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What were the efforts made by the U.S. government to conserve forests?

What were the efforts made by the U.S. government to conserve forests?


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What were the efforts made by the U.S. government to conserve forests after World War 1 and World War 2? Was any special community or group made to complete this task? If yes then how did it conserve forests?


The bulk of the work had already been completed during Teddy Roosevelt's term in office, with the creation of:

  • 4 National Game preserves
  • 5 National parks
  • 18 National Monuments
  • 24 Reclamation Projects
  • 51 Federal Bird Preserves
  • 150 National Forests; and
  • 230 Million total acres set aside for the enjoyment of all

Modern sensitivities may disagree with Teddy's motivations as a well known big-game hunter, but he loved the outdoors and the American West and worked diligently while in office to preserve it for generations to come. Roosevelt upon taking office made

conservation a top priority, [establishing] a myriad of new national parks, forests, and monuments in order to preserve the nation's natural resources.
[from the introduction to the Wikipedia article on Theodore Roosevelt*].

and again:

We have fallen heirs to the most glorious heritage a people ever received, and each one must do his part if we wish to show that the nation is worthy of its good fortune.
[Theodore Roosevelt]


Beginning in the 1960s, Americans became increasingly concerned about the environmental impact of industrial growth. Engine exhaust from growing numbers of automobiles, for instance, was blamed for smog and other forms of air pollution in large cities. Pollution represented what economists call an externality—a cost that the responsible entity can escape but that society as a whole must bear. With market forces unable to address such problems, many environmentalists suggested that the government had a moral obligation to protect the earth's fragile ecosystems, even if doing so required some economic growth to be sacrificed. In response, a slew of laws was enacted to control pollution, including examples such as the 1963 Clean Air Act, the 1972 Clean Water Act, and the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act.

In December 1970, environmentalists achieved a major goal with the establishment of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through an executive order signed by then-president Richard Nixon. The creation of the EPA brought together several federal programs charged with protecting the environment into a single government agency. The EPA was founded with the goal of protecting human health and the environment by enforcing regulations passed by Congress.


Federal Government Response

The Federal government responded in two ways. First, it created agencies to study the Nation's natural resources and to promote their multiple use while continuing to stimulate economic growth. Other organizations were created to conserve natural spaces and to protect species. And beginning in the early 1960's, the Federal government began to set goals for clean air and water and to regulate industries that made it difficult to achieve those goals.

Long before there was a National Park Service, Yellowstone National Park was created in 1872. For the first time the term "conservation," so commonly applied to coal, iron, or other raw materials of industry, was now applied to mountains, lakes, canyons, forests and other great and unusual works of nature, and interpreted in terms of public recreation. The United States Geological Survey was created in 1879 to assess mineral, energy, and water resources. The U.S. Forest Service was established in the early twentieth century to scientifically manage and conserve our forests. Despite warnings about the environmental impacts of irrigating the wastelands, public lands were sold to create and fund the Reclamation Service that engineered large water projects. Drought was also the driver behind the creation of the Soil Erosion Service.

Public interest in the preservation of wildlife species helped established the Federal Biological Survey. In the same year that the first Earth Day was observed, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established to protect human health and the environment. In addition to the creation of agencies to study, regulate, or manage natural resources, a number of key laws were passed in recognition that the health of our Nation's land, water, and air were being challenged.


Federal Government Response

The Federal government responded in two ways. First, it created agencies to study the Nation's natural resources and to promote their multiple use while continuing to stimulate economic growth. Other organizations were created to conserve natural spaces and to protect species. And beginning in the early 1960's, the Federal government began to set goals for clean air and water and to regulate industries that made it difficult to achieve those goals.

Long before there was a National Park Service, Yellowstone National Park was created in 1872. For the first time the term "conservation," so commonly applied to coal, iron, or other raw materials of industry, was now applied to mountains, lakes, canyons, forests and other great and unusual works of nature, and interpreted in terms of public recreation. The United States Geological Survey was created in 1879 to assess mineral, energy, and water resources. The U.S. Forest Service was established in the early twentieth century to scientifically manage and conserve our forests. Despite warnings about the environmental impacts of irrigating the wastelands, public lands were sold to create and fund the Reclamation Service that engineered large water projects. Drought was also the driver behind the creation of the Soil Erosion Service.

