Medieval Warfare Vol II, Issue 2: The Thirteen Years War: The end of the Teutonic Order

Medieval Warfare Vol II, Issue 2: The Thirteen Years War: The end of the Teutonic Order

Medieval Warfare Vol II, Issue 2: The Thirteen Years War: The end of the Teutonic Order

Medieval Warfare Vol II, Issue 2: The Thirteen Years War: The end of the Teutonic Order

This issue of Medieval Warfare magazine focuses on the Thirteen Years War, the conflict that effectively destroyed the power of the Teutonic Order, a crusading order that had established a state on the shores of the Baltic. As with the other orders, the Teutonic Knights were originally formed in the Holy Land, but as the last crusader kingdoms collapsed they found a new purpose in the Baltic, then the frontier between Christian Europe and the Pagan world.

For some time crusading with the Teutonic Knights was a popular activity for western knights, but their reason for existing ended when the Poles and Lithuanians converted to Christianity. Eventually their own towns united with the united Kingdom of Poland-Lithuania, a Medieval superpower, and the Teutonic Knights were doomed.

The article on the Order's red brick castles was of special interest, covering an area that I have studied myself in the past. These were impressive buildings and impressive fortifications (although the amazing toilet tower at Marienwerder rather dominates).

The Thirteen Years War lacked major battles - there were only two, one won by the Knights and one by their enemies. Both battles are covered here in some detail. The unusual tactics found in the Baltic are also looked at.

This is an interesting topic covered by a good selection of articles.

Introduction: The Teutonic Knights - the road to the Thirteen Years War
The 'Dance of the Tatars' and other oddities: analysing strategy and tactics in the Baltics
The Battle of Kolnitz: The last great field victory of the Teutonic Knights
Castles of the Thirteen Years War - the red-brick strongholds of the Teutonic Knights
The turning point - The Battle of Zarnowitz, 17 September 1462
The chronicler Jan Dlugosz: Master of eastern European History
Crossbows and Christians: The Church's ban of the crossbow
The Battle of Worringen: The charge of six thousand to decide the fate of Limburg
Fighting on horseback in late medieval Europe: Fighting skills of European mounted warriors

Circle of 13 Trivia (updated)

May 4, 1970
Kent State University, Kent, Ohio

Sixty-three shots in 13 seconds. Thirteen horrifying seconds in American history that resulted in the deaths of four students and the wounding of nine others.

13 was a number central to certain traditions of sacred geometry, because it reflected a pattern which could be seen to exist in man, nature, and the heavens. For instance, there are 13 major joints in your body. There are 13 lunar cycles in a solar year, and the moon travels 13 degrees across the sky every day. Six circles placed around a seventh central circle is a model of geometric efficiency and perfection in the second dimension that has been known to mathematicians for ages. But this same configuration in three dimensions consists of 12 spheres arranged around one central sphere, making 13 in all - the most compact three-dimensional arrangement recurrent in nature. A commentator writing about the Aztec calendar once said that, "Thirteen is a basic structural unit in nature. It means the attracting center around which elements focus and collect." Is this, then, the reason for Christ’s 12 disciples, King Arthur’s 12 knights, or the 12 major constellations in relation to our sun?

Words From Mayan Grand Elder Wakatel Utiw (Wandering Wolf)

We have several prophecies concerning the time we are living in, and it is in fulfillment of the Prophecies that we are here today. I will mention some of them:

“At the time of the 13 Baktun and 13 Ahau is the time of the return of our Ancestors and the return of the men of wisdom.” That time is now.

Nov 12, 2001—Mar 25, 2002: 13 renowned microbiologists mysteriously die over the span of less than five months. All but one are killed or murdered under unusual circumstances. Some are world leaders in developing weapons-grade biological plagues. Others are the best in figuring out how to stop millions from dying because of biological weapons. Still others are experts in the theory of bioterrorism.

Surviving a plunge surrounded by a semiprotective cocoon of debris is more common than surviving a pure free-fall, according to Hamilton’s statistics 31 such confirmed or “plausible” incidents have occurred since the 1940s. Free-fallers constitute a much more exclusive club, with just 13 confirmed or plausible incidents, including perennial Ripley’s Believe It or Not superstar Alan Magee—blown from his B-17 on a 1943 mission over France. The New Jersey airman, more recently the subject of a MythBusters episode, fell 20,000 feet and crashed into a train station he was subsequently captured by German troops, who were astonished at his survival.

Thanks to the WikiLeaks revelations, war-weary Germany now knows that German officials added names to the JPEL at least 13 times. On this list, 13 names translate into 13 potential death warrants. The Germans only mark their candidates with a C for "capture," and not with a K for "kill." But in fact all International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) troops are authorized to shoot and kill candidates on the JPEL list if, for example, they attempt to avoid capture by fleeing. In other words, although German elite troops do not use the kill option themselves, Germany does provide its tacit approval of the killing of candidates in the zone under its control in northern Afghanistan.

With the passage of the ”law on historical memory” in 2000 and a lawsuit filed by a son who had lost his father, Etxeberria began to excavate in Priaranza del Bierzo in the northern province of León. The bodies of 13 civilians shot by firing squad at the start of the war were unearthed. It was the first scientific excavation of mass graves carried out in Spain, nearly 70 years after the war began.

Historians have put together lists of up to 130,000 people killed in areas not near the front lines. These crimes involved forced disappearance, to which no statute of limitations applies.

In the evening of 29 September 1913, Diesel boarded the post office steamer Dresden in Antwerp on his way to a meeting of the Consolidated Diesel Manufacturing company in London. He took dinner on board the ship and then retired to his cabin at about 10 p.m., leaving word for him to be called the next morning at 6:15 a.m.. He was never seen alive again. Ten days later, the crew of the Dutch boat Coertsen came upon the corpse of a man floating in the sea. The body was in such an advanced state of decomposition that they did not bring it aboard. Instead, the crew retrieved personal items (pill case, wallet, pocket knife, eyeglass case) from the clothing of the dead man, and returned the body to the sea. On 13 October these items were identified by Rudolf's son, Eugen Diesel, as belonging to his father.

There are various theories to explain Diesel's death. Grosser (1978) presents a case for suicide other theories suggest that various people's business interests may have provided motives for homicide. Evidence is limited for all explanations.

. The synagogue bombing struck a raw, guilt-strained nerve in France, which has a history of anti-Semitism stretching back to the Enlightenment and including a virulent flare-up during the Depression. Still painful are memories of the German Occupation, when the Vichy regime helped the Nazis send 85,000 Jews to death camps. Rue Copernic made Frenchmen wonder whether violence was once again becoming a factor in their political life, especially since it closely followed explosions set off by right-wing terrorists at the Bologna train station (84 dead, 160 injured) and Munich's Oktoberfest (13 dead, 215 injured). Conditions certainly seemed right for a fascist revival in Western Europe. With work hard to find, restive young people have been growing impatient with prevailing economic models, both capitalist (U.S.) and Communist (U.S.S.R.). For a simplistic few, fascism seems reassuringly regimented. In France and West Germany (though not so much in Spain and Italy), fascism and anti-Semitism tend to go hand in hand.

Rachel. Daniel. Dave. Kyle. Steve. Cassie. Isaiah. Matthew. Lauren. John. Kelly. Corey. Daniel.

The 13 victims of the 1999 Columbine school shooting should be the names in headlines and pictures, Marjorie Lindholm, a Columbine survivor told a room full of Clark County and other area educators, counselors and emergency personnel at Wittenberg University Tuesday, Aug. 5.

The two teens who committed suicide after the April 20, 1999 massacre they planned for more than a year that left 12 classmates and a teacher dead, should be "nameless," Lindholm said.

The gunman who shot 13 people dead at an immigration centre in upstate New York was a loner who loved guns but believed that “America sucks” and fantasised about assassinating the president.

He took out his rage on those who were still striving for the American dream, oblivious to his own disappointment, before killing himself.

"I should explain perhaps why the eight spoke wheel is so important. In the sky there is a great cross that does not move, and its formed by the center of the galaxy and from the center point of our celestial equator to the southern point of the celestial equator, that's the divine cross. Down here on the ground we have the mundane cross that is formed by the angles between equinox and the solstice and so forth, so the eight armed cross, the eight rayed star, the 8 spoke wheel. all represents the alignment in space and time of the divine cross above and the terrestrial mundane cross below."

Then he goes on and states. "Now curiously enough this alignment only happens once ever 13,000 years. These crosses have not aligned since 11,000 B.C., roughly 13,000 years ago." Of course whether that is accurate or not, is pretty hard to say.

The Bilderberg Influence Part 2

. The Bilderbergers decide jointly on the best way to deal with the resources of the planet, and exert control over energy and money supplies, reported Estulin. The structure of the group is not pyramidal with one person at the top-- it is "oval" with three groups of 13 people deciding the particular issues and participants in a given year, he added.

The Pentagon Papers, officially titled United States–Vietnam Relations, 1945�: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense, were a top-secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political-military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967. Commissioned by United States Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara in 1967, the study was completed in 1968. The papers first surfaced on the front page on the New York Times in 1971.

The study was classified as top-secret and was intended for publication, however, these papers did lead to all out protests of the war and violent riots in the streets on the East Coast. However, contributor Daniel Ellsberg gave most of the Pentagon Papers to New York Times reporter Neil Sheehan, with Ellsberg's friend Anthony Russo assisting in their copying. The Times began publishing excerpts as an article-series on June 13, 1971.

Unlike the Western, or Gregorian calendar, the Coptic calendar, for at least the past five millennia, has had 13 months. Like the Ancient Egyptians, the Coptic Christians divide the year into three and not four seasons. The Egyptian months and seasons were inextricably intertwined with agriculture and the ebb and flow of the River Nile. The three seasons include the Inundation, which marks the beginning of the year, the Sowing Season (winter), and the Harvest (summer). The Sowing and Inundation seasons have four months, while the Harvest has five. And since time immemorial, Egyptian farming communities have organised agricultural activities on the basis of three seasons and 13 months.

"The numbers 3, 7, 9,11,13, 33, 39. Any multiple of these numbers have special meaning to the Illuminati. Notice that the Bilderberg Group has core of 39 members who are broken into 3 groups of 13 members in each group. Notice that the core of 39 answers to the 13 who make up the Policy Committee. Take special notice that the 13 members of the Policy Committee answer to the Round Table of Nine. You know that the original number of states in the United States of America was 13. The Constitution has 7 articles and was signed by 39 members of the Constitutional Convention." Secret Societies / New World Order: by Milton William Cooper

The spiritual significance of the number thirteen (13), which as reflected by the thirteen attributes of Mercy (we will look at these attributes later), relates to a transcendent dimension of G-dliness. This transcendence enables one to infuse spirituality within our material world.

Twelve is the number of maximal differentiation. It is the number of lines that border a cube, and according to Chazal, all of reality.

The fact that the twelve are all connected in the center is the thirteenth. Thirteen is the number that bonds multiplicity into oneness. For example: There are twelve tribes that are bonded into their father Israel (Yaaqov). Israel is the thirteenth. The meaning of the number thirteen is the bonding of many into one.

Jews look to make many into one whilst the Gentiles look to make one into many. This is exemplified with the preeminent prayer of the Jews, the Shema[2], which speaks of HaShem being one while the Gentile’s preeminent theology is the trinity, in which they make HaShem into three gods. Thus the Goyim have a superstition that the number thirteen is bad, whilst the Jews see the number thirteen as very good.

The number thirteen is among the holiest of the numbers because it is closely associated with HaShem.

The history of the Migrants’ Place starts in 1997, on the 1st floor of 35 Valtetsiou St. in Exarhia, as an initiative of the Network of Social Support for Refugees and Migrants. Slowly, a meeting space between greeks and migrants was formed, a space of solidarity, coexistence, freedom and exchange. The Migrants’ Place served as a venue for communities’ meetings, the assembly of the Coordinating Body of Antiracist and Migrants’ Organizations, events, talks, as well as an info point for migrants and refugees. It also had its own cultural life: music, games, glentia, parties, exhibitions. Turkish and spanish lessons were set up, followed by the creation of “Πίσω Θρανία” (Back Benches), a group of teachers teaching greek to migrants. Within this meeting place of people and ideas, groups were formed, new acquaintances were made and different worlds came together. The Place’s maintenance was taken care of by a group of greeks and migrants who all worked with a great deal of enthusiasm, exceeding all initial expectations.

History: In 2001 we moved to the building in 13 Tsamadou St. In the process, we grew in number and increased our activities. The new Place hosts more groups and new ones are being created. The success of the Antiracist Festival brought us in touch with new crowds and collectives and the rise of the anti-globalization movement with new perspectives.

