The Amiot 144 was designed in an attempt to improve the performance of the twin engined Amiot 143M bomber. Work began on the new aircraft in October 1933, before the prototype of the Amiot 143 had made its maiden flight, and the prototype Amiot 144 made its own maiden flight on 18 January 1936.
The new aircraft was given retractable landing gear in place of the fixed undercarriage of the Amiot 143. The wing area was reduced and the wing aspect ratio was increased (by decreasing the width (front to back) of the wings), and wing flaps were installed. The nose turret was originally included, but was later removed and faired over.
In September 1936 the French Air Ministry ordered 25 Amiot 144s, but the prototypes performance in tests was disappointing, and by the end of 1936 the order was modified to one for another 25 Amiot 143Ms. Three versions of the Amiot 144 with alternative engines were considered (the Amiot 145, Amiot 146 and Amiot 147) but none were produced.
RLP 144: Research in Missouri: The Land and History
Today’s episode of Research Like a Pro is about the geography and history of the state of Missouri. We also discuss how understanding the land and geography will help in researching Missouri ancestors. Diana shares some of her takeaways from the Salt Lake Institute of Genealogy (SLIG) course she took with Pam Sayre on Missouri.
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Amiot 144 - History
Can you identify the Month and or Year?
A BIT OF HISTORY : ". ARM2 Maurice Prange Vandever's Personal Collection. While serving with VB/VPB-144 (Crew-4), Dad participated in 65 combat, photographic and reconnaissace patrols and carried out 22 bombing and strafing attacks, dropping a total of 25 tons of bombs and firing 10,000 rounds of ammunition against enemy fortified bases and armed shipping. On one ocassion, his plane was hit and received 81 holes in it with one engine shot out. Only once member of the crew was wounded and the pilot skillfully flew the plan for 120 miles on one engine in order to get back to the base safely. Dad received the Distinguished Flying Cross in 1994 and three Gold Stars. Photograph Caption: Taken at Roi in Kwajalien June 4, 1944. Actors L-R: Bill Gayle, C. E. Foseman, Bill Hoban, M. P. Vandever, R. E. Yunk, T. J. Lamb (standing on barrel) - our Plane. T. J. Lam is from Crew-1. " Contributed by Scott Vandever firstname.lastname@example.org [26DEC2010]
LEFT to RIGHT - ROW 1: Billy Walters, Monk Schiever and me, M. P. Vandever on right, Ruth Lawless "Chig" Tollison, M. P. Vandever, M. P. Vandever on right, M. P. Vandever on right and L-R: R. E. Chapmann, LT Wood and me.
A BIT OF HISTORY : ". Facts about VB-144. " Contributed by HOLCOMB, John [email protected] [01OCT2001]
In only two instances during the entire tour did the squadron fail to maintain its operating schedule? On both occasions the flights were canceled, due to weather. In view of these facts this record is all the more commendable.
Forty-three (43) bombing missions, Twenty seven (27) of the patrols, and special searches and, six of the hunter killer flights, were made at night.
Why the Tupolev 144 failed
You've probably heard of Concorde, the widely popularized and romanticized supersonic transport jet. But did you know that the Soviet Union had one of their own? The Tupolev Tu-144 actually came before Concorde - but why did it fail?
The issues with the Tu-144 were as much technical as political. The Tu-144 was designed during the late 1960s, at the height of a fierce technology race between the USSR and the US during the Cold War. This time, however, it was a competition with Europe. The Soviets expended much energy, time, and money into the Tu-144 project, conducting research and development. They wanted to have the project completed as quickly as possible, so they kept increasing their investments in it.
The result makes you do a double-take - it looks so much like Concorde. In December of 1968, the Tu-144 had its maiden flight - two years before Concorde did. It featured retractable canard wings, an extendable nose cone, and four afterburner turbojet engines. Concorde had a remarkably similar design, with an extendable nose cone, four afterburner turbojet engines, and delta-wing configuration. It did not have retractable canards, and it could turn off its afterburners, unlike the Tu-144. When landing, the Tu-144, with insufficient braking power, needed to use parachutes to slow itself down.
A multiview drawing of the Tu-144. NASA Public domain.
The Tu-144 got off to a rocky start. At the Paris Air Show in 1973, the airplane crashed. Whether this incident was due to pilot error or an engineering flaw, it certainly was not a good look for the aircraft, especially in its direct competition with Concorde, which was also at the same airshow.
