USS Hart (DD-110/ DM-8)

USS Hart (DD-110/ DM-8)

USS Hart (DD-110/ DM-8)

USS Hart (DD-110/ DM-8) was a Wickes class destroyer that operated in the Far East during the 1920s.

The Hart was named after Midshipman Ezekiel B. Hat, who was killed on Lake Ontario in 1814 and Lt. Commander John E. Hart, who served in the Gulf of Mexico during the American Civil War.

The Hart was launched at the Union Iron Works, San Francisco, on 4 July 1918 and commissioned on 26 May 1919, with Commander Harold Jones in command. This was an unusually long gap for a Wickes class destroyer, and shows how the urgency went out of the construction programme as the First World War came to an end.

The Hart joined the Destroyer Force and operated off California from 1919 to the summer of 1920. On 17 July 1920 she was reclassified as a minelayer, DM-8. The mine laying equipment was installed at the Mare Island Navy Yard, and she was then allocated to the Mine Detachment, Asiatic Fleet. She departed for the Philippines in November 1920, and spent the next decade operating around the Philippines and in Chinese waters.

Some of her men took part in the American intervention at Shanghai in June-July 1925 (in the aftermath of strikes and demonstrations triggered after Shanghai Municipal Police officers opened fire on Chinese protestors in the International Settlement), and those who landed qualified for the Shanghai Expeditionary Medal.

The Hart also operated in the Yangtze, and those who served on her between 1 October-1 December 1927, 19 December 1926-9 January 1927, 25 May-4 August 1927 or 11-17 October 1927 qualified for the Yangtze Service Medal.

The Hart left Manila to be recommissioned on 12 December 1930. She reached San Diego on 24 January 1931 and was decommissioned on 1 June 1931. She was struck off the Navy List on 11 November and sold for scrap on 25 February 1932, to satisfy the terms of the London Naval Treaty of 1930.

Displacement (standard)

Displacement (loaded)

Top Speed

35kts design
34.81kts at 27,350shp at 1,236t on trial (Kimberly)


2 shaft Parsons turbines
4 boilers
27,000shp design


2,500nm at 20kts (design)

Armour - belt

- deck


314ft 4.5in


30ft 11.5in


Four 4in/ 50 guns
Twelve 21in torpedo tubes in four triple mountings
Two 1-pounder AA guns
Two depth charge tracks

Crew complement


51 year-old male with a history of HTN, DM and chronic alcohol abuse presenting with lower extremity swelling. He notes one month of progressive, bilateral lower extremity swelling, in the past two weeks associated with increasing pain and redness and is now no longer able to ambulate due to pain. He denies fevers/chills, chest pain or shortness of breath. He also denies orthopnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. He states that he has not had these symptoms prior to one month ago. On review of systems he denies nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel or urinary habits. He has a history of GI bleeding (unknown treatment) but denies hematemesis, hematochezia or melena. He has previously experienced alcohol withdrawal, which manifested as tremors, but no hallucinations or seizures.

  • Drinks 1-2 pints of alcohol daily, last drink this morning.
  • Denies current tobacco or drug abuse, no prior IVDA.


USS Hart (DD-110/ DM-8) - History

Commander William A. Glassford

TRACY (DD-214) (F)
Cmdr. William A. Glassford
Lt. Cmdr. V. L. Kirman
Cmdr. Frank Jack Fletcher
BORIE (DD-215)
Lt. Cmdr. L. C. Scheibla
Lt. D. M. Steece
Cmdr. W. H. Lee

STEWART (DD-224) (F)
Lt. Cmdr. H. B. McCleary

Commander R. C. Needham

S-2 (SS-106)
Lt. William S. Popham, jr.
S-14 (SS-119)
Lt. J. J. Twomey
S-15 (SS-120)
Lt. (j.g.) C. C. Dyer
S-16 (SS-121)
Lt. L. W. Busby jr.
S-17 (SS-122)
Lt. R. S. Barrett

Commander William L. Friedell

S-3 (SS-107)**
Lt. G. Hutchins
S-4 (SS-109)
Lt. Humbert W. Ziroli
S-6 (SS-111)
Lt. J. P. Conover
S-7 (SS-112)
Lt. R. T. S. Gladden
S-8 (SS-113)
Lt. B. S. Killmaster
S-9 (SS-114)
Lt. Herbert B. Knowles

Captain C. S. Freeman

PREBLE (DD-345) (F)
Capt. C. S. Freeman
Lt. Cmdr. Frank A. Braisted
NOA (DD-343)
Cmdr. R. A. Thebald
Lt. Cmdr. Willis A. Lee, jr.
Lt. Cmdr. L. W. Comstock
Cmdr. H. W. McCormack


PEARY (DD-226) (F)
Cmdr. J. S. Abbott
Lt. Cmdr. H. H. Frost
Lt. Cmdr. H. V. McKittrick
POPE (DD-225)
Lt. Cmdr. H. M. Lammers
Lt. Cmdr. T. H. Winters
Lt. Cmdr. Howard A. Flanigan

RIZAL (DM-14) (F)
Cmdr. W. E. Hall
Lt. Cmdr. G. C. Barnes
Lt. E. H. Geiselman
Lt. L. F. Safford

USS Hart (DD-110)

USS Hart (DD-110) amerykański niszczyciel typu Wickes będący w służbie United States Navy w okresie po I wojnie światowej. Patronami okrętu byli Ezekiel Hart i John E. Hart.