Instead, she, like her father before her, is heir to one of the Thirteen Orphans, who fled to our reality from the Lands Born from Smoke and Sacrifice, an alternate reality where magic works, as well as all of the different Chinese mythologies. Twelve of the Orphans were the advisors to an emperor overthrown in a coup, and the thirteenth was the emperor's young heir, from whom Albert Yu is descended, making him the rightful emperor.

. a portrait of Samuel Beckett taken by Richard Avedon on April 13th 1979: exactly thirty years ago today. It is notable in that it offers us an image of the writer ten years before his death, but it's also notable for another reason: April 13th is Samuel Beckett's birthday.

"My 13-year-old son, who's a minor, who's supposed to be safe and secure in his classroom at school, is being interrogated without my knowledge or consent by the Secret Service," Robertson told Q13 Fox News reporter Dana Rebik. She only got wind of the interrogation because a school security guard tipped her off and arrived a half-hour after the agent had already begun questioning her son. Tacoma police were also present.

The school said they began without her because she didn't take their call seriously, which Robertson called a "blatant lie."

By the end of the interview, which occurred May 13, the agent told the boy he was free to go and wasn't in trouble.

Interestingly, there are thirteen passages that mention the specific number thirteen. There does not seem to be any significance to the number in the Bible, except as a number. Several times it is mentioned as the number of cities some of the families of the Levites got within other tribes' territories (5 times in Joshua, twice in 1 Chronicles) the Levites didn't get a territory of their own. Once it is mentioned as an age (Genesis 17:25). Another time it is the number of brothers and sons an individual had (1 Chronicles 26:17). It is the number of years Solomon took to build his palace (1 Kings 7:1). Ezekiel describes a gate that was thirteen cubits long (Ezekiel 40:11). And it was the number of young bulls offered on the first day of Succoth (the Feast of Booths) (Numbers 29:13-14). The number of bulls was reduced by one each day of the feast, down to seven.

HAPPY COLUMBUS DAY - It was on the 33rd day of his voyage, October 12, 1492, that Columbus made his landfall.

Freemasons trace their origins to October 13 - unlucky Friday 13 Jacques DeMolay Imprisoned - Freemasons and october13 - conspiracy - UFOs and 13 - ufos and antichrist, Anti-christ, satan, Ufo, UFOs, paranoid, New World Order Conspiracy, Ufo Bible cosmic, rapture UFOs &the Bible - End Time Prophecy & Conspiracy, Gog Magog, Ezekiel Prophecy, Jerusalem Freemasons, UFOs in Israel, Jerusalem & Antichrist, Melchizedek,Freemasons, Lucifer, Luciferians, Conspiracy, Masonic Conspiracy,
Freemasons trace their origin to October 13

"Let me just say briefly that his theory is that Freemasonry very likely began with the suppression of the Knights Templar in the year 1307. At that time the Templars were crushed in France, but by the delay of the King in enforcing the edict in England and Scotland many escaped. It is Mr. Robinson's theory that they went underground and had to devise a method of recognition enabling them to travel safely and to establish safe houses where they would haven opportunity to rest and refresh themselves. It also gave them the ability to recognize each other as members of the order! While the suppression of the Knights Templar may or may not have anything to with early Freemasonry, it certainly makes more sense to me that secret signs and words in this type of environment were far more necessary than with the simple workman plying his trade in building a cathedral. Just one more thought from this particular theory. The suppression of the Knights Templar occurred on October 13, 1307. The particular day of the week was a Friday and ever since that event Friday the 13th has been considered to be the unluckiest day of the year."

13 The Number of Rebellion: E.W. Bullinger writes: "As to the significance of thirteen, all are aware that it has come down to us as a number of ill omen. Many superstitions cluster around it, and various explanations are current concerning them. Unfortunately, those who go backwards to find a reason seldom go back far enough. The popular explanations do not, so far as we are aware go further back than the Apostles. But we must go back to the first occurrence of the number thirteen in order to discover the key to its significance. It occurs first in Gen. xiv. 4, where we read' Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and the thirteenth year they REBELLED. Hence every occurrence of the number thirteen, and likewise of every multiple of it, stamps that with which it stands in connection with rebellion, apostasy, defection, corruption, disintegration, & revolution, or some kindred idea." (Bullinger, E.W. Number in Scripture, Kregel Publications, (c)1967, p. 205).

This brings us back to the point of UNLUCKY 13 - this date seems to be a rallying point for Gnostic Brethren and the spiritual forces they worship. Watch for more strange occurrences as October 13 approaches.


COLUMBUS DAY - It was on the 33rd day of his voyage, October 12, 1492, that Columbus made his landfall.
UFOs & 13 & 33 !!

# 1998 March 23. Director James Cameron was inducted as a 33rd Degree Freemason at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles within informal ceremony. Cameron's induction took place in a small room inside the Shrine while celebrities and movie stars were filing inside for the March 23, 1998 Academy Awards. Later, on his birthday Cameron formally became a 33rd Degree Freemason in the Supreme Council 33rd Degree Temple in Washington, D.C. Cameron is a leading light for the military -industrial-Hollywood complex, formerly the military-industrial complex that President Eisenhower had warned against in his 1961 Farewell Address. [website of origin: The James Cameron Conspiracy Theory]

# Solar Miracle of October 13 - Fatima Marian Apparitions - Similar to UFOs
# Freemasons Hassle Jacinta of Fatima Sun Disk October 13
# Georgia Marian Apparition Final Appearance October 13
# BVMs & UFOS (Blessed Virgin Mary sightings & Unidentified Flying Objects)

Smoke billows over homes on Osage Avenue after police bombed the MOVE home, May 13, 1985. The city rebuilt the 61 homes that were destroyed the new homes have cracked foundations and have been deemed uninhabitable, resulting in an ongoing court battle. Bettmann/Corbis

Accounts differ on why the fire wasn't snuffed out, despite the dozen fire trucks surrounding the block. Ramona Africa, the sole surviving adult in the house, says police fired on MOVE members as they tried to escape the burning house. Police say the MOVE members ran in and out of the house firing at them. Police ordered their officers and fire fighters to stay back. What is clear is that four hours later, 61 houses on the block were gone, and everyone inside the MOVE house, except for Ramona Africa and a 13-year-old boy, was dead.

These two are said to be assassination teams from Britain and the U.S. Although there is no conclusive evidence, I am quite certain that both exist. You can find some information about Britain's Group 13 here and some information about the NSA's I3 here. The supposed head of Group 13 turned out to be someone who's background cannot be fully traced, not even by the British Parliament. This person and his allies also infiltrated the boards of many arms companies. When a company, like Astra, isn't useful anymore, they just give themselves huge salaries and run the company into the ground.

It is the number that carries the most occult significance.

Throughout Europe it has historically been regarded as an ill omen. In Norse mythology, the number 13 often signifies death. Today, in the United Kingdom, there exists a paramilitary unit called Group 13. The sole purpose of this ultra secretive unit is deniable assassination and it operates in the world of shadows. So little is known about them, that it is exceptionally hard to document its activities with any certainty.

One individual - a former intelligence undercover agent - contacted by The X Factor, recounted his story of a encounter with Group 13. Gary Murray, author of Enemies of the State, had decided to research Group 13 to write a book on them. He soon changed his mind. One day during his research phase he was forcibly dragged in to the back of a Transit van and had a gun stuck to his head. A voice told him it would be unwise to continue his project. Sensibly, he decided to abandon the project and instead write a book on an altogether different subject. Group 13 is generally believed to have evolved from former SAS soldiers and Security and Intelligence operatives who were once active in Northern Ireland during the mid to late nineteen seventies when a Labour Government was still in power. Fred Holroyd, a Captain in British Army Intelligence, served in Northern Ireland during this period. Holroyd was tasked with developing informers and other human intelligence sources connected to the IRA. It was inherently dangerous work, made a lot worse by a viscous turf battle between MI5 and MI6 for control of the Northern Ireland "patch." Matters grew increasingly nasty as "assets" for each of the two contending groups were tossed to the wolves. Holroyd, when interviewed by The X Factor, outlined some details of this dirty war, recalled incidents where bombs were placed by one of these factions and then roundly blamed on the IRA. Holroyd’s story and later disgraceful treatment at the hands of the British Army are recounted in his book "War without Dishonour." Holroyd’s account sheds light on the so called "Shoot to Kill" policy in Northern Ireland that resulted in the dysfunctional investigation of former senior police officer, John Stalker. This investigation ultimately resulted in the gripping feature film: Hidden Agenda.

Shayetet 13 (Hebrew: שייטת 13‎, lit. Flotilla 13) is the elite naval commando unit of the Israeli Navy. The unit (S'13) is considered one of the three main Israeli Special Forces units (along with Sayeret Matkal - the General Staff Reconnaissance Unit - and Shaldag Unit - the Air Force commando unit). S'13 is the unit that specializes in sea-to-land incursions, counter-terrorism, sabotage, maritime intelligence gathering, maritime hostage rescue, and boarding. The details of most Shayetet 13 missions are highly secrative, and the identities of operatives are kept classified. The unit is respected as among the best of the world’s special forces and is often compared to the US Navy Seals and Britain's Special Boat Service.

August 13-16, 1965, the blacks of Los Angeles revolted. An incident between traffic police and pedestrians developed into two days of spontaneous riots. Despite increasing reinforcements, the forces of order were unable to regain control of the streets. By the third day the blacks had armed themselves by looting accessible gun stores, enabling them to fire even on police helicopters. It took thousands of police and soldiers, including an entire infantry division supported by tanks, to confine the riot to the Watts area, and several more days of street fighting to finally bring it under control. Stores were massively plundered and many were burned. Official sources listed 32 dead (including 27 blacks), more than 800 wounded and 3000 arrests.

NASA's Astronaut Group 13 (the Hairballs) was announced by NASA on 17 January 1990.

Greece's natal chart

Some 20 years ago it came to my attention an old document, that I felt very significant! It was entitled «Declaration of the Political Existence and Independence of the Greek Nation». Let us see what this declaration says: «In the name of the Holy and Indivisible Trinity, the Greek Nation that in the last centuries was under the horrible Ottoman rule, not being able to bare any more the heavy and unprecedented tyranny, which we threw off with great sacrifices, proclaims today - through its legitimate delegates assembled here - before any humans and God, its political existence and Independence! Epidaurus January 1st 1822». 

There is no doubt that this declaration constitutes the birth certificate of modern Greece! It fulfils all the criteria we set up and unambiguously states the creation of the modern country of Greece. The birthday of Greece is on the 13th of January (it is a Capricorn country). 

The vast majority of Greeks though believe that their country was born on the 3rd of February 1830 - when by the London Treaty the major European powers recognised Greece. But a country is not actually born when the foreign forces decide it but when its own people will it! Otherwise, why should the United States birthday coincide with their unilateral Declaration of Independence (4 July 1776) and not with the date the foreign forces recognised the USA (on, 1783, by the Treaty of Versailles, France). No one has ever questioned the 4th of July as the date of birth of the United States. The September 3rd date - when the great powers acknowledged America - has been forgotten in the drawers of history and no one ever mentions it! Why should we apply in Greece’s similar case different criteria?

But let us see what a Greek professor in Political Sciences (George Dimakopoulos) says in respect to this issue. The «Declaration of the Political Existence and Independence of the Greek Nation» is the constitutive act of the Greek State, whose foundation, legally and historically has to be regarded as from January 1st, 1822 (old calendar, January 13 on the new one). Points of views that appoint it to a different day and connecting it with the diplomatic recognition of the Greek State from the foreign forces are not only contrary to the applied national law, but to the international law too, as it is generally accepted that a diplomatic recognition cannot constitute a foundation act for a State»!

Baltimore peace groups have tried to dialogue with representatives of the National Security Agency since 1996. See James Bamford's book BODY OF SECRETS, which details the agency's response to these requests. In June 2006, the Pledge of Resistance–Baltimore sent a letter to the NSA director, Lt. Gen. Keith Alexander, seeking a meeting.

A great concern is the NSA's involvement in the illegal war and occupation of Iraq. Since Gen. Alexander failed to respond to the letter, members of the Pledge intend to march to the NSA to seek a meeting to discuss the illegal activities perpetrated by the government agency.

On Saturday, July 8, 2006, at 11:30 in the morning, twenty-five activists gathered near the National Business Parkway in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, and began a march towards the NSA. Once they were walking along Route 32, they were challenged by a Maryland State Police officer who ordered them to turn back. The group continued its trek to the NSA despite the trooper's threat to give everyone a citation.