Once it started carrying passengers in 1977, the Tu-144 was further riddled with problems. Mainly, the cabin was loud. Airplanes aren't known to be quiet machines, but it was exceptionally bad here. The passengers could not hear each other talk or shout, and resorted to passing notes for communication. The Tu-144 would not have been well-suited for long haul operations either. The always-activated afterburners, as well as the heavy weight of the aircraft made it a gas-guzzling beast that would not have gotten far without needing to refuel.
A Tupolev 144LL taking off part of the collaborative research project between NASA and the Russians. NASA photo by Jim Ross, 1998 Public domain.
After flying just one hundred and two commercial flights, 55 with passengers, the Tu-144 was retired after a short-lived operational history amidst a political embarrassment. Concorde went on to fly until 2003.
It wasn't the end of the Tu-144 though. After the Cold War ended, the US decided they wanted to collaborate with Russia on mutually beneficial research projects, one of which involved supersonic transport. In 1998 and 1999, the collaborative project went according to plan, and researchers were able to gather valuable data regarding supersonic transport. After the program ended, the aircraft has never flown since.
Association of Tinnitus and Other Cochlear Disorders With a History of Migraines
Importance: A headache is a symptom of a migraine, but not all patients with migraine have headaches. It is still unclear whether a migraine might increase the risk of cochlear disorders, even though a migraine does not occur concurrently with cochlear disorders.
Objective: To investigate the risk of cochlear disorders for patients with a history of migraines.
Design, setting, and participants: This study used claims data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 to identify 1056 patients with migraines diagnosed between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2012. A total of 4224 controls were also identified from the same database based on propensity score matching. Statistical analysis was performed from January 23, 1996, to December 28, 2012.
Main outcomes and measures: The incidence rate of cochlear disorders (tinnitus, sensorineural hearing impairment, and/or sudden deafness) was compared between the cohorts by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was also used to examine the association of cochlear disorders with migraines.
Results: Of the 1056 patients with migraines, 672 were women and 384 were men, and the mean (SD) age was 36.7 (15.3) years. Compared with the nonmigraine cohort, the crude hazard ratio for cochlear disorders in the migraine cohort was 2.83 (95% CI, 2.01-3.99), and the adjusted hazard ratio was 2.71 (95% CI, 1.86-3.93). The incidence rates of cochlear disorders were 81.4 (95% CI, 81.1-81.8) per 1 million person-years for the migraine cohort and 29.4 (95% CI, 29.2-29.7) per 1 million person-years for the nonmigraine cohort. The cumulative incidence of cochlear disorders in the migraine cohort (12.2%) was significantly higher than that in the matched nonmigraine cohort (5.5%). Subgroup analysis showed that, compared with the nonmigraine cohort, the adjusted hazard ratios in the migraine cohort were 3.30 (95% CI, 2.17-5.00) for tinnitus, 1.03 (95% CI, 0.17-6.41) for sensorineural hearing impairment, and 1.22 (95% CI, 0.53-2.83) for sudden deafness.
Conclusions and relevance: In this population-based study, the risk of cochlear disorders, especially for tinnitus, was found to be significantly higher among patients with a history of migraines. This finding may support the presence and/or concept of "cochlear migraine."
Conflict of interest statement
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
RV144: The Largest HIV Vaccine Trial in History
One of the biggest advances in AIDS vaccine research was a controversial, landmark treatment that tested a new vaccine on 16,000 Thai volunteers.
In a little under a year, scientists developed several vaccines against COVID-19. But as we line up for our shots, we are still living in the shadow of another pandemic. The search for a vaccine against HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, has been ongoing for nearly four decades. To this day, only one large-scale trial has demonstrated even marginal efficacy at preventing infection from the virus: the RV144 trial in Thailand—the largest HIV vaccine trial in history.
After HIV was discovered in 1983, some scientists “hoped that a vaccine for AIDS could be forthcoming within two years,” writes infectious-disease specialist Powel Kazanjian. Unfortunately, the traditional method for developing a vaccine doesn’t work with HIV. The virus mutates far too quickly.
Taking place over three years, from 2003 to 2006, RV144 was only the fourth HIV vaccine efficacy trial that was ever completed. It was also one of the first coordinated approaches to testing a vaccine treatment, writes Kazanjian. The phase III clinical trial, which recruited 16,000 volunteers in Thailand, was designed to test widespread efficacy of a two-vaccine combination (one “prime” and one “boost”). It was largely financed by the U.S. government and endorsed by eleven international review bodies.
Some argued that this collaboration did not stretch far enough: The National Institutes of Health didn’t consult enough independent scientists or establish a transparent process for deciding which treatments to move forward. Moreover, neither of the two vaccines had been independently successful (hence introducing the novel “booster shot” concept).