Okręt zwodowano 4 lipca 1918 w stoczni Union Iron Works w San Francisco. Matką chrzestną była żona Daniela C. Nuttinga. Jednostka weszła do służby 26 maja 1919, pierwszym dowódcą został Comdr. Harold Jones.

"Hart" dołączył do sił niszczycieli i operował w pobliżu kalifornijskiego wybrzeża do 17 lipca 1920. Wtedy został przeklasyfikowany na niszczyciel-stawiacz min, DM-8, i przeszedł do Mare Island Naval Shipyard by zainstalować odpowiednie wyposażenie. Po przebudowie okręt został przydzielony do Oddziału Minowego Floty Azjatyckiej (ang. Mine Detachment, Asiatic Fleet) i popłynął na Filipiny w listopadzie 1920. Następnie operował na wodach filipińskich i chińskich w ramach operacji pokojowych.

Otrzymawszy rozkaz przejścia do San Diego na dezaktywację "Hart" wypłynął z Manili 12 grudnia 1930 i dotarł do San Diego 24 stycznia 1931. Został wycofany ze służby 1 czerwca 1931. Jego nazwę skreślono z listy okrętów floty 11 listopada. Okręt został sprzedany na złom 25 lutego 1932 zgodnie z ustaleniami londyńskiego traktatu morskiego.

A Community Focused on Helping Children

Children live in one of thirty residences designed like a spacious single-family home. Each residence is home for six to twelve children.

The heart of the program is Family Teachers providing a consistent, systematic method of care, with emphasis on social-skills development skills essential for success in later life.

It is Mooseheart's policy to admit qualified children who have a need. The Admissions Committee considers all applications of children in need.

We invite you to look over our website and if we can be of assistance to you or someone you know, please contact the Admissions Office.


Can pancreatitis be prevented?

The best way to prevent pancreatitis is to have a healthy lifestyle. Aim to:

  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Get regular exercise.
  • Stop smoking.
  • Avoid alcohol.

These healthy lifestyle choices will also help you avoid gallstones, which cause 40% of acute pancreatitis cases. Your provider may recommend removing your gallbladder if you have painful gallstones multiple times.

5. Eric Clapton

Incendiary blues from the man once apocryphally called ‘God’

“It’s unrecordable.&rdquo That was the verdict of a shellshocked engineer in March 1966, as a 21-year-old Eric Clapton plugged a 1960 Les Paul into a 1962 Marshall 2x12 combo, dialled up the volume and detonated Decca Studios.

“I thought the obvious solution was to get an amp and play it as loud as it would go,&rdquo the guitarist reasoned of his approach to the trailblazing Blues-breakers album with John Mayall. “Until it was just about to burst.&rdquo

It’s fair to say that history has proved the engineer wrong. The guitarist was not only recordable, but revolutionary, lighting the fuse on the British blues boom, jostling with Jimi Hendrix as the era’s ultimate guitar hero and reaffirming his status as guitar legend ever since.

Our lick navigates a turnaround with minor-to-major-3rd hammer-ons. The final note lands on a change to the V chord, typical of a I-IV-V progression.

Alesis DM Pro User Manual

© Copyright 1998, Alesis Studio Electronics, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited. “DM Pro”, “DM5”, “QS8” and “QS6.1” are trademarks of Alesis Studio Electronics, Inc.

Selected material for this manual was imported from the Alesis DM5 TM and QS8 TM Reference Manuals by Geoff Ryle.

Additional material imported from the QS6.1 TM Reference Manual by Connor Freff Cochran and Randy Lee.

The illustration on page 50 is from Emagic™ Sound Diver™, © Michael Haydn.

Thanks to Robert Rampley, David Bryce, Connor Freff Cochran, Taiho Yamada, Mike Peake, Mark McCrite, Ed Burzycki, Chris Asmus, David Cadmus, Julie Yarbrough, David Seaton, Jim Mack, Danna Teal, David Bertovic, Geoff Ryle, Grant Kraus, Marcus Ryle and Michel Doidic for invaluable information, support and guidance.