Public interest in the preservation of wildlife species helped established the Federal Biological Survey. In the same year that the first Earth Day was observed, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established to protect human health and the environment. In addition to the creation of agencies to study, regulate, or manage natural resources, a number of key laws were passed in recognition that the health of our Nation's land, water, and air were being challenged.


Working Together

President Roosevelt and John Muir at Yosemite National Park in 1903. Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress.

One of the most celebrated camping trips in American history occurred in 1903 when President Roosevelt spent several days exploring Yosemite with renown naturalist John Muir. Finding common ground on their passion for nature, the two men discussed the importance of preserving unique landscapes and wildlife. Energized by the experience, Roosevelt worked to make Muir’s Yosemite dream a reality by eventually adding Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove to Yosemite National Park.


Press Center

The Governments of the United States of America and the Republic of Guatemala, together with The Nature Conservancy and Conservation International Foundation, have concluded agreements which will reduce Guatemala's official debt to the United States and generate $24 million to conserve tropical forests in Guatemala. The Government of Guatemala has committed these funds over the next 15 years to support grants to non-governmental organizations and other groups to protect and restore the country's important tropical forest resources. The agreements were made possible through contributions of over $15 million by the U.S. Government under the Tropical Forest Conservation Act (TFCA) of 1998 and $2 million total from Conservation International and The Nature Conservancy.

The funds will help conserve Guatemala's high altitude cloud forests, rain forests, and coastal mangrove swamps, which are home to hundreds of species of songbirds and waterfowl that migrate between the United States and Guatemala, as well as many rare and endangered species, including the resplendent quetzal bird, jaguars and margays.


Solutions to Deforestation

Ending deforestation is our best chance to conserve wildlife and defend the rights of forest communities. On top of that, it’s one of the quickest and most cost effective ways to curb global warming. That’s why we’re campaigning for a deforestation-free future.

Stop #TreeWashing. Oppose the Trillion Trees Act!

Working to end deforestation and forest degradation while helping to restore lost forests is our best chance to solve the climate emergency, protect wildlife, and defend the rights of Indigenous Peoples and traditional local communities. That’s why we are campaigning for more forests tomorrow than there are today. Greenpeace’s forest campaign historically has called for an end to deforestation but our current climate emergency requires a genuine and just restoration of all natural ecosystems, and reduced degradation of the world’s most critical landscapes.

The threats to nature vary from region to region. For example, in the tropics, agribusiness clears forests to make space for things like cattle ranching, palm oil, and soy plantations for animal feed. Demand for wood products can threaten forests around the world, whether it is for throw-away paper products or hardwood flooring.

In too many parts of the world, ineffective or corrupt governments make things worse by opening the door to illegal logging and other crimes.

Deforestation and degradation are complex problems. While there are no silver bullet solutions, these approaches can make a big difference to save our forests.

The Power of the Marketplace

If corporations have the power to destroy the world’s forests, they also have the ability to help save them.

Companies can make an impact by introducing and implementing “zero deforestation” policies that clean up their supply chains. That means holding their suppliers accountable for producing commodities like timber, beef, soy, palm oil and paper in a way that does not fuel deforestation and has a minimal impact on our climate. Companies not only must make these policies but they must follow through on these promises, maximize the use of their sphere of influence, and collaborate with other like-minded institutions in their sectors, demanding suppliers transform the way our economy works so that nature is protected and human rights are respected.

Companies should set ambitious targets to maximize the use of recycled wood, pulp, paper and fiber in their products. For the non-recycled products they buy, they should ensure that any virgin fiber used has transparent, credible assurances that it was sourced in a legal way that respects principles of environmental and social responsibility. Third-party certification like the Forest Stewardship Council can be a starting point in evaluating sourcing. Greenpeace strongly advises against other weaker forest product certification schemes such as PEFC and SFI.

But these corporations haven’t taken action on their own.

That’s why we’re investigating, exposing and confronting environmental abuse committed by corporations. Thanks to your actions, major companies are changing their ways and building solutions to protect jobs and our forests.