Several groups of scientists voiced their concerns in letters to the journal Science: “We believe that greater selectivity is needed to ensure that the products that reach phase III efficacy testing are promising ones that have reasonable chance for success,” wrote Dennis R. Burton et al. In another letter, Robert Gallo, the co-discoverer of HIV, expressed concern that “the high cost of phase III trials could easily deprive the field of the resources required to move forward the more promising of these candidates.”
Other scientists disagreed: in the same issue of Science, Robert Belshe et al. wrote, “If this trial…adds to knowledge about HIV vaccine development and prevents even a fraction of future HIV/AIDS cases, its contribution will be very important.”
In 2009, three years after the trial’s completion, the results were published. They revealed a marginal reduction in HIV infection, with a reported efficacy rate of approximately 32 percent. This isn’t a mind-blowing statistic—the treatment would have needed at least 50 percent efficacy for the Thai government to support approval—but it was the first evidence of effectiveness for any type of HIV vaccine. In all, 160 volunteers died over the course of the study, none from symptoms that were directly linked to the treatment.
Ten years later, Mitchell Warren, executive director of AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition, recalled the results of the RV144 trial as “the compass that reoriented [the] collective search” for an HIV vaccine, starting “incredible cascades of proof of concept.” He refers to RV144 as “the catalyst, a rejuvenation in the field.” Recently, a new HIV treatment showed promise in the very early “proof of concept” phase of testing and could potentially be combined with RNA technology to further innovation. The fight against HIV is far from over, but scientists aren’t giving up.
The French Strike Air Forces: A wasted chance ! (Revised 21 / 10 / 2013)
The Amiot 340
- The initially specified goals are modified very often,
- all the materials needed are released very late and scarcely and
- the people in charge of the project never agree to any easy modification.
Five months later (May 1938), an order was send by the Air Ministry for only 20 pure B4 bombers following strictly the specification of the 1934 program ( and not the Amiot 340 which would has been easy to manufacture as it was).
Who, in the French Air Ministry, could had hoped for a rapid industrialization of a so different aircraft ?
The Amiot 340 had a crew of 3 members, the new Amiot 350 needed 4, as she needed also a twin fins and rudders tail and a rear firing 20 mm cannon.
From a plane weighting less than 4800 kg, one derived another plane weighting 6500 kg.
Unfortunately, all being to be reconstructed, so, at least a complete year was wasted in vain.
The Amiot 351 / 354 bomber
Fortunately, for Mr Amiot, his engineer team stayed with him.
Now we have to examine the changes needed to metamorphose an Amiot 340 BR 3 in an Amiot 351 B4.
The only conserved parts were the wings and the fuselage with its modular conception.
First of all, it was required to fit a twin fins and rudders tail in order to use what was seen actually as a very powerful weapon: A 20 mm cannon.
Unfortunately, it was a very stupid specification based on a funny belief!
The so-called military deciders were absolutely convinced that a bomber was of course faster than any fighter.
Such a belief was the consequence of the appearance of the Heinkel 70 at the Paris Air Show in 1934.
This German aircraft had a retractable landing gear and a perfectly smooth skin and was really faster than the actually fielded fighters which were technologically aging.
So, if the fighters were only marginally faster than the bombers they were attacking, they were supposed to attack them mostly from behind.
So, a twin fins and rudders tail might allow to the gunner to down easily the imprudent poor fighter.
The Amiot fitted with that device were designated as Amiot 351.
Unfortunately, this layout was generating several shortcommings.
First, w ith the increasing speed, the turbulence created by the motors may interact with the 2 vertical surfaces, which then may begin to vibrate, inducing torsion in the stabilizer.
To avoid such a problem, one must strengthen the stabilizer which became significantly heavier.
The CEMA rejected rightly the first presented twin fins and rudders, afterward he rejected too the second then, also, the third, leading to the conservation of the classical layout (designated Amiot 354).
Nevertheless, some Amiot 351 were produced.
Amazingly, all the pilots who flew them were enjoyed by their flying qualities.
This bomber became very popular for them and general Vuillemin exacted to manufacture more Amiot 351 than LéO 451.
The most aggressive criticisms against the twin fins and rudders of the Amiot 351 were those of the follower of the LéO 451.
What is very odd, is that we know, today, that none of the Amiot 35x bombers crashed owing to their twin fins and rudders, unlike the numerous crashes of the LéO 451, owing their bad stability during take off.