Alesis Studio Electronics, Inc.

Telephone: 800-5-ALESIS (800-525-3747)

Important Safety Instructions.

Safety symbols used in this product.

Please follow these precautions when using this product: .

Instructions de Sécurité Importantes (French) .

Symboles utilisés dans ce produit.

Veuillez suivre ces précautions lors de l’utilisation de l’appareil.

Beim Benutzen dieses Produktes beachten Sie bitte die folgenden

CE Declaration of Conformity .

Chapter 1: Welcome to the DM Pro .

Line Conditioners and Protectors .

External Trigger Connections .

Chapter 2: A Brief Hands-On Tutorial .

Selecting and Auditioning Drumkits .

Selecting Individual Drums Within a Drumkit.

Saving Changes to a Drumkit .

Setting the Effects Buss Assignments and Send Levels .

Editing the Effects Themselves.

Chapter 3: System Architecture .

Other Programming Terms You Should Know.

The Three Modes of the DM Pro .

Chapter 4: Programming Drumkits.

A Note About Using the PREVIEW Button .



The DRUMKIT NAME Function.

Chapter 5: Programming Effects .



The DELAY EFFECTS Function .


Pitch Type: CHORUS or FLANGER.


Chapter 6: Programming Drums.

The SOUND SELECT Function .

The VOICE SELECT Function .

A Note About the PREVIEW Button and VELOCITY CURVES.

The Three ENVELOPE GENERATOR Functions .

About the Individual Envelopes .






P2 The TRIGGER GAIN Function.


Trigger Velocity Curve Settings .

P4 The THRESHOLD Function .

P4 The HAT THRESHOLD Function .

P5 The RETRIGGER Function.

P6 The CROSSTALK Function.





The Interactive Hi-Hat Performance .


P13 The AUX TRIGGER GAIN Function.

Tips for Triggering from Acoustic Drums.

Mounting Hardware and Configuration .

Chapter 8: Global Functions .

The GLOBAL STORE Function .

A Word About the Included CD-ROM .

Using PCMCIA Expansion Cards .


Using Alesis QCard Expansion Cards .

Playing Back a Sequence from the Card Slot .

Appendix A: Troubleshooting.

Checking the Software Version .

Reinitializing the DM Pro .

Appendix B: Advanced Trigger Information.

The DM Pro Trigger Process .

Trigger Connection Diagrams .

Trigger/Pedal Connector Types.

Appendix C: MIDI Supplement .

Channel Messages: Mode Messages.

Channel Messages: Voice Messages .

MIDI Implementation Chart .

Appendix D: Glossary of Terms .




This symbol alerts the user that there are important operating and maintenance instructions in the literature accompanying this unit.

This symbol warns the user of uninsulated voltage within the unit that can cause dangerous electric shocks.


1. Read these instructions.

2. Keep these instructions.

4. Follow all instructions.

5. Do not use this apparatus near water.

6. Clean only with a damp cloth. Do not spray any liquid cleaner onto the faceplate, as this may damage the front panel controls or cause a dangerous condition.

7. Install in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

8. Do not install near any heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other apparatus (including amplifiers) that produce heat.

9. Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized or grounding-type plug. A polarized plug has two blades with one wider than the other. A grounding-type plug has two blades and a third grounding prong. The wide blade or the third

Important Safety Instructions

prong are provided for your safety. When the provided plug does not fit into your outlet, consult an electrician for replacement of the obsolete outlet.

10. Protect the power cord from being walked on or pinched, particularly at plugs, convenience receptacles, and the point where they exit from the apparatus.

11. Use only attachments or accessories specified by the manufacturer.

12. Use only with a cart, stand, bracket, or table designed for use with professional audio or music equipment. In any installation, make sure that injury or damage will not result from cables pulling on the apparatus and its mounting. If a cart is used, use caution when moving the cart/ apparatus combination to avoid injury from tip-over.

13. Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms or when unused for long periods of time.

14. Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Servicing is required when the apparatus has been damaged in any way, such as when the power-supply cord or plug is damaged, liquid has been spilled or objects have fallen into the apparatus, the apparatus has been exposed to rain or moisture, does not operate normally, or has been dropped.

15. This unit produces heat when operated normally. Operate in a wellventilated area.

16. This product, in combination with an amplifier and headphones or speakers, may be capable of producing sound levels that could cause permanent hearing loss. Do not operate for a long period of time at a high volume level or at a level that is uncomfortable. If you experience any hearing loss or ringing in the ears, you should consult an audiologist.


Important Safety Instructions



Ce symbole alèrte l’utilisateur qu’il existe des instructions de fonctionnement et de maintenance dans la documentation jointe avec ce produit.