However, when the demonstrators reached a public road near the entrance to the NSA, security confronted them and indicated no protesting is permitted at Fort Meade. Officers also told them that their cars were in the process of being towed. Drivers had to return to the Business Park to rescue their vehicles. Demonstrators were then given a document entitled “Protests, Picketing and Other Similar Demonstrations” dated May 12, 2005. This blatant denial of First Amendment rights was incredible, as Pledge members have held four different demonstrations at Fort Meade since that date. Thirteen activists who refused to relinquish the signs they were carrying were given citations charging them with “Entering into military facility for purposes prohibited by law” and then ordered to leave the area.

Those charged include Baltimore activists Maria Allwine, Ellen Barfield, Susan Crane, Jay Gillen, Max Obuszewski and Ed Boyd, the Green Party candidate for governor of Maryland. Others charged are Jean Athey, Montgomery County, MD Eden Coughlin, Brooklyn, NY Pat Elder, Bethesda, MD Ed Kinane, Syracuse, NY Eve Tetaz, Washington, D.C. and Father Louis Vitale, California.

COURT:At January 25, 2007 motions hearing, all charges were dismissed against Maria Allwine, Ellen Barfield, Susan Crane, Jay Gillen, Max Obuszewski, Ed Boyd, Jean Athey, Eden Coughlin, Pat Elder, Ed Kinane, Eve Tetaz and Fr. Louis Vitale in the U.S. Federal District Court in Baltimore, MD.

The boron group is the series of elements in group 13 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table. The group has previously also been referred to as the earth metals and the triels, from the Latin tri, three, stemming from the naming convention of this group as Group IIIB. These elements are characterized by having three electrons in their outer energy levels (valence layers). Boron is considered a metalloid, and the rest are considered metals of the poor metals groups.

The boron group consists of boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and ununtrium (Uut) (unconfirmed).

Boron occurs sparsely probably because of disruption of its nucleus by bombardment with subatomic particles produced from natural radioactivity. Aluminum occurs widely on earth and in fact, it is the third most abundant element in the earth's crust (7.4%).

13th Floor Elevators

“SECTION 1. (a) The maximum amount of any ad valorem tax on real property shall not exceed One percent (1%) of the full cash value of such property. The one percent (1%) tax to be collected by the counties and apportioned according to law to the districts within the counties.”

The proposition's passage resulted in a cap on property tax rates in the state, reducing them by an average of 57%. In addition to lowering property taxes, the initiative also contained language requiring a two-thirds majority in both legislative houses for future increases in all state tax rates or amounts of revenue collected, including income tax rates. It also requires two-thirds vote majority in local elections for local governments wishing to raise special taxes.

Summary of ALL large world government global terror events each visibly containing numerics [3 & 11] & 33 (the big one Jesus's age/top Scottish Rite Freemasonic degree) and displaying the overuse of the world government fetished power numbers: 3 & 7 & 11 & 13 & 33 & 39 ). Read closely. Every date is true!

"11/11"/1918 at "11"am World War I was officially ended - known as “Armistice Day”. In 19"33"
freemasonic elite pyramid symbol is placed on back of US dollar. In 1945, Enola Gay Mission #"13" drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima on the "33"rd Earth parallel on August 6th, 3 days later, another was dropped on Nagasaki on the 9th. JFK Assassination: "11/22"/1963 sums to 33 & was exactly 13 months to day after JFK's "13" days of October Cuban Missile Crisis speech on 10/"22"/1962. On "September 11th", 1971 Nikita Kruschev lost his life under mysterious circumstances. "11" Israelis are sacrificed in the Munich terror event the games ended on "September 11th", 1972. On "September 11th", 1973 the USA participated in a military coup of Chile's president. Pope John Paul I was actually assassinated on the "33"rd day of his popehood in 1978. The Iranian Hostage Crisis lasted exactly 444 days and ended on "1/19"/1981 (a reversed 9-11!) On "11/9"/1989 (Another 9/11 reversed!) The Berlin Wall is opened up. Waco Tx Massacre took place exactly "39" days after "3/11"/1993 Janet Reno Attorney General appointment & the 9 year anniversary of Gorbechev appointment & also Oklahoma City blast, OK: April 19th, 1993/5. "8/31"/1997 Princess Diana Assassination date contains a reversed "13" and the date sums 8+31 to "39". World Trade Centers towers built to be an 11 & 110 stories tall. 9+1+1 is the core 11. 911 FLIGHT #'s were all coded: Flight "11", Flight 175 summing to 13, a 13x3 or "39" reversal for Flight "93", and 7x11 (Flight "77") into the pentagon. The 9-11 terror event commenced at 3 minutes to 11 to 9am on the 60th anniversary of pentagon ground-breaking of "9/11"/1941 the day globalist kingpin conspirator David Rockefeller was holding the silver shovel in DC & also on "11"th anniversary of Bush I world government speech to congress on "9/11"/1990! Building #7 was obviously blown up at 5:20pm! G.W. Bush then states the next morning the US flag should be flown half-staff for "11" days. The nearby United Nations building was constructed to be "39" (3 13s) stories tall. Rudy Giuliani was knighted by the queen of England on February "13th", 2002 for his cover-up help. The Luciferian WTC light ritual used 88 (8 11s) upturned searchlamps and held on "3/11"/2002 for "33" nights w/lights turned off at "11pm" each night. "4/11"/2002 International Criminal Court is ratified in the Hague. NYC lottery balls come up "911" on "9/11"/2002 as well as Chicago's S&P index chimed in at "911.00".

󈭟”/󈫽”/2002 Bush Jr. commissions "Homeland Security" department. "11/22"/2002 In Nigeria more than 100 people killed with attack aimed at the contestants of the Miss World contest. "2/1"/2003 Columbia Space Shuttle STS 107 intentional fireball burning over "33"rd parallel on "11"th anniversary of Bush I UN/NWO speech (2/1/1992) 2/1 sums to 3 - vice president Dick Cheney was hunting quail right below the sacrificial shuttle streak that morning so he could see it happen. Note: Space Shuttles blast off from launchpad "39a" or "39b" after taxiing down runway #"33" at Florida’s Kennedy Space Center (and those numerics are no coincidences!) Also 2/7/2003 "Columbia" (South America) night club blast kills "33" clubgoers. "3/3"/2003 UN World Prayer Center calls everyone to pray simultaneously at "3:3"0pm. "3/11"/2003 USS Cole bomb suspects/patsies are freed. "6/11"/2003 - A large Jerusalem bus blast kills 18. "3/11"/2004 Madrid Commuter Train Blast massacres "191" (an 11 sum) / same day as purchase of Sears Tower by Larry Silverstein & partners, deal was valued at $"911" million dual events occurred this day, as that day was also 93x11 days after 9-11-2001. "5/11"/2004 video of American GI Nick Berg beheaded released. "6/11"/2004 Bush declared National day of mourning due to Ronald Reagan burial. Reagan was 93. On "9/3"/2004, signed like Flight 93, Russian troops storm Beslan school at "9:3"0am (93) and massacre "33"4 of "13"00 (33 & 13) civilians hostages. That was also a terror set-up mainly to compromise Vladimir Putin, a Russian "911". On "11/9"/2004 (another 9-11 reversed!) U.S. forces destroy Falluja, Iraq. Yasser Arafat was poisoned on "11/11"/2004 and pronounced officially dead at "3:3"0am. "7/7"/2005 London Tube/BusTerror were timed for 8:49am, or 11 minutes to 9am. London Big Ben clock stuck at 22:07GMT (10:07pm) London time on 5/27(3^3)/2005 signaling subsequent "7/22"/2005 Cairo Nightclub Blast killing "88"(8x11). Exactly "11" days short of "3" years from first - the 2nd Bali Indonesia Bombing on Oct 12th, 2005, occurred the 1st was Oct 1st, 2002 which was 1 year, 1 month, & 1 day after 9-11-2001. Amman Jordan Train Blasts were scheduled for "11/9"/2005 ( and yet another 9/11 reversed. ) murdering 38 (a 3+8=11 sum). "7/11"/2006 Mumbai India Globalist Train Blast that killed 209 (again, an 11 sum) with "7" bombs that were scheduled "11" minutes from the first blast to the last. On July 11, 2007, "7/11"/2007, the CIA published its "National Intelligence Estimate" pointing to an imminent al"CIAda" attack on America.

It is entirely obvious. The course of world history has been dramatically patterned and consistently marked with (3, 7, 11, 13), & (21, 33, 39), & (9-11, 11-9) numerics over the past century. All major global terror events and the biggest political assassinations have employed this pattern.

A Native American legend that told of a collection of 13 Crystal Skulls that were said to hold the details of mankind's true purpose and destiny. A variety of Crystal Skulls have been discovered over the years, some dating back thousands of years. Despite efforts to combine 13 of these skulls in one place, no evidence of the knowledge said to be contained within them has ever been found.

Scientists believe that the minimum mass needed to ignite a sun is about 13 times the known mass of the planet Jupiter -- written as "13MJ." If the mass is lower than this, the pressure in the core is not enough to ignite and the sphere will be hot ball of gas called a "brown dwarf."

The new NASA moon mission patch again gives us much occult and synchromystic (my new word for meaningful coincidence with mystical connotation) material to investigate. If you're ready, let's go!

Firstly the obvious triangular design gives us the sacred number 3, repeated in the 3 stars of Orion's belt and the also reminds us of a pyramid.

Then we have the number of stars in total giving us the holy number 13 (the twelve months and/or signs of the zodiac plus the sun). Here we should also remember that with the new media revelation of our solar system having 12 planets, if we include the sun, we get 13.

13 is also the name of a Hollywood movie soon to be released.

The great codifier of Torah law and Jewish philosophy, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon ("Maimonides" also known as "The Rambam"), compiled what he refers to as the Shloshah Asar Ikkarim, the "Thirteen Fundamental Principles" of the Jewish faith, as derived from the Torah. Maimonides refers to these thirteen principles of faith as "the fundamental truths of our religion and its very foundations." The Thirteen Principles of Jewish faith are as follows:

1. Belief in the existence of the Creator, who is perfect in every manner of existence and is the Primary Cause of all that exists.

2. The belief in G-d's absolute and unparalleled unity.

3. The belief in G-d's non-corporeality, nor that He will be affected by any physical occurrences, such as movement, or rest, or dwelling.

4. The belief in G-d's eternity.

5. The imperative to worship G-d exclusively and no foreign false gods.

6. The belief that G-d communicates with man through prophecy.

7. The belief in the primacy of the prophecy of Moses our teacher.

8. The belief in the divine origin of the Torah.

9. The belief in the immutability of the Torah.

10. The belief in G-d's omniscience and providence.

11. The belief in divine reward and retribution.

12. The belief in the arrival of the Messiah and the messianic era.

13. The belief in the resurrection of the dead.

It is the custom of many congregations to recite the Thirteen Articles, in a slightly more poetic form, beginning with the words Ani Maamin--"I believe"--every day after the morning prayers in the synagogue.

Inside Labyrinth13, you will find true tales of bizarre coincidences, strange occult happenings, unusual paranormal events, including phantom black dogs, vampires in America, werewolves and a haunted island, weird hippie cults, LSD murders, mind control, and unsolved crimes

By the next morning, the news of the crime had broken out all over France and French newspapers featured daily updates on the case. One journal, in an interesting publicity stunt, had a pair of twin brothers, Jerome and Jean Tharaud, report on the case. In their column they would creepily refer to themselves as “I” rather than “we” and would sign themselves simply: J et J . The French public was divided on their opinion of what the fate of the Papin sisters should be while a slight majority called for their heads, a smaller, but significant minority sympathized with the sisters, given their understanding of the miserable working conditions so common for domestic laborers. Among these sympathizers were many of the intellectual elite of the day including Jean Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir and Jean Genet, who held the crime up as an example of class warfare.

The funeral for the Lancelin women was very well attended and was accompanied by infantry. However, the trial of the Papin sisters the following September, was even better attended and police were needed to control the crowds at the courthouse during its 13-hour duration.

Paradoxically, at the proper moment of his agony, John Paul II or better John Paul Le Grand, claims " I am happy ". He is certainly right because he had the genius to bet on the lively forces of tomorrow, that is on the young people to whom he reserved his all last words.

In the young people, he planted his tree from which the best fruits are to come, making the Pope's work ceaselessly renewable. What a big visionary! It is important to underline that mysteriously the life and the death of John Paul II are both strongly marked by the number 13!