Such historical facts are appalling, because they demonstrated the CEMA test pilots were not fair at all.
Unfortunately for French people, they acted as if they were members of an underground secret so c iety for which the fate of the French Nation did not count at all.
Another urgent problem the Amiot team had to solve was the integration of two radial engines to a streamlined aircraft.
By definition, such engine present always an important and unavoidable section area: Its skin must be cylindrical.
The only way to fix such a huge aerodynamic weakness is to work on the shape of both extremities of the engine envelop.
It was not very easy to do, because the cooling of the engine use a huge amount of cool air, inducing a significant air intake, as, also, an even larger hot air exit.
An interesting work was done by the chief Engineer PE Mercier of Lioré & Olivier.
He designed a sophisticated cowling which were aerodynamically very efficient.
Two shortcoming appeared with this revolutionary cowling: First, all its users, including the Germans, experienced a lack of cooling efficiency. Second, it was very difficult to maintain the engines fitted with it.
The cowling of the engines used in the Amiot 143 were not good, but sufficient to cool the 860 hp engines of an aircraft flying at only 310 kph.
Used in an aircraft flying 50% faster, it induced huge turbulence which prevented a good way to the cooling air.
The new cowling, using an air intake of only 76 cm in diameter, allowed very faster flights and inducing a far better cooling.
Unfortunately, during a CEMA test, a climbing to high altitude ended with an engine damaged.
It's impossible to suspect a lack of proficiency for the implied pilot.
So, knowing the hatred of the CEMA test pilots against Mr Amiot, it was likely that such an incident was a shrewd sabotage occurring after a long pre-flight station with the motor running, followed by a full out climb at a just too low speed.
If you have read my post on the Bloch 15x fighters, you may remember the problems of the cowling air intake!
The simple low was that the better cowlings were those which had the narrowest air intakes.
The USS MISSISSINEWA (AO-144), a Neosho-class oiler, was commissioned on 18 JAN 1955. Built by New York Shipbuilding Corp. of Camden, New Jersey, USS MISSISSINEWA took up station at Newport, Rhode Island and served with the Atlantic Fleet after commissioning. In 1956 she shifted homeport to Naples Italy and for the next eight years refueled the US Navy ships in the Mediterranean Sea. Returning to Newport, RI in 1964, she resumed the standard routine of an Atlantic Fleet "Oiler" fleet support along the East Coast, training and maintenance in preparation for deployment and "MED" cruises on a regular basis. USS MISSISSINEWA served her country for 21 years, 9 months and 28 days, until decommissioned on 15 NOV 1976. USS MISSISSINEWA was transferred to the Military Sealift Command as T-AO-144 after her decommissioning and continued to fuel the fleet with a civilian crew until 1991. The hulk of the MISSISSINEWA was scrapped in 2007.
The USS MISSISSINEWA (AO-144) deployment history and significant events of her service career follow:
1882 - Birth of Gaston Caudron, french aviation pioneer and aircraft designer along with his brother René.
1888 - Birth of Sir Thomas Octave Murdoch Sopwith, English aviation pioneer, founder of the Sopwith Aviation Company and yachtman.
1891 - Birth of Herbert Wilhelm Franz Knappe, German WWI flying ace
1893 - Birth of Dr. Wolfgang Benjamin Klemperer, German prominent aviation and aerospace scientist and engineer, who ranks among the pioneers of early aviation.
1893 - Birth of Douglas Evan Cameron, British WWI flying ace
1906 - The Zeppelin LZ2 is destroyed in a gale the day after its 1st flight.
1911 - Eugene B. Ely makes the 1st landing by an aircraft on a ship when he flies his Curtiss Model D pusher biplane from Selfridge Field near San Francisco to a specially prepared wooden deck on the stern of the armored cruiser USS Pennsylvania.
1913 - Birth of Wing Commander George Cecil Unwin DSO, DFM & Bar, British WWII fighter ace.
1916 - Birth of Giorgio Savoja (Savoia), Italian WWII fighter pilot.
1916 - 1st flight (complete one) of The Junkers J 1, German experimental aircraft and world's 1st practical all-metal aircraft.
1918 - Birth of Frederick C. Bock, WWII pilot who took part in the atomic bombing of Nagasaki in 1945, flying the B-29 bomber 'The Great Artist'
1920 - Death of Albert René Chabrier, French WWI flying ace
1921 - 1st flight of the production version of The Dewoitine D.1 , French single-seat fighter aircraft and 1st plane designed by Emile Dewoitine, high-wing monoplane, with a metal oval-section fuselage with duralumin sheet skinning, and a metal strut-braced parasol wing with fabric covering.