Ce symbole avertit l’utilisateur de la présence d’une tension non isolée à l’intérieur de l’appareil pouvant engendrer des chocs électriques.



2. Gardez ces instructions.

3. Tenez compte de tous les avertissements.

4. Suivez toutes les instructions.

5. N’utilisez pas cet allareil à proximité de l’eau.

6. Ne nettoyez qu’avec un chiffon humide. Ne pas vaporiser de liquide nettoyant sur l’appareil, cela pourrait abîmer les contrôles de la face avant ou engendrer des conditions dangeureuses.

7. Installez selon les recommandations du constructeur.

8. Ne pas installer à proximilé de sources de chaleur comme radiateurs, cuisinière ou autre appareils (don’t les amplificateurs) produisant de la chaleur.

9. Ne pas enlever la prise de terre du cordon secteur. Une prise murale avec terre deux broches et une troisièrme reliée à la terre. Cette dernière est présente pour votre sécurité. Si le cordon secteur ne rentre pas dans la prise de courant, demandez à un électricien qualifié de remplacer la prise.

10. Evitez de marcher sur le cordon secteur ou de le pincer, en particulier au niveau de la prise, et aux endroits où il sor de l’appareil.

11. N’utilisez que des accessoires spécifiés par le constructeur.


Important Safety Instructions

12. N’utilisez qu’avec un stand, ou table conçus pour l’utilisation d’audio professionnel ou instruments de musique. Dans toute installation, veillez de ne rien endommager à cause de câbles qui tirent sur des appareils et leur support.

13. Débranchez l’appareil lors d’un orage ou lorsqu’il n’est pas utilisé pendant longtemps.

14. Faites réparer par un personnel qualifié. Une réparation est nécessaire lorsque l’appareil a été endommagé de quelque sorte que ce soit, par exemple losrque le cordon secteur ou la prise sont endommagés, si du liquide a coulé ou des objets se sont introduits dans l’appareil, si celui-ci a été exposé à la pluie ou à l’humidité, ne fonctionne pas normalement ou est tombé.

15. Cet appareil produit de la chaleur en fonctionnement normal.

16. Ce produit, utilisé avec un amplificateur et un casque ou des enceintes, est capable de produite des niveaux sonores pouvant engendrer une perte permanente de l’ouïe. Ne l’utilisez pas pendant longtemps à un niveau sonore élevé ou à un niveau non confortable. Si vous remarquez une perte de l’ouïe ou un bourdonnement dans les oreilles, consultez un spécialiste.


Important Safety Instructions



2. Halten Sie sich an die Anleitung.

3. Beachten Sie alle Warnungen.

4. Beachten Sie alle Hinweise.

5. Bringen Sie das Gerät nie mit Wasser in Berührung.

6. Verwenden Sie zur Reinigung nur ein weiches Tuch. Sprühen Sie keine flüssiger Reiniger auf die Oberfläche, dies könnte zur Beschädigung der Vorderseite führen und auch weitere Schäden verursachen.

7. Halten Sie sich beim Aufbau des Gerätes an die Angaben des Herstellers.

8. Stellen Sie das Gerät nich in der Nähe von Heizkörpern, Heizungsklappen oder anderen Wärmequellen (einschließlich Verstärkern) auf.

9. Verlegen Sie das Netzkabel des Gerätes niemals so, daß man darüber stolpern kann oder daß es gequetscht wird.

10. Benutzen Sie nur das vom Hersteller empfohlene Zubehör.

11. Verwenden Sie ausschließlich Wagen, Ständer, oder Tische, die speziell für professionelle Audiound Musikinstrumente geeignet sind. Achten Sie immer darauf, daß die jeweiligen Geräte sicher installiert sind, um Schäden und Verletzungen zu vermeiden. Wenn Sie einen Rollwagen benutzen, achten Sie darauf, das dieser nicht umkippt, um Verletzungen auszuschließen.

12. Ziehen Sie während eines Gewitters oder wenn Sie das Gerät über einen längeren Zeitraum nicht benutzen den Netzstecher aus der Steckdose.

13. Die Wartung sollte nur durch qualifiziertes Fachpersonal erfolgen. Die Wartung wird notwendig, wenn das Gerät beschädigt wurde oder aber das Stromkabel oder der Stecker, Gegenstände oder Flüssigkeit in das Gerät gelangt sind, das Gerät dem Regen oder Feuchtigkeit ausgesetzt war und deshalb nicht mehr normal arbeitet oder heruntergefallen ist.

14. Bei normalem Betrieb des Gerätes kommt es zu Wärmeentwicklungen.

15. Dieses Produkt kann in Verbindung mit einem Verstärker und Kopfhörern oder Lautsprechern Lautstärkepegel erzeugen, die anhaltende Gehörschäden verursachen. Betreiben Sie es nicht über längere Zeit mit hoher Lautstärke oder einem Pegel, der Ihnen unangenehm is. Wenn Sie ein Nachlassen des Gehörs oder ein Klingeln in den Ohren feststellen, sollten Sie einen Ohrenarzt aufsuchen.