First, the date of its death corresponds exactly to the numerical code 13:
Death on April 2nd, 2005 or 04/02/2005 4 + 2 + 2 + 5 = 13

Even the precise hour of its death wears the mark 13:
Death arisen at 9:37 pm or 21h 37 the Vatican time 2 + 1 + 3 + 7 = 13

A study published today by the Dutch Centre for Insurance Statistics (CVS) showed that fewer accidents and reports of fire and theft occur when the 13th of the month falls on a Friday than on other Fridays.

"I find it hard to believe that it is because people are preventatively more careful or just stay home, but statistically speaking, driving is a little bit safer on Friday 13th," CVS statistician Alex Hoen told the Verzekerd insurance magazine.

In the last two years, Dutch insurers received reports of an average 7800 traffic accidents each Friday, the CVS study said.

But the average figure when the 13th fell on a Friday was just 7500.

There were also fewer incidents of fire and theft, although the average value of losses on Fridays 13th was slightly higher.

For example : Our brain uses 13Hz (high alpha or low beta) for "active" intelligence. Often we find individuals who exhibit learning disabilities and attention problems having a deficiency of 13Hz activity in certain brain regions that effects the ability to easily perform sequencing tasks and math calculations.

The 13th chakra is deep blue-indigo coloured. When this chakra is working in harmony more psychic and spiritual energies will be available for us. We open channels of healing and will be able to help others on a physical and mental plane. This chakra will let us help us srengthen our abilities of mediumship. Once activated it will enable us to communicate with higher-dimensional beings like the Ashtar Command, the Ascended Masters and/or Archangels.
This chakra is connected with an immense awareness of our own power and ability.

The dreamachine (or dream machine) is a stroboscopic flicker device that produces visual stimuli. Artist Brion Gysin and scientist Ian Sommerville created the dreamachine after reading William Grey Walter's book, The Living Brain.

In its original form, a dreamachine is made from a cylinder with slits cut in the sides. The cylinder is placed on a record turntable and rotated at 78 or 45 revolutions per minute. A light bulb is suspended in the center of the cylinder and the rotation speed allows the light to come out from the holes at a constant frequency, situated between 8 and 13 pulses per second. This frequency range corresponds to alpha waves, electrical oscillations normally present in the human brain while relaxing.

A dreamachine is "viewed" with the eyes closed: the pulsating light stimulates the optical nerve and alters the brain's electrical oscillations. The "viewer" experiences increasingly bright, complex patterns of color behind their closed eyelids. The patterns become shapes and symbols, swirling around, until the "viewer" feels surrounded by colors. It is claimed that viewing a dreamachine allows one to enter a hypnagogic state. This experience may sometimes be quite intense, but to escape from it, one needs only to open one's eyes.

A dreamachine may be dangerous for people with photosensitive epilepsy or other nervous disorders. It is thought that one out of 10,000 adults will experience a seizure while viewing the device about twice as many children will have a similar ill effect.

Günter Wallraff (born October 1, 1942 in Burscheid near Cologne) is a famous German writer and undercover journalist.

Wallraff came to prominence thanks to his striking journalistic research methods and several major books on lower class working conditions and tabloid journalism. This style of research is based on what the reporter experiences personally after covertly becoming part of the subgroup under investigation. Wallraff would construct a fictional identity so that he was not recognisable as a journalist. In this way, he created books which denounce what he considers to be social injustices and which try to provide readers with new insights into the way in which society works.

Wallraff first took up this kind of investigative journalism in 1969 when he published 13 unerwünschte Reportagen ("13 undesired reports") in which he described what he experienced when acting the parts of an alcoholic, a tramp, and a worker in a chemicals factory.

He traveled to Greece in May 1974 at the time of the Ioannides dictatorship. While in Syntagma Square, he protested against human right violations. He was arrested and tortured by the police, as he did not carry, on purpose, any papers on him that could identify him as a foreigner. After his identity was revealed, Wallraff was convicted and sentenced to 14 months in jail. He was released in August, after the end of the dictatorship.

An estimated 200,000 farmers in India have committed suicide in the past 13 years, or, roughly one every thirty minutes

It was later determined that these genetically modified seeds use up to 13 times as much pesticide as conventional seeds and require fertilizer and irrigation systems, meaning farmers are no longer able to rely solely on rainfall.

. The present pyramid is not, however, of that first creation, but of a second, a 'new
order of the world" (novus ordo seclorum), represented here as constituted of
exactly 13 courses allegorical of our 13 original states. And whereas behind the
new pyramid there is only a desert to be seen, before and around it are the sprouting
seeds of a new and fresh beginning, dated 1776: 1 + 7 + 7 + 6 = 21. Mankind,
that is to say, has herewith come of age and taken to itself responsibility and
authority for the shaping of human lives according to Reason.

Moreover, between the dated course at the the pyramid's base, which tells of an
occurrence in Time, and the Eye at the top, which is of Eternity, there are 12 courses
this being the number of signs of the belt of the Zodiac as defining the limits of the
physical world. The number 13, accordingly, which is that of the dated course at
the base, represents a creative transcendence of the boundary of death, as appears
in the popular superstition of 13 at table, but an achieved life beyond death, as
signified in the model of the table at the Last Supper, where the 12 apostles were
of the number of the belt of the zodiac by which the physical world is bounded,
whereas the incarnate God who was about to die, though indeed among them in the
field of Time, was of Eternity, beyond the pale of death. Thus the number 13 of
our 13 originating states is here interpreted and celebrated as the sign of a
resurrection of life out of death, fresh leaves from a desert, a wholesome gift of
the light of Reason as an awakener to maturity of the mind in its social conscience.

The circle of 13 stars denotes unity of purpose as exemplified by the 13 original states.

Auriga is the 13th sign of the zodiac between Taurus and Gemini sometimes represented by The Charioteer or The Spider. It is my understanding that this 13th sign of the zodiac has been veiled or suppressed over time. Its like a link in the 12 sun signs that not only creates a complete circle of 13 signs, but it also step the cirlcle up to the next level - a spiral!

Auriga also relates to the alta Major Chakra. The Alta Major is situated to the below the ear and part of the 3 chakra's (chakrettes?) that form the Third eye.

Mormons by the way have had 13 Prophets since Muhammad.

Quite a few young Iranians even welcomed the invasion of Iraq, hoping it would bring freedom and democracy closer to them. Seeing how the US invasion has benefited the Shiites in southern Iraq, they joke that President George W. Bush is “the thirteenth imam.”

International organizations such as the World Bank , IMF , European Union , the United Nations , and NATO are often listed as core NWO organizations. Presidents and prime ministers of nations are routinely included in the conspiracy. A slightly different version of the NWO theory goes as far as saying that these families and persons are all part of the same 13 bloodlines .

In 1913 the Federal Reserve System was created by a group of bankers and politicians in a secret meeting and transferred the power of creating money from the US Government to these individuals.

Annuit Cœptis Novus Ordo Seclorum

The phrase means "New Order of the Ages". Some of those who believe that the Freemasons are involved in the conspiracy to create a New World Order claim that the motto is inspired by Freemasonry , and is one of the clues to the True Masters of the World. By circumscribing the 6 pointed hexagram , or Star of David , over the pyramid, 5 of the 6 apices (the 6th being the ' All-seeing eye '), point near letters spelling S-M-O-N-A, which can be rearranged to spell Mason monas and moans, as well as the phenome "omans", which possibly could portend to "omens"). (In Hebrew the word "oman" (plural "omanim") means artisan or skilled labourer, hence the possible reference in the word mason)


In Formula 1, no driver has had the number 13 on his car since 1976.

Baroness is a solitaire card game that is played with a deck of 52 playing cards. Also known as Five Piles and Thirteens, it is a game that has an arrangement that is almost like that of Aces Up but with the game play of Pyramid.
Five cards are dealt in a row they will form the bases of the five piles, the top cards of which are available for play.

Empress Wang Zhengjun (b. 71 BC)

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 through 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian/Common Era. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages, and after its conquests in Asia the Mongol Empire stretched from Korea to Eastern Europe.

1204 — Fourth Crusade sacks Byzantine Constantinople and creates the Latin Empire.
1204 — Fall of Normandy from Angevin hands to the French King, Philip Augustus, end of Norman domination of France.
1205 — Battle of Adrianople (1205): Tsar Kaloyan with his army crushed the (otherwise unbeaten) Fourth Crusade's knights and the soldiers of Emperor Baldwin I of Constantinople who was attacking Bulgarian lands with the goal to conquer them.
1206 — Mongols united under Temüjin, who is proclaimed "Genghis Khan".
1212 — The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in Iberia sees the beginning of a rapid Christian reconquest of the southern half of the Iberian peninsula, with the defeat of Moorish forces.
1215 — King John of England forced to sign Magna Carta at Runnymede.
1215 — Beijing is captured and torched by the Mongols under Genghis Khan, initiating the Yuan Dynasty in China.
1220 — The Islamic lands of Central Asia are overrun by the armies of the Mongol invader Genghis Khan.
1221 — The Maya of the Yucatán revolt against the rulers of Chichen Itza.
1222 — Andrew II of Hungary signs the Golden Bull which affirms the privileges of Hungarian nobility.
1227 — Genghis Khan dies during the prolonged siege of the Western Xia Dynasty capital (located in northwestern China), while the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty falls soon after.
1234 — the Jin Dynasty of northeastern China is conquered by the forces of the Mongol ruler Ögedei Khan.
1238 — The Thai Kingdom of Sukhothai is established, with Theravada Buddhism as the state religion. Later in the century it vassalises significant parts of modern Thailand, Laos, Burma, and Malaysia.
1249 — End of the Portuguese Reconquista against the Moors, when King Afonso III of Portugal reconquers the Algarve.
1250-1275 — the Arab or Persian born Muslim Pu Shougeng was appointed by the Song Dynasty Chinese government as the Commissioner of Merchant Shipping for Quanzhou.
1258 — Baghdad (Iraq), seat of the Muslim Abbasid dynasty, is besieged and burnt to the ground by the forces of the Mongol commander Hulagu Khan. The last Abbasid ruler Al-Musta'sim is executed by means of trampling horses.
1259 — the Mongol ruler Möngke Khan is killed in battle by a Chinese cannon blast at Fishing Town, Chongqing, located in southwestern China.
1260 — the Mongols are defeated by the Egyptian Mamluks in the Battle of Ain Jalut.
1270 — Restoration of Solomonic dynasty in Ethiopia, deposing the Zagwe dynasty.
1271 — Edward I of England and Charles of Anjou arrive in Acre, starting the Ninth Crusade against Baibars.
1276 — A severe 23-year drought begins to affect the Grand Canyon area, eventually forcing the agriculture-dependent Anasazi culture to migrate out of the region.
1277 — Sultan Baibars invades Anatolia and captures the emirates which once composed the Sultanate of Rüm.
1279, the Battle of Yamen marks the fall of the Chinese Song Dynasty and the rise of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty led by Khublai Khan.
1279 — The Chola Dynasty of South India falls under attacks by the Hoysala Empire and Pandyan kingdom.
1281 — Mamluk sultan Qalawun defeats an invasion of Syria by Mongol Ilkhan Abaqa Khan at the Second Battle of Homs.
1281 — The second Mongol invasion of Japan is foiled, as a large typhoon — famously called a kamikaze — destroys much of the combined Chinese and Korean fleet and forces.
1282 — Aragon acquires Sicily, after the Sicilian Vespers.
1283 — Kublai Khan's Mongol Empire invades the Khmer empire of present-day Cambodia King Jayavarman VIII decides to pay tribute rather than fight the invasion.
1284 — Peterhouse, Cambridge founded by Hugo de Balsham, the Bishop of Ely.
1285 — Second Mongol raid against Hungary, led by Nogai Khan.
1291 — The Swiss Confederation is formed by Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden.
1291 — Mamluk Sultan of Egypt Khalil captures Acre, thus exterminating the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (the final Christian landholding remaining from the Crusades).
Battle of Bouvines
Bantu-speaking peoples arrive in modern Angola, partially displacing the original Khoisan inhabitants.
Persian historian Rashid al-Din records eleven Buddhist texts circulating in Arabic translation.
James I of Aragon takes control of Balearic Islands and Valencia.
Marco Polo and his family reach China.
Norway cedes the Isle of Man to Scotland, following the signing of the Treaty of Perth.
Ögedei Khan establishes a Mongolian dynasty in China. Some Mongol leaders convert from Tantric Buddhism to Islam.
Teutonic Knights begin activity in Eastern Europe.
Theravada overtakes Mahayana as the dominant form of Buddhism in Cambodia.
A period of civil unrest, Sturlungaöld, leads to Iceland becoming part of the Kingdom of Norway.
End of Hohenstaufen dynasty at the Battle of Tagliacozzo. The Kingdom of Sicily goes to French Anjou house.
Fall of the Ghana Empire.
Fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. Sicily and Naples are acquired by the French count Charles I of Naples.
Fifth through eighth crusades of western European kingdoms against Islam.
Finland gets its first city, Turku.
First European universities founded.
Most of Asia and Eastern Europe is conquered and incorporated into the Mongol Empire.
The Medieval Warm Period ends.
The Utiguri Bulgar state on the Volga vanishes from history.
Samoa gains its independence from the Tu'i Tonga Empire, and founds the Malietoa dynasty.

