, published in 1996, documented the state of the park and noted that while animal numbers were reduced, a relatively stable ecosystem had been established. They also recorded they had discovered the remains of adolescent Velociraptors (suggesting the presence of a sustained population on the island) and the presence of Compsognathus, a species bred on Sorna but which had never been transported to Nublar (it was suggested they hopped between islands via cargo ships). The dubious legal status of the island ensured the Nublar population remained relatively undisturbed until the early 2000s when the Masrani Group began construction of the Jurassic World park.

Jurassic World

In 2002, Simon Masrani, the new CEO of InGen following John Hammond's passing, built a new, much larger dinosaur theme park, Jurassic World, in the southern part of Isla Nublar. The park started off with 8 species of dinosaurs that possibly came from the original park, such as the Tyrannosaurus rex, but over the years the number of species on the island grew to 20, both through cloning and transporting animals from Isla Sorna (the ecosystem of which had been irrevocably damaged by Masrani illegally cloning undocumented species such as the Spinosaurus and releasing them on the island). Many of the buildings of the old park, like the Visitor Center Δ] , are still on the island, but are overgrown by the jungle and inaccessible to park guests.

The escape of Indominus rex led to the downfall of Jurassic World, and several people were killed or injured.

The park opened with over 90,000 visitors in 2005 but by 2015, visitor count went to 20,000 tourists a day. The investors knew that each time the park added a new dinosaur, attendance spiked so they decided to begin creating genetically altered dinosaurs that could wow the crowds. And thus the Indominus rex came to be. Once it was announced to the public, ticket sales and preorders skyrocketed, however, the Indominus rex eventually escaped and caused chaos all over the park, resulting in the deaths of at least 18 people, including Masrani himself, and many more were gravely injured following the escape of the Dimorphodon and Pteranodon from the Jurassic World Aviary. Although the hybrid was killed in the end, the park suffered an enormous amount of damage and was shut down, leaving the abandoned island for the dinosaurs again.

Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous

Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom

The eruption of Mount Sibo devastated Isla Nublar and drove almost all dinosaurs on the island to extinction.

The ecosystem of Isla Nublar post-Jurassic World was considerably more unstable than previously, largely due to the presence of a much greater number of large carnivores on the island. This led to overhunting and competition, with a number of species falling back into extinction after the fall of Jurassic World. But it's unknown if all the remaning dinosaurs on the Island perished since the Island doesn't sink into the ocean.

The reactivation of Mt. Sibo threatened to destroy or at least devastate Isla Nublar, thus endangering the surviving dinosaur population. With the eruption of the island in 2018, around half of the dinosaur species present on the island were rendered extinct with the remaining population transported to the mainland United States.


House of Slaves

The transatlantic slave trade is largely consigned to public consciousness and history textbooks, but there exists many places where the full force of humanity’s cruelty can still be heartbreakingly felt, even if the place didn’t see much slavery itself.

The House of Slaves on Gorée Island, Senegal is just such a place. The island itself, resting off the coast of Dakar, the capital of Senegal emits a rather somber vibe, something that more resembles a graveyard than a tropical island. There seems to be a respectful understanding that underneath the gentle sound of the sea breeze lurks the pain and silent screams of its past. Acting as a stopover where enslaved African people would be processed and shipped away, the House of Slaves was a market where Africans would be shipped by middlemen from mainland West Africa, and then traders could visit, and purchase enslaved people before leading them through what is now called the Door of No Return, filling small boats before returning to their main vessel stationed just off the island. The island is believed to have processed hundreds, perhaps thousands of enslaved men, women, and children, with some estimates even suggesting millions. However, many scholars have called the veracity of the island’s legacy and its House of Slaves into question.

Historians are yet to settle the numbers, but it has been argued by many that the site was a minor location in the slave trade, and some have even questioned whether it was a part of it at all. Regardless of the actual numbers, most agree that what matters is the island’s symbolism, and the House of Slaves is best considered a memorial as opposed to a historic site.

The voyage of enslaved people from the west coast of Africa to the Americas was known as the Middle Passage. Enslaved people endured traumatic conditions on slavers’ ships, including cramped quarters, disease, meager rations, and physical and sexual assault.

The House of Slaves itself is now a museum. An evocative structure complete with iron shackles and dingy cells where the slaves were said to have been crushed together in horrifying darkness, awaiting their inescapable fate. The historical controversy aside, the site’s power as a grim testament to one of our species’ darkest eras has garnered visits from such luminaries as Nelson Mandela and Barack Obama.


How much of an issue is independence in Taiwan?

While political progress has been slow, links between the two peoples and economies have grown sharply. Taiwanese companies have invested about $60bn (£40bn) in China, and up to one million Taiwanese people now live there, many running Taiwanese factories.

Some Taiwanese people worry their economy is now dependent on China. Others believe that closer business ties make Chinese military action less likely, because of the cost to China's own economy.

A controversial trade agreement sparked the "Sunflower Movement" in 2014, where students and activists occupied Taiwan's parliament protesting against what they called China's growing influence over Taiwan.

Officially, the ruling DPP still favours eventual formal independence for Taiwan, while the KMT favours eventual re-unification.

A March 2021 opinion poll commissioned by the Taiwanese government shows that currently the majority of Taiwanese support the DPP government's approach in "safeguarding national sovereignty". More and more people also say they feel Taiwanese, rather than Chinese.

In the 2020 election Ms Tsai won a record-breaking 8.2 million votes, that was widely seen as a snub to Beijing.


Watch the video: Welcome To Beautiful Sweet Sierra Leone (July 2022).


Comments:

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  4. Wilburt

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  5. Brataur

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