Important Safety Instructions


Sample Playback Module with Trigger Inputs

to the following Standards:

EN55022:1995 Class B EN50082-1:1992

Letchworth Point, Letchworth,


Congratulations on your purchase of the Alesis DM Pro! You are now the owner of a powerful drum and percussion synthesizer that will give you many years of use and enjoyment.

This manual contains several specific sections designed to teach you as much as possible about each area of your module. However, we strongly suggest that you begin your relationship with DM Pro by completing our Brief “Hands On” Tutorial. This tutorial will give you an excellent overview of the product and will quickly help you to get acquainted with its system architecture.

Your DM Pro was packed carefully at the factory. The shipping carton was designed to protect the unit during shipping. Please retain this container in the highly unlikely event that you need to return the DM Pro for servicing. The DM Pro ships from the factory with the following items:

1 DM Pro Drum Module with the same serial number as shown on the shipping carton

1 External AC Power Supply Adapter

1 DM Pro Reference Manual

It is important to register your purchase if you have not already filled out your warranty card and mailed it back to Alesis, please take the time to do so now.

plug in stereo headphones to hear the DM Pro’s output

custom graphic display shows Drum, Drumkit and

Trigger Functions, Parameters and Values

use this to select or adjust the Function, Parameter or

Value that is above the cursor

press this to audition Drums from the front panel

use these to select the Function, Parameter or Value you

press this to select the Drum or MIDI Note Number that

use these to select which of the 16 external trigger inputs

press this to return to the top level of the DM Pro

(Drumkit Mode) or to load a Drumkit from memory

press this to adjust the pitch of a Drum within a Drumkit

press this to adjust the output characteristics of a Drum

within a Drumkit. Parameters include Volume, Pan,

Output Assignment, FX Level, FX Buss, Mute Group,

Drum Link and Drum Enable

press this to adjust the Parameters of the five Effects

Functions (Reverb, Overdrive, Delay, Pitch and EQ)

press this button to access the Store Functions which

include Save, Copy, Initialize and Send (MIDI transmit)

use this Function to select MIDI Note Numbers by

playing notes on an external controller (MIDI or Trigger)

press this button to edit all Parameters associated with

the external triggers. Note that different trigger

Parameters exist in Trigger Mode and Drumkit Mode.

use this Function to set the Basic and individual MIDI

Channels for MIDI Notes, define Controller and Pedal

behavior, enable or disable the transmission of Sequence

Start commands, and enable or disable the transmission

and reception of Program Change commands


press this to enter Drum Edit Mode or name a Drumkit.


This “screen shot” is taken from Drum Edit mode. It contains many of the elements which will be encountered in the various modes of the DM Pro.

Drumkit/MIDI Note Number: The large numbers indicate the present Drumkit or MIDI Note Number, depending on which mode you are in. If the DM Pro is in Drum Edit mode and the [CHASE] button is lit, striking a Trigger or a note on a MIDI controller will cause the MIDI Note Number to change.

Sound Number: Seen only in Drum Edit Mode, SND:1 indicates that Sound 1 within the Drum is currently being edited. There are four Sounds within each Drum. If a Sound is not active, it will be represented by snd:1 instead.

Function Name: Tells you which Function has been selected for editing.

Page Number: Indicates which Page within the Function is currently being viewed on the bottom line of the display.

Mode Indicator: This area of the screen will display either the word “DRUM” or the words “DRUM” and “KIT”, depending on which mode you are in.

Edit Indicator: If you see the word “EDIT” here, you have entered either Drumkit Edit or Drum Edit mode, but you have not yet altered a value. Once you alter a parameter within the current Drum or Drumkit, the word changes to “EDITED.”

Parameter Name: The word displayed here tells you which Parameter you will be editing if you change the Value.

Trigger Number: After pressing [TRIG] you will see one of these numbers flashing to indicate which Trigger Input you are currently editing. Also, a circle will appear around the number if its Trigger Input has received a strong enough signal. No numbers will flash if you have selected a Trigger parameter which pertains to the entire Trigger Setup.

Parameter Value: Changing this area of the screen with the Value encoder will edit the currently selected Parameter. This area of the screen can also display a word or words as your value options, depending on the Parameter you have selected.


The DM Pro comes with a power adapter suitable for the voltage of the country to which it is shipped (either 110 or 220V, 50 or 60 Hz). With the DM Pro off, plug the DIN connector of the power adapter cord into the DM Pro’s [POWER] socket and the male (plug) end into a source of AC power. It’s good practice to not turn the DM Pro on until all other cables are hooked up.