The earliest known rockets, landmines, and handguns are made by the Chinese for use in warfare.
The Chinese adopt the windmill from the Islamic world.

Medieval Warfare Vol II, Issue 2: The Thirteen Years War: The end of the Teutonic Order - History

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These are books by authors I believe to be US citizens, books by non-US citizens that I believe to have been first published or simultaneously (ie, within 30 days) published in the US, and books I believe to have been published in the US by foreign authors whose period of copyright in their native country had expired by 1996 Jan 1.


These are books by authors I suspect to be US citizens, books by non-US citizens that I suspect to have been first published in the US, and books by non-US citizens that I believe were published in the US in the same year as they were published abroad & so may not have been first (ie, by at least 30 days) published abroad.


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戦争 における の最初の証拠は、 紀元前 4000 年から 3000 年の間の ユーラシアに 遡ります 。 シュメール 2500 BCから戦争の図は、いくつかのタイプ示す ウマ 引っ張るワゴンを。 紀元前 1600 年までに、改良された 馬具 と 戦車の 設計により、戦車戦は 古代中近東 全体で一般的 となり、最古の軍馬訓練マニュアルは、紀元前 1350 年頃に書かれた戦車馬の訓練ガイドでした。 正式な 騎兵戦術 が戦車に取って代わり、新しい訓練方法も変わり、紀元前360年までに、ギリシャの騎兵将校 クセノフォンは 馬術に関する広範な論文を書いていました。 戦闘で馬の有効性はまた、改良によって変革をもたらした 技術 等の発明として、 鞍 、 あぶみ 、および 馬の襟 。

戦争の形態に応じて、さまざまな種類とサイズの馬が戦争で使用されました。 使用されるタイプは、馬が騎乗するか駆逐されるか、また 偵察 、騎兵の突撃、 襲撃 、通信、または補給の いずれに使用されるかによって異なり ます。 歴史を通じて、 ラバ や ロバ 、馬は、野戦で軍隊を支援する上で重要な役割を果たしてきました。

馬は 、 中央アジア の 草原 からの 遊牧民 文化の 戦争戦術によく適していました 。 東アジアの いくつかの文化で は、騎兵と戦車が広く使用されていました。 イスラム教徒の 戦士は、 西暦 7 世紀と 8 世紀に始まった 北アフリカ 、 アジア 、 ヨーロッパ での キャンペーンで 軽騎兵 に 依存していました 。 中世の ヨーロッパ人は数種類の軍馬を使用して おり、当時の最も有名 な重騎兵 は装甲 騎士 でした。 騎士の衰退と戦争における火薬の台頭により、軽騎兵が再び台頭し、ヨーロッパの戦争と アメリカ大陸の 征服の両方で使用されました 。 戦闘騎兵隊は、18 世紀後半から 19 世紀前半にかけて多くの役割を担うように発展し、 ナポレオン戦争 での勝利に欠かせないものでした 。 アメリカでは、馬の使用と騎乗戦戦術の開発が 先住民の いくつかの部族によって学ばれ 、その結果、 アメリカの南北戦争 では機動性の高い馬連隊が重要 でした。

馬の騎兵隊は 、 戦車戦 を支持して 第一次世界大戦 後に段階的に廃止され始めましたが 、少数の馬の騎兵部隊は 、特に偵察として 第二次世界大戦で 使用さ れました。 第二次世界大戦の終わりまでに、馬は戦闘ではめったに見られませんでしたが、それでも軍隊や物資の輸送に広く使用されました。 今日、正式な戦闘準備が整った騎兵部隊はほとんど姿を消しましたが 、米国陸軍特殊部隊 は 2001年のアフガニスタン侵攻 中に戦闘で馬を使用しました . 発展途上国 では、組織化された武装した戦闘員が馬を使用しているのが今でも見られます 。 多くの国では今でも、巡回と 偵察の ために騎乗者の小さな部隊を維持して おり、軍の馬部隊も儀式や教育の目的で使用されています。 馬はまたのために使用されている 歴史の再現 戦いの、 法執行機関 、および中で 乗馬 軍が使用した後の競技乗馬やトレーニングスキル由来しました。

ウマのコンフォメーションの 基本原理 は、「フォーム・トゥ・ファンクション」です。 したがって、さまざまな形式の戦争に使用される馬の種類は、実行される作業、馬が運ぶまたは引くのに必要な重量、および移動距離によって異なりました。 [1] 重量は速度と耐久性に影響し、トレードオフが発生します: 装甲は保護を追加しますが、 [2] 重量が増えると最大速度が低下します。 [3] したがって、さまざまな文化にはさまざまな軍事的ニーズがありました。 状況によっては、1 つの主要なタイプの馬が他のすべての馬よりも好まれました。 [4] 他の場所では、複数のタイプが必要でした。 戦士は、より高速で耐久性のある軽い馬に乗って戦いに行き、実際の戦闘で重い鎧を着ているときは、より重い馬に乗り換えます. [5]

平均的な馬は、体重の約 30% まで運ぶことができます。 [6] すべての馬は、運べる重量よりも重い重量を引くことができますが、馬が引くことができる最大重量は、馬の体格、車両のタイプ、道路状況、およびその他の要因によって大きく異なります。 [7] [8] [9] 舗装された道路で車輪付きの車両に つなが れた 馬は 、体重の 8 倍もの力を引くことができます [10] が、未舗装の地形で車輪なしの荷物を引っ張る場合は、はるかに少ないです。 [11] [12] したがって、 運転される 馬 はサイズ が 異なり、乗馬する動物と同じように、速度と体重の間でトレードオフを行わなければなりませんでした。 軽馬は小さな戦車を高速で引くことができます。 [13] 重補給馬車、 砲兵 、支援車輌は、より重い馬またはより多くの馬に牽引された [13] 。 [14] 馬も大事車両にけん引された方法:馬はしてより重量を引くことができ 、馬の襟 と、彼らができるよりも 、乳房の襟 牛でさえ以下、 ヨーク 。 [15]

現代の アラビア 、 バーブ 、 アハルテケ の祖先のような 軽い 東方馬 は、 スピード、持久力、敏捷性を必要とする戦争に使用されました。 [16] そのような馬は約12の範囲であった 手 (48インチ122 cm)のすぐ下に15本のに 手 約360〜450キログラム(800〜1000ポンド)体重、(60インチ152センチ)。 [17] 素早く移動するために、ライダーは軽量の 馬具 を使用し 、弓、軽い槍、投げ槍、または後にはライフルなどの比較的軽い武器を 持たなければなりません でした。 これは、初期の戦車戦、襲撃、および軽 騎兵で 使用された最初の馬でした 。 [18]

比較的軽い馬を含め、多くの文化で使用された 古代エジプト人 、 [19] モンゴル 、 アラブ 、 [20] 、 および ネイティブアメリカン 。 全体を通して、 古代オリエント 、小型、軽量の動物は何より2人の乗客、運転手と戦士よりも運ぶために設計されていませプル戦車に使用されました。 [21] [22] ヨーロッパの 中世 では、軽量の軍馬が ラウンシー として知られるようになりました 。 [23]

鉄器時代の 初期に開発された中型の馬 は、2 人以上を収容できる戦車 [22] など、 より重い荷物を引っ張るためのさまざまな文明のニーズに応え、 軽装騎兵 が 重装騎兵 に 進化するにつれて 重機 を運ぶために 開発されました。 ライダー。 [24] スキタイが 高く、重い馬を生成する最古の文化の中にありました。 [25] 物資の荷馬車や、後には大砲を引くために、より大きな馬も必要になった [25] 。 ヨーロッパでは、馬は 、専用の 騎馬砲兵 部隊の 一部として、戦場で 大砲 を操縦するために限られた範囲で使用されました 。 中型の馬は、サイズの範囲が最も大きく、約 14.2 手 (58 インチ、147 cm) であるがずんぐりした [24] [26] から 16 手 (64 インチ、163 cm)、 [27] およその体重 である [27] 450 ~ 540 キログラム (1,000 ~ 1,200 ポンド)。 彼ら は、軽い馬ほどのスピードや持久力は持っていませんでしたが、 一般的に戦闘では非常に機敏でした [28] 。 中世 までに、 このクラスのより大きな馬は、 デストリエ と呼ばれることがあり ました 。 それらは、現代の バロック様式 または 重い温血 種に 似ていた可能性があります 。 [注1] その後、現代の 温血に 類似した馬は、 ヨーロッパの騎兵を運ぶことが多かった。 [30]

680 から 910 キログラム (1,500 から 2,000 ポンド) の体重がある大きくて重い馬は、今日の ドラフト ホース の祖先 であり、 中世 以降 、特にヨーロッパで使用され ました。 彼らは補給車のように重い荷物を引っ張り、戦闘では冷静さを保つようにした. 一部の歴史家は、 中世後期の 最も重装甲の 騎士 を 運んでいた可能性があると信じて いますが、この主張に異議を唱える 歴史家もい ます。 また、デストリエクラスにドラフト動物が含まれているかどうかについても論争があります。 [31] ヘビー級のカテゴリーの小さい方の品種には、 そのサイズの 割 に機敏で、戦闘で身体を 動かす ことができる ペルシュロン の祖先が含まれていた可能性があります 。 [32]

1813 年のイギリス陸軍の第 2 ドラグーンには、14.2 ハンド (58 インチ、147 cm) の ポニーが 340 頭 、14 ハンド (56 インチ、142 cm) の ポニーが 55 頭ありました 。 [33] 1899 年に結成されたロヴァット・スカウトは、ハイランド種に騎乗した。 [34] 英国陸軍は第二次世界大戦中に200頭のデールズ・ポニーを集め、群れや砲兵用の動物として使用した。 [35] と英国領土軍 は 1935 年 にダートムーア ポニーを 群れの動物 として使用する実験を行い、 その仕事にはラバよりも優れていることがわかった. [36]


馬だけではありませんでした ウマ 人間の戦争をサポートするために使用されます。 ロバ は、古代 [37] から現在に至るまで、 群れの動物として使用されてき ました。 ラバ は、特に群れの動物や荷馬車を引くためにも一般的に使用されたが、時には乗馬にも使用された [38] 。 [39] ラバは、多くの場合、馬より両方穏やかかつ丈夫であるので [40] 、 彼らはそのような困難な地形上運搬用品などの激しい支持タスクのために特に有用でした。 しかし、銃撃下では、馬よりも協調性が低く 、戦場で 砲兵 を運ぶのには一般的に使用されませんでした 。 [8] ラバのサイズとそれが置かれる仕事は、ラバ を生産した雌 馬 の繁殖に大きく依存した . ラバは、軽量、中重量、またはドラフト ホースの 雌 馬から生産された場合は中程度の重量でさえあり ます。 [41]

戦車戦用の馬の訓練に関する最古のマニュアルは c. 紀元前 1350 年、 ヒッタイトの 騎手である キックリ によって 作ら れました 。 [42] 特に 古代ギリシャの騎兵の ための乗馬の訓練に関する古代のマニュアル は 、ギリシアの騎兵将校 Xenophon によって紀元前 360 年頃に書かれた Hippike ( 馬術 について) です 。 [43] および別の初期のテキストは、 紀元前 323 年頃に書かれた カウティリヤの テキスト です。 [42]

馬が戦車を引くため、軽騎兵または重騎兵として乗るため、または鎧を着た騎士を運ぶために訓練されたかどうかにかかわらず、騒音、血の臭い、戦闘の混乱から逃れるという馬の本能を克服するには、多くの訓練が必要でした。 彼らはまた、武器を使用したり、武器を避けたりするときに、人間の突然または異常な動きを受け入れることを学びました。 [44] 接近戦で使用される馬は、蹴ったり、殴ったり、噛んだりすることを教えられているか、少なくとも許可されている可能性があります。 [45]