1930 - Death of Tommaso (Tomaso) Dal Molin, Italian pilot in the crash of his seaplane racer Savoia-Marchetti S.65 on Lake Garda.
1935 - 1st flight of The Blohm & Voss Ha 137, German single seat ground-attack prototype aircraft with a fixed landing gear and an inverted gull wing, very similar to the Ju-87.
1936 - 1st flight of the Amiot 144, French twin engine 5 seat bomber.
1944 - Death of Eugene Jules Emile Camplan, French WWI flying ace
1949 - 1st flight of the Westland Wyvern TF.Mk.2, Turboprop version of the British single-seat carrier-based multi-role strike aircraft.
1957 - End of Operation Power Flite, 3 B-52B aircrafts of the 93rd Bombardment Wing of the 15th Air Force lands at March Air Force Base near Riverside, California after flying for a total of 45 hours and 19 minutes, 1st jet aircrafts to circle the world nonstop
1958 - Birth of Jeffrey Nels Williams, USAF test pilot and NASA astronaut
1960 – Capital Airlines Flight 20 Vickers 745D Viscount crashes into a farm in Charles City County, Virginia, killing all 50 aboard.
1962 - 1st flight of the Westland Wessex HC. Mk 2, High-performance development of the Mk 1, British turbine-powered version of the Sikorsky S-58 "Choctaw".
1965 - Death of Charles Marie Joseph Leon Nuville, French WWI fighter ace and WWII officer.
1965 - 1st flight of the Sud Aviation 'Caravelle' 10R, Reengined version of the french short/medium-range jet airliner
1966 - Death of Henry Charles Biard, British early aviator, WWI instructor and pilot, post WWI air racer who also served in WWII.
1969 - Soyuz 5 reenters earth.
1969 – United Airlines Flight 266 Boeing 727-22C crashes into Santa Monica Bay killing all 32 passengers and six crew members.
1973 - Results of the USAF A-X fly-off announced, with the Fairchild YA-10 selected over the Northrop YA-9.
1977 - A Yugoslav Government Learjet 25B crashed on the Inac mountain near Kreševo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, in poor weather Killing all 8 on board including prime minister of Yugoslavia Džemal Bijedic.
1979 - Death of Giovanni Ballestra, Italian Air Force pilot, not bailing out of his F-104 Starfighter on fire in order to avoid victims in a high denisity population zone.
1981 - Bell Helicopters delivered its 25.000th helicopter, a Model 222, to Omniflight Helicopters.
1982 - Death of Josef Mai, German WWI fighter ace and WWII instructor.
1982 - 4 Northrop T-38A Talon of the USAF aerobatic team 'Thunderbirds' crashed at Indian Springs Air Force Auxiliary Field, Nevada (now Creech Air Force Base) during operational training. The pilots were practicing the four-plane line abreast loop, in which the aircraft climb in side-by-side formation several thousand feet, pull over in a slow, backward loop, and descend at more than 400 mph. The planes were meant to level off at about 100 feet (30 m) Instead, the formation struck the ground at high speed.
1985 - CAAC Antonov AN-24B Crashed while performing a missed approach in drizzle and fog at Jinan Airport, China, Killing 38 over 41
1986 - Aerovias Guatemala Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravelle III crashed in the jungle 8 km (5 mls) from Flores (Guatemala) after two missed approaches, killing all 87 occupants.
1986 - STS-61-C Space Shuttle Columbia returns on earth, last shuttle mission before the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.
1988 - China Southwest Airlines Flight 4146 Ilyushin Il-18D crashed near Chongqing, China, after No 4 engine (the outer engine on the right wing) caught fire. The fire burned the engine mount and the engine fell off the aircraft's wing causing a loss of control. All 108 on board were killed.
1991 - Eastern Air Lines is dissolved after 64 years of operation. Many of its remaining assets are parceled out to American and Continental.
2001 - 1st flight of the Sikorsky S-70B-28, development of the SH-60B "Sea Hawk", American utility helicopter, for the Turkish Navy.
Manuscript source: Invited manuscript
Specialty type: Gastroenterology and hepatology
Country of origin: United States
Peer-review report classification
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the Authors have no conflict of interest related to the manuscript.
Peer-review started: May 5, 2019
First decision: June 10, 2019
Article in press: July 3, 2019
P-Reviewer: Cremers I, Fedeli U, Kim KJ S-Editor: Yan JP L-Editor: A E-Editor: Zhang YL