Note that Alesis cannot be responsible for problems caused by using the DM Pro or any associated equipment with improper AC wiring.


Although the DM Pro is designed to tolerate typical voltage variations, in today’s world the voltage coming from the AC line may contain spikes or transients that can possibly stress your gear and, over time, cause a failure. There are three main ways to protect against this, listed in ascending order of cost and complexity:

• Line spike/surge protectors. Relatively inexpensive, these are designed to protect against strong surges and spikes, acting somewhat like fuses in that they need to be replaced if they’ve been hit by an extremely strong spike.

• Line filters. These generally combine spike/surge protection with filters that remove some line noise (dimmer hash, transients from other appliances, etc.).

• Uninterruptible power supply (UPS). This is the most sophisticated option. A UPS provides power even if the AC power line fails completely. Intended for computer applications, a UPS allows you to complete an orderly shutdown of a computer system in the event of a power outage, and the isolation it provides from the power line minimizes all forms of interference—spikes, noise,

The connections between the DM Pro and your studio are your music’s lifeline, so use only high quality cables. These should be low-capacitance shielded cables with a stranded (not solid) internal conductor and a low-resistance shield. Although quality cables cost more, they do make a difference. Route cables to the DM Pro correctly by observing the following precautions:

• Do not bundle audio cables with AC power cords.

• Avoid running audio cables near sources of electromagnetic interference such as transformers, monitors, computers, etc.

• Do not place cables where they can be stepped on. Stepping on a cable may not cause immediate damage, but it can compress the insulation between the center conductor and shield (degrading performance) or reduce the cable’s reliability.

• Avoid twisting the cable or having it make sharp, right angle turns.

• Never unplug a cable by pulling on the wire itself. Always unplug by firmly grasping the body of the plug and pulling directly outward.

• Although Alesis does not endorse any specific product, chemicals such as Tweek and Cramolin, when applied to electrical connectors, are claimed to improve the electrical contact between connectors.


1 Construction split between Riva Trigoso and Muggiano yards.

2 Italian ships are being built in general-purpose and anti-submarine variants data refers to the GP type. Eight broadly similar vessels have been built or are building for France, which has also sold a ship to each of Morocco and Egypt.

3 Orders have been placed for additional ships of modified variants.

4 First of class.

Multi-Mission Frigates: The completion of the air-defence ship projects initiated in the 1990s has allowed the major European navies to contemplate renewal of their fleets of general-purpose surface combatants, most dating back to the Cold War era. Many of these programmes remain in the pre-production phase, notably the United Kingdom’s Type 26 Global Combat Ship, Spain’s F-110 frigate and a proposed joint project between the Netherlands and Belgium to replace their remaining multi-purpose ‘M’ class frigate fleets. Germany is somewhat further advanced, being in the course of constructing four large c.7,500 ton F-125 stabilisation ‘frigates’. These are optimised towards undertaking lengthy peacekeeping duties in low threat areas, a specialisation that appears something of a luxury given renewed tensions on European borders. The following MKS-180 design will have more of a combat orientation.

The most significant programme to deliver ships to date has been that for Franco-Italian FREMM multi-mission frigates, which followed on from Project Horizon. Again, this has produced ships of c.6,000 to 6,500-ton destroyer size. However, in contrast with Project Horizon, the participating countries have been given considerable flexibility in adjusting the design to meet national military and industrial requirements. This has resulted in national variants of significantly different appearance in spite of a basically common design approach. Whilst, therefore there has been considerable pull through of equipment from previous designs – for example, Aster missiles – to reduce costs, equipment outfit differs significantly. For example, the Italian ships use an upgraded active version of the EMPAR phased array whilst the French FREMMS are equipped with the less capable Herakles radar previously used in the Formidable class frigates exported to Singapore. The original programme called for no less than ten Italian and seventeen French ships. Whilst Italian numbers have been maintained, the French requirement has been steadily cut back to just eight units. By way of compensation, France has managed to export single ships to both Morocco and Egypt Export Designs: The success of the French FREMM variant in export markets reflects the fact that European warship construction has traditionally extended beyond the requirements of its own fleets. In comparison to the Cold War years, export contracts were less than plentiful in its immediate aftermath, largely because of the availability of surplus but still relatively modern tonnage from shrinking NATO fleets. However, markets have improved in recent years and have undoubtedly help secure the future of some facilities in the absence of domestic orders.