ほとんどの文化では、乗馬動物として使用される軍馬は 、主にライダーの 脚と体重 に反応して、 限られた 手綱の 使用で制御されるように訓練されていました 。 [46]は、 馬は、任意の必要に慣れになった タック 、それの上に置かれ、保護鎧、また、武器や防具を積んだだろうライダーの下でバランスを学びました。 [44] 馬のバランスと敏捷性を開発することが重要でした。 馬場馬術 の規律の起源は、 従順で操縦しやすいように馬を訓練する必要性から来ました。 [30] オートのエコール かの「高等学校」の動き 古典馬場馬術は で今日教え スペイン乗馬学校は 戦場のために設計演習で自分のルーツを持っています。 しかし、 ほとんどの場合、無防備な馬の下腹部が歩兵の武器にさらされるため、 地上 空気 は実際の戦闘では使用されそうにありませんでした。 [47]

戦車戦に 使用される馬 は、戦闘に備えて訓練されただけでなく、多くの戦車が 2 ~ 4 頭の馬のチームによって牽引されるため、混沌とした状況下で接近して他の動物と協力することも学ばなければなりませんでした。 [48]

馬は、おそらく彼らが運転される前に、先史時代に乗っていました。 しかし、証拠はほとんどなく、ほとんどが岩や粘土に描かれた馬のような動物に乗った単純な人物像です。 [49] [50] 馬を制御するために使用された最も初期の道具 は、馬が 家畜化さ れるのとほぼ同時に発明された、さまざまな種類の 手綱 でした 。 [51] 紀元前 3500 年から 3000 年にかけて カザフスタン 北部 の ボタイ文化の 遺跡で発掘された馬の歯に、 ビット 摩耗の 証拠が見られ ます 。 [52]


車輪の発明は、 戦車 戦 を引き起こした主要な技術革新でした 。 最初は、馬と オナガの 両方の馬 が、 牛の場合 と同様の方法で、首の周りに ヨーク を付けて車輪付きのカートにつながれ ました 。 [53] しかし、そのようなデザインは 馬の解剖学 に 適合せ ず、動物の強さと可動性の両方を制限する. ヒクソス が エジプト に 侵攻 する頃には 、c。 紀元前 1600 年、馬は馬車を牽引していました。この馬車 は、 胸の襟 と ブリーチ ング を 利用 した改良された ハーネス 設計で、 より速く移動し、より多くの重量を引くことができました。 [54]

戦車が戦争の道具として時代遅れになった後でも、牽引技術における技術革新の必要性は依然としてありました。 大量の物資や武器を引くには馬が必要でした。 西暦 5 世紀 ( 南北朝 ) の 中国 での 馬の首輪 の発明により、 馬 は、以前に使用された牛のヨークまたは胸の首輪で車両につながれたときよりも大きな重量を引くことができました。 [55] 頸環は 9 世紀にヨーロッパに到着し [56] 、12 世紀までに普及しました。 [57]

騎乗戦士の戦闘における有効性に革命をもたらした 2 つの主要な革新は、鞍とあぶみでした。 [58] ライダース迅速馬の背骨とから身を守るためにパッドに自分の馬の背中を学んだ 枯れ 、ブランケットまたはパッド馬の背中にし、初歩的なブライドルより少しで何世紀にもわたって馬に乗って戦いました。 ライダーの体重を分散させ、馬の背中を保護するために、一部の文化では、今日の 英国式サドル のパネルに似た詰め物が詰め込まれています 。 [59] どちらの スキタイ人 と アッシリア人が 追加で取り付けたと感じてパッドを使用 surcingle や 胴回り 馬の周り バレル 増加し、セキュリティと快適さのために。 [60] クセノフォンは、紀元前 4 世紀に騎兵の騎馬にパッド入りの布を使用することについて言及しました。 [43]

堅固な骨格を持つ鞍、または「 木 」は、馬をライダーの体重から保護するための座面を提供しましたが、AD 2 世紀まで普及しませんでした。 [43] しかし、それは決定的な違いをもたらしました。馬は、頑丈なサドル ツリーに分散させた場合により多くの重量を運ぶことができるからです。 今日の 西洋式サドル の前身である頑丈な木は また、より多くのビルドアップシートを可能にし、ライダーにサドルの安全性を高めました。 ローマ人は、 固体treedサドルの発明と信じています。 [61]

騎兵を特に効果的にした発明は、あぶみでした。 足の親指を保持するトウループは、紀元前 500 年頃にはインドで使用され [62] 、その後、取り付け補助具として単一のあばら筋が使用されました。 対になったあばら筋の最初のセットは、 晋王朝の 西暦 322 年頃に中国に現れました 。 [63] [64] 騎乗者が武器でより大きなレバレッジを可能にするだけでなく、騎乗中の安定性と機動性の両方を可能にするペアのあぶみの発明に続いて、 モンゴルの ような遊牧民グループ はこの技術を採用し、決定的な軍事的優位性を開発した. [62] 7 世紀までに、主に中央アジアからの侵略者により、あばら筋の技術はアジアからヨーロッパに広まりました。 [65] アヴァール 侵略者は、中央ヨーロッパにあぶみの使用を広めるための主に担当として表示されます。 [66] [67] しかしながら、あばら筋はヨーロッパで 8 世紀に知られていましたが、絵や文学でその使用に関する言及があったのは 9 世紀からのことです。 [68] イングランドを含む北ヨーロッパで広く使われているの は、9 世紀と 10 世紀に stir骨をこれらの地域に広めた バイキングによるもの とされ ています。 [68] [69] [70]

戦争で使用された馬 の最初の 考古学的 証拠は、紀元前 4000 年から 3000 年の間に 、 ユーラシア大陸 の 草原 、 今日の ウクライナ 、 ハンガリー 、 ルーマニアに までさかのぼります 。 長くないの後に 馬の家畜 、次の場所で、人々は、乗馬侵略者の脅威から保護するために大規模な要塞の町で一緒に暮らすようになった [61] 攻撃し、より速く、より定住文化の人々が従うことができるよりも逃れることができる人。 [71] [72] 草原 と現在の 東ヨーロッパの 馬に乗った遊牧民は、 他の部族やグループを征服したときに インド・ヨーロッパ語族 を 広めました 。 [73]

組織化された戦争における馬の使用は、記録された歴史の早い段階で文書化されました。 最初の描写の一つは、の「戦争パネル」である ウルの規格 では、 シュメール 、時代遅れC。 紀元前 2500 年、四輪の荷馬車を引く馬 (またはおそらくオナジャーまたはラバ) を示しています。 [53]

戦車の使用の最も初期の証拠には 、現代のロシアと カザフスタン の アンドロノヴォ (シンタシュタ - ペトロフカ) 文化 による馬と戦車の遺体の埋葬があり、 紀元前約 2000 年にさかのぼります。 [74] 何であったかの最古の証拠書類は、おそらく中戦車戦 古代オリエントは 旧ヒッタイトある Anittaの 包囲で馬の40のチームを述べた18世紀のBCのテキスト、 Salatiwara 。 [75] ヒッタイト人は 戦車との腕前のために古代世界的に有名になりました。 ユーラシア大陸のほとんどの戦争で戦車が広く使用されているのは、 c から知られる 複合弓の 開発とほぼ一致 しています。 紀元前1600年。 車輪と車軸のさらなる改良、および武器の革新により、すぐに 中国からエジプトまでの 青銅器時代の 社会 によって戦車が戦闘で運転されるようになりまし た。 [52]

ヒクソスの 侵略者に戦車をもたらした 古代エジプト 16世紀の紀元前にとエジプト人は前方その時間から、その使用を採用しました。 [76] [77] [78] 古代世界での軍馬の取り扱いに関して保存されている最古の文書は、 紀元前 1350 年にさかのぼる キックリ のヒッタイトのマニュアルで あり、戦車の馬の条件付けについて説明しています。 [42] [79]

戦車はに存在していた ミノア文明 彼らはからストレージリストにインベントリされたとして、 クノッソス で クレタ島 、 [80]は 周りの1450紀元前にさかのぼります。 [81] チャリオットは、 シャン王朝 (紀元前 1600 年 - 1050 年頃) まで中国でも使用され 、埋葬されていました。 中国で戦車が使用された最高点は 春秋時代 (紀元前 770 ~ 476 年) でしたが、紀元前 2 世紀まで使用され続けました。 [82]

古代ギリシャ と ローマ における戦車の戦術的役割の説明 はまれです。 イーリアス 可能性に言及、 Mycenaenの 慣行は、cを使用していました。 紀元前 1250 年、実際の戦闘ではなく、戦闘への戦士の移動に戦車を使用することについて説明しています。 [80] [83] 後に、 紀元前 55 年と 54 年に英国を侵略した ジュリアス・シーザーは 、英国の戦車兵が槍投げをした後、戦車を離れて徒歩で戦うことに注目しました。 [84] [85]

戦争で馬に乗った最も初期の例は、馬に乗った 射手 または槍投げで、 アッシリアの 支配者 アシュルナシルパル II と シャルマネセル III の治世にまで 遡り ます。 [50] しかし、これらの騎手は馬に大きく後ろに座っており、素早く移動するには不安定な位置であり、馬は地面でハンドラーによって保持され、射手が自由に弓を使用できるようにしました。 したがって、これらの射手は 、真の騎兵というよりも 一種の 騎乗歩兵 でした。 [43] アッシリア 人は、 紀元前8世紀に 小アジア に入り 、紀元前721年頃の サルゴン2世 の治世中 に ウラルトゥの 一部を占領し た キンメリア人 など、北部からの遊牧民による侵入に対応して 騎兵 を 開発した 。 [86] スキタイ人の ような騎乗した戦士 も、紀元前 7 世紀にこの地域に影響を与えました。 [60] 紀元前 669 年のアッシュール バニパル の治世まで に、アッシリア人は、今日でも見られる古典的な騎乗位で馬に前方に座ることを学び、真の 軽騎兵 と言えます 。 [43] 古代ギリシア人は 、両方の光馬のスカウトと重騎兵を用いる [43] [50] ない広範に、おそらく馬を維持するコストにありません。 [80]

重騎兵は、 古代によって開発されてきたと考えられていた ペルシャ 、 [50] 他の人がを主張が サルマタイ 。 [87] の時点で ダリウス (558から486 BC)、ペルシャ軍事戦術は、ウマ、完全装甲としたライダーに必要な 選択的交配 追加の重量を運ぶために重く、より筋肉質馬。 [24] カタフラクトは 中世までペルシャの時間から利用異なる戦術、鎧、および武器と重装甲騎兵のタイプでした。 [88]

では 古代ギリシャ 、 マケドニアのフィリップが 集結騎兵料を許可する開発戦術と信じています。 [89] 最も有名なギリシャの重騎兵部隊は、 アレキサンダー大王の 仲間の騎兵隊 でした 。 [90] 戦国時代 (紀元前 403 年 - 紀元前 221 年) の 紀元前 4 世紀の中国人は、 ライバル国に対して騎兵を使い始めました。 [91] 北と西からの遊牧民と戦うために、 漢王朝 (紀元前 202 年 – 紀元 220 年) の中国人は 効果的な騎乗ユニットを開発しました。 [92] 共和政 ローマ 時代には ローマ 人 は騎兵をあまり使用しなかっ たが、 ローマ帝国の時代 には重騎兵を使用していた [92] 。 [93] [94] しかし、ローマ軍のバックボーンは歩兵でした。 [95]

火薬が発明された後は、馬の別の主な用途は、通りであった ドラフト動物 用 重砲 、または 大砲 。 馬に引かれる大砲に砲手が徒歩で従軍 する 野戦砲 に 加えて 、多くの軍隊には 砲兵の砲台 があり、各砲手にはマウントが提供されていました。 [96] 騎馬砲兵ユニットは、一般的に 6 頭の馬が牽引する軽量の駒を使用していた [96] 。 「9 ポンド砲」は 8 頭の馬によって牽引され、より重い砲兵には 12 人のチームが必要でした。 将校、外科医、その他の支援要員に必要な個々の乗馬馬、および砲兵銃や補給馬車を引く人員を含めると、6門の大砲からなる砲兵隊には160~200頭の馬が必要になる可能性があります。 [97] 馬の大砲は通常騎兵師団の指揮下に入ったが、そのようなのようないくつかの戦いで ウォータールー 、馬の大砲攻撃を撃退、迅速な対応力として使用され、歩兵を支援しました。 [98] 敏捷性は重要でした。 理想的な砲兵馬は 、高 さ 1.5 ~ 1.6 メートル (15 ~ 16 ハンド ) で、頑丈に作られていますが、すばやく移動できます。 [8]