In addition to its recent successes with FREMM sales, France had previously achieved considerable exports based on its associated La Fayette class stealth frigate design. The first of these was laid down just as the Cold War was ending. Six modified versions were subsequently sold to Taiwan as the Kang Ding class in 1992, marking one of the few major contracts of the immediate post-Cold War era. Further success was achieved with the somewhat larger Al Riyadh design for Saudi Arabia under a programme confirmed in the mid-1990s but not formally commenced until the first of three ships was laid down in September 1999. An order for six Formidable frigates from Singapore – five to be assembled locally – was placed in the following year. These c.3,500-ton ships resemble miniature versions of the French Aquitaine class FREMMs but have a simpler diesel propulsion system and a lower missile capacity.

Although the United Kingdom has also achieved exports of major surface combatants through the Royal Malaysian Navy’s two Lekiu class frigates that were delivered in 1999, it is Germany’s modular MEKO series that has been the principal rival to France in the twenty-first century. These have previously been detailed in Chapter 5. Earlier ships closely resemble the first MEKO – Nigeria’s Aradu commissioned in 1992 – but the more recent A-200 series exhibit considerable stealth characteristics. Four of these were commissioned by South Africa as the Valour class between 2006 and 2007. A pair of similar vessels will soon be delivered to Algeria.

The collapse of the Soviet Union after the end of the Cold War brought an effective end to the construction of new Russian major surface combatant designs for a number of years. In addition to a severe lack of funding, the dispersal of naval shipbuilding infrastructure across the union’s various republics caused significant dislocation once these republics became independent. This legacy of the Soviet era continues to cast a shadow to the present time, not least in the cessation of supplies of marine gas turbines from Ukraine following Russia’s seizure of the Crimea and intervention in the Donbass region. When naval construction did resume, the immediate priority was modernisation of the nuclear deterrent and the assets needed to protect it, the latter including the Project 2038.0 Steregushchy class corvettes/light frigates.

Project 2235.0 Admiral Gorshkov Class: Russia, did, however retain a significant warship design capability after the Cold War in the form of the various research institutes and design bureaux established in Soviet times. This had two important consequences. First it has allowed Russia to recommence major warship construction as greater stability and economic prosperity has returned. The foremost example of this is the new Project 2235.0 Admiral Gorshkov class, the first of which was laid down in February 2006 and is currently running final trials. The new 4,500-ton general-purpose design has a much greater emphasis on stealth than seen in previous Russian ships but retains the Soviet-era propensity for a heavy weapons outfit. This includes the ‘Poliment-Redut’ air-defence system that benefits from a four-faced phased array and a thirty-two cell VLS, believed to be for the 9M36 surface-to-air missile that is derived from the S400 (NATO: SA-21 ‘Growler’) land-based weapon. This is supplemented by sixteen additional strike-length cells for long-range surface-to-surface missiles, as well as anti-submarine torpedoes and a flight deck and hangar for a Ka-27 Helix sea-control helicopter. A total of four of the class are currently under production and an extended series is planned. Nevertheless, the ten-years taken to complete the first ship is an indication of the difficulties of restarting warship production once key skills are lost.

India: The availability of warship design expertise in Russia was also significant in that it was drawn upon heavily by both India and China to develop their own indigenous warship building capabilities. This has typically taken the form of limited acquisitions of entire warships, supplemented by larger purchases of equipment and associated technical know-how. In India’s case, a total of six Project 1135.6 Talwar class frigates, a significant enhancement of the Cold War ‘Krivak III’ design, were commissioned between 2003 and 2013.8 The principal rationale behind the acquisition was to make good a shortfall in warship procurement during the 1990s. However, the experience gained from the possession of modern warships will undoubtedly have helped indigenous programmes. So far, as major surface combatants are concerned, these have been focused on two main series of warships the Project 15 and successor destroyers and the Project 17 series frigates. Both series display the heavy influence of Russian design principles in their basic design but incorporate a bewildering mix of Russian, Western and indigenously-designed equipment. The reliance on Russia has had an unfortunate side-effect in so far as the disruption of equipment supplies that has impacted the Russian fleet has also been felt by Indian shipbuilders. This has been a significant factor in producing extended construction times, which have averaged around nine-years or more.

The most modern designs currently in service are the 6,200-ton Project 17 Shivalik class generalpurpose frigates and the larger 7,400-ton Project 15 Kolkata class destroyers, the latter having a heavy emphasis on anti-air warfare. Three of each type have been – or are close to being – commissioned and improved variants are planned. The former class were ordered at the end of the 1990s and commissioned between 2010 and 2012. They incorporate some stealth features and a Western propulsion system. However, enhancements to automation are not fully reflected in a crew of c.270 once a helicopter is embarked. The main weapons systems are of Russian origin. Whilst the ‘Klub’ export variant of the SS-N-27 ‘Kalibr’ cruise missile provides a powerful anti-surface punch, the Shtil-1 (SA-N-12) medium-range surface-to-air system – with just a single launcher – does not have the capability of more modern Western designs to combat saturation attacks. The use of the vertically-launched Israeli Barak 1 surface-to-air missile system for point defence may reflect its limitations. The Indo-Israeli-developed Barak 8 medium-range missile, which is deployed in conjunction with the EL/M-2248 MF-STAR active phased array on the Kolkata class appears to be a far more potent system. The Kolkata class also carry the Indo-Russian BrahMos supersonic cruise missile, which will be retrofitted to other types.