中央アジア およびその周辺の 草原 遊牧民と定住した人々との 関係 は、しばしば紛争によって特徴付けられました。 [99] [100] 遊牧民の生活様式は戦争に適していて、草原の騎兵隊は世界で最も軍事的に強力な部隊の一部となったが、遊牧民が頻繁に内部結束を欠いていることによってのみ制限された. 定期的に、強力なリーダーはいくつかの部族を 1 つの勢力にまとめ、ほとんど止められない力を生み出しました。 [101] [102] これらの統一されたグループには 、ヨーロッパに侵攻した [103] と アッティラの 下 の フン族 が含まれ、 2 つの連続したキャンペーン シーズン内に、500 マイル以上離れたフランス東部とイタリア北部の両方でキャンペーンを実施しました。 [72] 他の統一遊牧民勢力には、 中国に対する W Hu湖の 攻撃 [104] および ユーラシアの大部分の モンゴルの征服 が 含まれ ます。 [105]

古代 インド の文学には、 多くの馬の遊牧民が記載されています。 南アジアの軍馬の使用に最も初期の参照のいくつかはある Puranic の共同騎兵部隊によってインドの未遂侵入を参照してくださいテキスト、 Sakas 、 Kambojas 、 Yavanas 、 Pahlavas 、および パラダス 「5つの大群」と呼ばれます、 ( pañca.ganah ) または " K<0xC5><0xC5>atriya " の群れ ( K<0x9B><0x9B>aatriya ganah )。 紀元前 1600 年頃、彼ら は ヴェーダの 王 バフを退位させることにより 、 アヨーディヤー の王位を獲得 しました 。 [106] マハーバーラタ などの後のテキスト 、c。 紀元前950年、 軍馬 を 繁殖 させ、訓練された騎馬戦士を育成する ために取られた努力を認め ているようであり、 シンドゥ とカンボージャ地域の 馬は 最高の品質であり、カンボージャ、ガンダーラ、ヤバナは馬の戦いに長け ていたと述べた . [107] [108] [109]

In technological innovation, the early toe loop stirrup is credited to the cultures of India, and may have been in use as early as 500 BC. [62] Not long after, the cultures of Mesopotamia and Ancient Greece clashed with those of central Asia and India. Herodotus (484–425 BC) wrote that Gandarian mercenaries of the Achaemenid Empire were recruited into the army of emperor Xerxes I of Persia (486–465 BC), which he led against the Greeks. [110] A century later, the "Men of the Mountain Land," from north of Kabul River, [note 2] served in the army of Darius III of Persia when he fought against Alexander the Great at Arbela in 331 BC. [111] In battle against Alexander at Massaga in 326 BC, the Assakenoi forces included 20,000 cavalry. [112] The Mudra-Rakshasa recounted how cavalry of the Shakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Kiratas, Parasikas, and Bahlikas helped Chandragupta Maurya (c. 320–298 BC) defeat the ruler of Magadha and take the throne, thus laying the foundations of Mauryan Dynasty in Northern India. [113]

Mughal cavalry used gunpowder weapons, but were slow to replace the traditional composite bow. [114] Under the impact of European military successes in India, some Indian rulers adopted the European system of massed cavalry charges, although others did not. [115] By the 18th century, Indian armies continued to field cavalry, but mainly of the heavy variety.

East Asia

The Chinese used chariots for horse-based warfare until light cavalry forces became common during the Warring States era (402–221 BC). A major proponent of the change to riding horses from chariots was Wu Ling, c. 320 BC. However, conservative forces in China often opposed change, and cavalry never became as dominant as in Europe. Cavalry in China also did not benefit from the additional cachet attached to being the military branch dominated by the nobility. [116]

The Japanese samurai fought as cavalry for many centuries. [117] They were particularly skilled in the art of using archery from horseback. The archery skills of mounted samurai were developed by training such as Yabusame, which originated in 530 AD and reached its peak under Minamoto no Yoritomo (1147–1199 AD) in the Kamakura period. [118] They switched from an emphasis on mounted bowmen to mounted spearmen during the Sengoku period (1467–1615 AD).

Middle East

During the period when various Islamic empires controlled much of the Middle East as well as parts of West Africa and the Iberian peninsula, Muslim armies consisted mostly of cavalry, made up of fighters from various local groups, mercenaries and Turkoman tribesmen. The latter were considered particularly skilled as both lancers and archers from horseback. In the 9th century the use of Mamluks, slaves raised to be soldiers for various Muslim rulers, became increasingly common. [119] Mobile tactics, advanced breeding of horses, and detailed training manuals made Mamluk cavalry a highly efficient fighting force. [120] The use of armies consisting mostly of cavalry continued among the Turkish people who founded the Ottoman Empire. Their need for large mounted forces led to an establishment of the sipahi, cavalry soldiers who were granted lands in exchange for providing military service in times of war. [121]

Mounted Muslim warriors conquered North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula during the 7th and 8th centuries AD following the Hegira, or Hijra, of Muhammad in 622 AD. By 630 AD, their influence expanded across the Middle East and into western North Africa. By 711 AD, the light cavalry of Muslim warriors had reached Spain, and controlled most of the Iberian peninsula by 720. [122] Their mounts were of various oriental types, including the North African Barb. A few Arabian horses may have come with the Ummayads who settled in the Guadalquivir valley. Another strain of horse that came with Islamic invaders was the Turkoman horse. [123] Muslim invaders travelled north from present-day Spain into France, where they were defeated by the Frankish ruler Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours in 732 AD. [124]


Middle Ages

During the European Middle Ages, there were three primary types of war horses: the destrier, the courser, and the rouncey, which differed in size and usage. A generic word used to describe medieval war horses was charger, which appears interchangeable with the other terms. [125] The medieval war horse was of moderate size, rarely exceeding 15.2 hands (62 inches, 157 cm). Heavy horses were logistically difficult to maintain and less adaptable to varied terrains. [126] The destrier of the early Middle Ages was moderately larger than the courser or rouncey, in part to accommodate heavier armoured knights. [127] However, destriers were not as large as draught horses, averaging between 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm) and 15 hands (60 inches, 152 cm). [26] On the European continent, the need to carry more armour against mounted enemies such as the Lombards and Frisians led to the Franks developing heavier, bigger horses. [128] As the amount of armour and equipment increased in the later Middle Ages, the height of the horses increased some late medieval horse skeletons were of horses over 1.5 metres (15 hands). [127]

Stallions were often used as destriers due to their natural aggression. [129] However, there may have been some use of mares by European warriors, [129] and mares, who were quieter and less likely to call out and betray their position to the enemy, were the preferred war horse of the Moors, who invaded various parts of Southern Europe from 700 AD through the 15th century. [130] Geldings were used in war by the Teutonic Knights, and known as "monk horses" (German Mönchpferde or Mönchhengste). One advantage was if captured by the enemy, they could not be used to improve local bloodstock, thus maintaining the Knights' superiority in horseflesh. [131]

The heavy cavalry charge, while it could be effective, was not a common occurrence. [132] Battles were rarely fought on land suitable for heavy cavalry. While mounted riders remained effective for initial attacks, [133] by the end of the 14th century, it was common for knights to dismount to fight, [134] while their horses were sent to the rear, kept ready for pursuit. [135] Pitched battles were avoided if possible, with most offensive warfare in the early Middle Ages taking the form of sieges, [136] and in the later Middle Ages as mounted raids called chevauchées, with lightly armed warriors on swift horses. [note 3]

The war horse was also seen in hastiludes – martial war games such as the joust, which began in the 11th century both as sport and to provide training for battle. [139] Specialised destriers were bred for the purpose, [140] although the expense of keeping, training, and outfitting them kept the majority of the population from owning one. [141] While some historians suggest that the tournament had become a theatrical event by the 15th and 16th centuries, others argue that jousting continued to help cavalry train for battle until the Thirty Years' War. [142]


The decline of the armoured knight was probably linked to changing structures of armies and various economic factors, and not obsolescence due to new technologies. However, some historians attribute the demise of the knight to the invention of gunpowder, [143] or to the English longbow. [144] Some link the decline to both technologies. [145] Others argue these technologies actually contributed to the development of knights: plate armour was first developed to resist early medieval crossbow bolts, [146] and the full harness worn by the early 15th century developed to resist longbow arrows. [147] From the 14th century onwards, most plate was made from hardened steel, which resisted early musket ammunition. [146] In addition, stronger designs did not make plate heavier a full harness of musket-proof plate from the 17th century weighed 70 pounds (32 kg), significantly less than 16th century tournament armour. [148]

The move to predominately infantry-based battles from 1300 to 1550 was linked to both improved infantry tactics and changes in weaponry. [149] By the 16th century, the concept of a combined-arms professional army had spread throughout Europe. [147] Professional armies emphasized training, and were paid via contracts, a change from the ransom and pillaging which reimbursed knights in the past. When coupled with the rising costs involved in outfitting and maintaining armour and horses, the traditional knightly classes began to abandon their profession. [150] Light horses, or prickers, were still used for scouting and reconnaissance they also provided a defensive screen for marching armies. [135] Large teams of draught horses or oxen pulled the heavy early cannon. [151] Other horses pulled wagons and carried supplies for the armies.

Early modern period

During the early modern period the shift continued from heavy cavalry and the armoured knight to unarmoured light cavalry, including Hussars and Chasseurs à cheval. [152] Light cavalry facilitated better communication, using fast, agile horses to move quickly across battlefields. [153] The ratio of footmen to horsemen also increased over the period as infantry weapons improved and footmen became more mobile and versatile, particularly once the musket bayonet replaced the more cumbersome pike. [154] During the Elizabethan era, mounted units included cuirassiers, heavily armoured and equipped with lances light cavalry, who wore mail and bore light lances and pistols and "petronels", who carried an early carbine. [155] As heavy cavalry use declined armour was increasingly abandoned and dragoons, whose horses were rarely used in combat, became more common: mounted infantry provided reconnaissance, escort and security. [155] However, many generals still used the heavy mounted charge, from the late 17th century and early 18th century, where sword-wielding wedge-formation shock troops penetrated enemy lines, [156] to the early 19th century, where armoured heavy cuirassiers were employed. [157]

Light cavalry continued to play a major role, particularly after the Seven Years' War when Hussars started to play a larger part in battles. [158] Though some leaders preferred tall horses for their mounted troops this was as much for prestige as for increased shock ability and many troops used more typical horses, averaging 15 hands. [126] Cavalry tactics altered with fewer mounted charges, more reliance on drilled manoeuvres at the trot, and use of firearms once within range. [159] Ever-more elaborate movements, such as wheeling and caracole, were developed to facilitate the use of firearms from horseback. These tactics were not greatly successful in battle since pikemen protected by musketeers could deny cavalry room to manoeuvre. However the advanced equestrianism required survives into the modern world as dressage. [160] [161] While restricted, cavalry was not rendered obsolete. As infantry formations developed in tactics and skills, artillery became essential to break formations in turn, cavalry was required to both combat enemy artillery, which was susceptible to cavalry while deploying, and to charge enemy infantry formations broken by artillery fire. Thus, successful warfare depended in a balance of the three arms: cavalry, artillery and infantry. [162]

As regimental structures developed many units selected horses of uniform type and some, such as the Royal Scots Greys, even specified colour. Trumpeters often rode distinctive horses so they stood out. Regional armies developed type preferences, such as British hunters, Hanoverians in central Europe, and steppe ponies of the Cossacks, but once in the field, the lack of supplies typical of wartime meant that horses of all types were used. [163] Since horses were such a vital component of most armies in early modern Europe, many instituted state stud farms to breed horses for the military. However, in wartime, supply rarely matched the demand, resulting in some cavalry troops fighting on foot. [126]

19th century

In the 19th century distinctions between heavy and light cavalry became less significant by the end of the Peninsular War, heavy cavalry were performing the scouting and outpost duties previously undertaken by light cavalry, and by the end of the 19th century the roles had effectively merged. [164] Most armies at the time preferred cavalry horses to stand 15.2 hands (62 inches, 157 cm) and weigh 990 to 1,100 pounds (450 to 500 kg), although cuirassiers frequently had heavier horses. Lighter horses were used for scouting and raiding. Cavalry horses were generally obtained at 5 years of age and were in service from 10 to 12 years, barring loss. However losses of 30–40% were common during a campaign due to conditions of the march as well as enemy action. [165] Mares and geldings were preferred over less-easily managed stallions. [166]

During the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars the cavalry's main offensive role was as shock troops. In defence cavalry were used to attack and harass the enemy's infantry flanks as they advanced. Cavalry were frequently used prior to an infantry assault, to force an infantry line to break and reform into formations vulnerable to infantry or artillery. [167] Infantry frequently followed behind in order to secure any ground won [168] or the cavalry could be used to break up enemy lines following a successful infantry action.