The drawings represent four of the PLAN’s most important surface combatant classes. The Type 022 missile-armed fast attack craft and larger Type 056 corvettes have both been built in large numbers and play an important part of China’s A2/AD strategy in littoral waters, where they would likely be used to swarm opposing surface forces with their powerful batteries of surface-to-surface missiles. The Type 056 also offers a more balanced range of general-purpose capabilities, with the Type 056A variant (not depicted) fitted with a towed array for a more potent anti-submarine capability. The significantly larger Type 054A frigates and Type 052C destroyers benefit from possessing area air-defence capabilities and can support the PLAN’s ‘near seas’ defence concept at greater distance. They are also increasingly being used in support of the PLAN’s growing interest in blue-water operations

China: China’s naval construction programmes have followed a slightly different track than India’s in so far as the Western ban on imports of military systems following the Tiananmen Square massacre has resulted in a rather less diverse approach to procurement. This appears to have accelerated a transition from imported, largely Soviet-era technology, to the deployment of designs fielding almost entirely indigenous weapons and sensors. The extent to which the underlying technology has been acquired by entirely legitimate means has divided the opinion of commentators.

Direct imports of Russian surface vessels were limited to two pairs of Project 956E/EM Sovremenny class destroyers commissioned between 1999 and 2006. However, these acquisitions appear to have been supplemented by additional purchases of entire systems, such as the Shtil-1-based air defence system used in the Type 052B ‘Luyang I’ destroyers, the Rif-M (SA-N-20) missiles of the Type 051C ‘Luzhou’ class and the Fregat MAE (Top Plate) search radar found on many current surface combatants. Russian influence remains particularly strong in the Type 054A ‘Jiangkai II’ or Xuzhou class frigates, which have been in series production from 2005 onwards. Over twenty of these ships have been commissioned to date and they provide the mainstay of the People’s Liberation Army Navy’s blue water deployments. However, the larger Type 052C and Type 052D destroyers that form the ‘high end’ combatant force use largely indigenous equipment, including the Type 346 (Dragon Eye) series phased array and the vertically-launched HHQ-9 surface-to-air missile.9 Interestingly, however, HHQ-9 reflects Russian practice in being derived from a land-based system and has been reported to rely heavily on technology found in the ‘Luzhou’ type’s Rif-M.

In contrast to India, China appears to be able to produce its warships at considerable speed. Build times for major combatants of around three years are comparable with the most productive Western and Japanese yards. It is also starting to enter the market for exports of major surface combatants. Pakistan’s F-22P Zulifiqar class possibly represents its most important export success to date.

Japan: Elsewhere in Asia, China’s principal naval rival, Japan, has long-established warship design and build capabilities. Whilst Japan’s most advanced surface combatants – notably its Aegis-equipped ships – have been heavily influenced by overseas designs, it has otherwise built a series of anti-submarine optimised surface escorts that reflect local operational requirements. These tend to use a mix of Western – largely US Navy but some European – weapons and propulsion systems that are then integrated into Japanese platforms that benefit considerably from local electronics ‘know-how’. Orders have been purposely placed to a regular ‘drumbeat’ of one to two major units each year. This protects the industrial base and facilitates incremental improvement.

The latest surface escorts to be commissioned are the Akizuki (DD-151) class. Four of these were brought into service between 2012 and 2014. Displacing some 6,800 tons in full load condition, the class is derived from the previous Takanami (DD-110) and Murasame (DD-101) classes but exhibits a general enhancement in stealth features and has an upgraded propulsion system. Most notably, however, the class has enhanced air-defence capabilities based on the indigenous Melco FC-3 phased array. This was first installed in the ‘helicopter-carrying destroyer’ Hyuga and incorporates some elements of APAR technology. The incorporation of more sophisticated air-defence equipment reflects the class’s primary role as general-purpose escorts for the helicopter carriers and Aegis-equipped destroyers, particularly when the latter are carrying out BMD taskings.

South Korea is also a major shipbuilding nation and its KDX-I and KDX-II series destroyers are another important example of Asian designed major surface combatants. The subsequent Aegis-equipped KDX-III series was heavily influenced by the DDG-51 class. However, a planned second batch will probably incorporate more local ideas. Local industry is also heavily involved producing the new FFX Incheon class littoral combatants. These approach major surface combatant status in terms of size and capability.

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