Mounted charges were carefully managed. A charge's maximum speed was 20 km/h moving faster resulted in a break in formation and fatigued horses. Charges occurred across clear rising ground, and were effective against infantry both on the march and when deployed in a line or column. [169] A foot battalion formed in line was vulnerable to cavalry, and could be broken or destroyed by a well-formed charge. [170] Traditional cavalry functions altered by the end of the 19th century. Many cavalry units transferred in title and role to "mounted rifles": troops trained to fight on foot, but retaining mounts for rapid deployment, as well as for patrols, scouting, communications, and defensive screening. These troops differed from mounted infantry, who used horses for transport but did not perform the old cavalry roles of reconnaissance and support. [171]

Horses were used for warfare in the central Sudan since the 9th century, where they were considered "the most precious commodity following the slave." [172] The first conclusive evidence of horses playing a major role in the warfare of West Africa dates to the 11th century when the region was controlled by the Almoravids, a Muslim Berber dynasty. [173] During the 13th and 14th centuries, cavalry became an important factor in the area. This coincided with the introduction of larger breeds of horse and the widespread adoption of saddles and stirrups. [174] Increased mobility played a part in the formation of new power centers, such as the Oyo Empire in what today is Nigeria. The authority of many African Islamic states such as the Bornu Empire also rested in large part on their ability to subject neighboring peoples with cavalry. [175] Despite harsh climate conditions, endemic diseases such as trypanosomiasis, the African horse sickness, and unsuitable terrain that limited the effectiveness of horses in many parts of Africa, horses were continuously imported and were, in some areas, a vital instrument of war. [176] The introduction of horses also intensified existing conflicts, such as those between the Herero and Nama people in Namibia during the 19th century. [177]

The African slave trade was closely tied to the imports of war horses, and as the prevalence of slaving decreased, fewer horses were needed for raiding. This significantly decreased the amount of mounted warfare seen in West Africa. [178] By the time of the Scramble for Africa and the introduction of modern firearms in the 1880s, the use of horses in African warfare had lost most of its effectiveness. [178] Nonetheless, in South Africa during the Second Boer War (1899–1902), cavalry and other mounted troops were the major combat force for the British, since the horse-mounted Boers moved too quickly for infantry to engage. [179] The Boers presented a mobile and innovative approach to warfare, drawing on strategies that had first appeared in the American Civil War. [180] The terrain was not well-suited to the British horses, resulting in the loss of over 300,000 animals. As the campaign wore on, losses were replaced by more durable African Basuto ponies, and Waler horses from Australia. [126]

The horse had been extinct in the Western Hemisphere for approximately 10,000 years prior to the arrival of Spanish Conquistadors in the early 16th century. Consequently, the Indigenous peoples of the Americas had no warfare technologies that could overcome the considerable advantage provided by European horses and gunpowder weapons. In particular this resulted in the conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires. [181] The speed and increased impact of cavalry contributed to a number of early victories by European fighters in open terrain, though their success was limited in more mountainous regions. [182] The Incas' well-maintained roads in the Andes enabled quick mounted raids, such as those undertaken by the Spanish while resisting the siege of Cuzco in 1536–37. [182]

Indigenous populations of South America soon learned to use horses. In Chile, the Mapuche began using cavalry in the Arauco War in 1586. They drove the Spanish out of Araucanía at the beginning of the 17th century. Later, the Mapuche conducted mounted raids known as Malónes, first on Spanish, then on Chilean and Argentine settlements until well into the 19th century. [183] In North America, Native Americans also quickly learned to use horses. In particular, the people of the Great Plains, such as the Comanche and the Cheyenne, became renowned horseback fighters. By the 19th century, they presented a formidable force against the United States Army. [184]

During the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the Continental Army made relatively little use of cavalry, primarily relying on infantry and a few dragoon regiments. [185] The United States Congress eventually authorized regiments specifically designated as cavalry in 1855. The newly formed American cavalry adopted tactics based on experiences fighting over vast distances during the Mexican War (1846–1848) and against indigenous peoples on the western frontier, abandoning some European traditions. [186]

During the American Civil War (1861–1865), cavalry held the most important and respected role it would ever hold in the American military. [186] [note 4] Field artillery in the American Civil War was also highly mobile. Both horses and mules pulled the guns, though only horses were used on the battlefield. [8] At the beginning of the war, most of the experienced cavalry officers were from the South and thus joined the Confederacy, leading to the Confederate Army's initial battlefield superiority. [186] The tide turned at the 1863 Battle of Brandy Station, part of the Gettysburg campaign, where the Union cavalry, in the largest cavalry battle ever fought on the American continent, [note 5] ended the dominance of the South. [188] By 1865, Union cavalry were decisive in achieving victory. [186] So important were horses to individual soldiers that the surrender terms at Appomattox allowed every Confederate cavalryman to take his horse home with him. This was because, unlike their Union counterparts, Confederate cavalrymen provided their own horses for service instead of drawing them from the government. [189]

Although cavalry was used extensively throughout the world during the 19th century, horses became less important in warfare at the beginning of the 20th century. Light cavalry was still seen on the battlefield, but formal mounted cavalry began to be phased out for combat during and immediately after World War I, although units that included horses still had military uses well into World War II. [190]

World War I

World War I saw great changes in the use of cavalry. The mode of warfare changed, and the use of trench warfare, barbed wire and machine guns rendered traditional cavalry almost obsolete. Tanks, introduced in 1917, began to take over the role of shock combat. [191]

Early in the War, cavalry skirmishes were common, and horse-mounted troops widely used for reconnaissance. [192] On the Western Front cavalry were an effective flanking force during the "Race to the Sea" in 1914, but were less useful once trench warfare was established. [193] [194] There a few examples of successful shock combat, and cavalry divisions also provided important mobile firepower. [157] Cavalry played a greater role on the Eastern Front, where trench warfare was less common. [194] On the Eastern Front, and also against the Ottomans, the "cavalry was literally indispensable." [157] British Empire cavalry proved adaptable, since they were trained to fight both on foot and while mounted, while other European cavalry relied primarily on shock action. [157]

On both fronts, the horse was also used as a pack animal. Because railway lines could not withstand artillery bombardments, horses carried ammunition and supplies between the railheads and the rear trenches, though the horses generally were not used in the actual trench zone. [195] This role of horses was critical, and thus horse fodder was the single largest commodity shipped to the front by some countries. [195] Following the war, many cavalry regiments were converted to mechanised, armoured divisions, with light tanks developed to perform many of the cavalry's original roles. [196]

World War II

Several nations used horse units during World War II. The Polish army used mounted infantry to defend against the armies of Nazi Germany during the 1939 invasion. [197] Both the Germans and the Soviet Union maintained cavalry units throughout the war, [163] particularly on the Eastern Front. [157] The British Army used horses early in the war, and the final British cavalry charge was on March 21, 1942, when the Burma Frontier Force encountered Japanese infantry in central Burma. [198] The only American cavalry unit during World War II was the 26th Cavalry. They challenged the Japanese invaders of Luzon, holding off armoured and infantry regiments during the invasion of the Philippines, repelled a unit of tanks in Binalonan, and successfully held ground for the Allied armies' retreat to Bataan. [199]

Throughout the war, horses and mules were an essential form of transport, especially by the British in the rough terrain of Southern Europe and the Middle East. [200] The United States Army utilised a few cavalry and supply units during the war, but there were concerns that the Americans did not use horses often enough. In the campaigns in North Africa, generals such as George S. Patton lamented their lack, saying, "had we possessed an American cavalry division with pack artillery in Tunisia and in Sicily, not a German would have escaped." [190]

The German and the Soviet armies used horses until the end of the war for transportation of troops and supplies. The German Army, strapped for motorised transport because its factories were needed to produce tanks and aircraft, used around 2.75 million horses – more than it had used in World War I. [195] One German infantry division in Normandy in 1944 had 5,000 horses. [163] The Soviets used 3.5 million horses. [195]

While many statues and memorials have been erected to human heroes of war, often shown with horses, a few have also been created specifically to honor horses or animals in general. One example is the Horse Memorial in Port Elizabeth in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. [201] Both horses and mules are honored in the Animals in War Memorial in London's Hyde Park. [202]

Horses have also at times received medals for extraordinary deeds. After the Charge of the Light Brigade during the Crimean War, a surviving horse named Drummer Boy, ridden by an officer of the 8th Hussars, was given an unofficial campaign medal by his rider that was identical to those awarded to British troops who served in the Crimea, engraved with the horse's name and an inscription of his service. [203] A more formal award was the PDSA Dickin Medal, an animals' equivalent of the Victoria Cross, awarded by the People's Dispensary for Sick Animals charity in the United Kingdom to three horses that served in World War II. [202]

Today, many of the historical military uses of the horse have evolved into peacetime applications, including exhibitions, historical reenactments, work of peace officers, and competitive events. Formal combat units of mounted cavalry are mostly a thing of the past, with horseback units within the modern military used for reconnaissance, ceremonial, or crowd control purposes. With the rise of mechanised technology, horses in formal national militias were displaced by tanks and armored fighting vehicles, often still referred to as "cavalry". [204]

Active military

Organised armed fighters on horseback are occasionally seen. The best-known current examples are the Janjaweed, militia groups seen in the Darfur region of Sudan, who became notorious for their attacks upon unarmed civilian populations in the Darfur conflict. [205] Many nations still maintain small numbers of mounted military units for certain types of patrol and reconnaissance duties in extremely rugged terrain, including the conflict in Afghanistan. [206]

At the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom, Operational Detachment Alpha 595 teams were covertly inserted into Afghanistan on October 19, 2001. [207] Horses were the only suitable method of transport in the difficult mountainous terrain of Northern Afghanistan. [208] They were the first U.S. soldiers to ride horses into battle since January 16, 1942, when the U.S. Army’s 26th Cavalry Regiment charged an advanced guard of the 14th Japanese Army as it advanced from Manila. [209] [210] [211]

The only remaining operationally ready, fully horse-mounted regular regiment in the world is the Indian Army's 61st Cavalry. [212]

Law enforcement and public safety

Mounted police have been used since the 18th century, and still are used worldwide to control traffic and crowds, patrol public parks, keep order in processionals and during ceremonies and perform general street patrol duties. Today, many cities still have mounted police units. In rural areas, horses are used by law enforcement for mounted patrols over rugged terrain, crowd control at religious shrines, and border patrol. [213]

In rural areas, law enforcement that operates outside of incorporated cities may also have mounted units. These include specially deputised, paid or volunteer mounted search and rescue units sent into roadless areas on horseback to locate missing people. [214] Law enforcement in protected areas may use horses in places where mechanised transport is difficult or prohibited. Horses can be an essential part of an overall team effort as they can move faster on the ground than a human on foot, can transport heavy equipment, and provide a more rested rescue worker when a subject is found. [215]

Ceremonial and educational uses

Many countries throughout the world maintain traditionally trained and historically uniformed cavalry units for ceremonial, exhibition, or educational purposes. One example is the Horse Cavalry Detachment of the U.S. Army's 1st Cavalry Division. [216] This unit of active duty soldiers approximates the weapons, tools, equipment and techniques used by the United States Cavalry in the 1880s. [39] It is seen at change of command ceremonies and other public appearances. [39] A similar detachment is the Governor General's Horse Guards, Canada's Household Cavalry regiment, the last remaining mounted cavalry unit in the Canadian Forces. [217] [218] Nepal's King's Household Cavalry is a ceremonial unit with over 100 horses and is the remainder of the Nepalese cavalry that existed since the 19th century. [219] An important ceremonial use is in military funerals, which often have a caparisoned horse as part of the procession, "to symbolize that the warrior will never ride again". [220]

Horses are also used in many historical reenactments. [221] Reenactors try to recreate the conditions of the battle or tournament with equipment that is as authentic as possible. [222]

Equestrian sport

Modern-day Olympic equestrian events are rooted in cavalry skills and classical horsemanship. [223] The first equestrian events at the Olympics were introduced in 1912, and through 1948, competition was restricted to active-duty officers on military horses. [224] Only after 1952, as mechanisation of warfare reduced the number of military riders, were civilian riders allowed to compete. [225] [226] Dressage traces its origins to Xenophon and his works on cavalry training methods, developing further during the Renaissance in response to a need for different tactics in battles where firearms were used. [227] The three-phase competition known as Eventing developed out of cavalry officers' needs for versatile, well-schooled horses. [228] Though show jumping developed largely from fox hunting, the cavalry considered jumping to be good training for their horses, [229] and leaders in the development of modern riding techniques over fences, such as Federico Caprilli, came from military ranks. [230] Beyond the Olympic disciplines are other events with military roots. Competitions with weapons, such as mounted shooting and tent pegging, test the combat skills of mounted riders. [231]