Standing with Indigenous Peoples

Forests around the world have been home to Indigenous Peoples for tens of thousands of years. Evidence shows that when Indigenous Peoples’ rights to traditional lands and self-determination are respected, forests stay standing. But too often, corporations and governments overlook or intentionally trample the rights of Indigenous Peoples.

For example, the Waswanipi Cree of Northern Quebec are fighting to keep the last wild forests on their traditional land intact, and the Munduruku people of the Amazon are battling a proposed mega-dam that threatens rainforests, a river, and their way of life.

Promoting Sustainable Choices

You can make a difference in the fight to save forests by making informed daily choices. By consuming less, avoiding single-use packaging, eating sustainable food, and choosing recycled or responsibly-produced wood products, we can all be part of the movement to protect forests.

Make choices for forests, nature, and people — and do so vocally!

Changing the Politics

If we’re going to stop deforestation, we need governments to do their part. We need world leaders to embrace ambitious domestic and international forest conservation policies based on the latest science, allowing us to live in a world that avoids severe climate disruption.

In the United States, laws like the Endangered Species Act, the Wilderness Act, the Lacey Act, and the Roadless Rule help protect our forests and stop illegal wood products from entering the U.S. marketplace. We also support global treaties like the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), Convention on Biological Diversity, and the Framework Convention on Climate Change that have the potential to protect forests and the wildlife that rely on forest habitats.


Early 1920s

Save the Redwoods League poured millions into acquiring the magnificent stands lining the Redwood Highway. Meanwhile, with leadership from Save the Redwoods League, a broad coalition of groups and individuals united their collective powers into the campaign for legislation establishing a state park system.

The League’s first redwood memorial grove was dedicated in honor of Colonel Raynal C. Bolling on August 6, 1921, following a contribution from his brother-in-law (League Councilor John C. Phillips). Bolling was the first American officer of high rank to be killed in action during World War I. The grove includes redwood forest on the South Fork of the Eel River.

On June 31, California approved the Redwoods Preservation Bill – an emergency appropriation of $300,000 to acquire roadside redwoods near the South Fork of the Eel River in what became Humboldt Redwoods State Park.

Richardson Grove was established when Save the Redwoods League encouraged the State of California to purchase land in southern Humboldt County from Henry Devoy.

The redwood lumber industry began to establish tree nurseries and organized reforestation programs.


U.S. War Bonds

The last time the United States issued war bonds was during World War II, when full employment collided with rationing, and war bonds were seen as a way to remove money from circulation as well as reduce inflation. Issued by the U.S. Government, they were first called Defense Bonds. The name was changed to War Bonds after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941. Known as debt securities for the purpose of financing military operations during war time, the bonds yielded a mere 2.9 percent return after a 10-year maturity. Living in the United States with a median income during World War II meant earning about $2,000 a year. Despite the war’s hardships, 134 million Americans were asked to purchase war bonds to help fund the war. Stamps also could be purchased, starting at 10 cents each, to save toward the bond. The first Series ‘E’ U.S. Savings Bond was sold to President Franklin D. Roosevelt by Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau. The bonds sold at 75 percent of their face value in denominations of $25 up to $10,000, with some limitations. The war bonds actually were a loan to the government to help finance the war effort. The War Finance Committee was in charge of supervising the sale of all bonds, and the War Advertising Council promoted voluntary compliance with bond buying. The work of those two organizations produced the greatest volume of advertising in U.S. history. In the name of defense of American liberty and democracy, and as safe havens for investment, the public was continually urged to buy bonds. An emotional appeal went out to citizens by means of advertising. Even though the bonds offered a rate of return below the market value, it represented a moral and financial stake in the war effort. The advertisements started with radio and newspapers, then later added magazines to reach the masses. The bond campaign was unique in that both the government, as well as private companies, created the advertisements. Those who contributed advertising space felt they were doing even more for the war effort then there were organizations that made up their own war bond advertisements to reflect their patriotism. The government recruited New York’s best advertising agencies, famous entertainers, and even used familiar comic strip characters to further their appeal to America. In their advertisements, the New York Stock Exchange urged purchasers not to cash in their bonds. More than a quarter of a billion dollars worth of advertising was donated during the first three years of the National Defense Savings Program. Massive advertising campagins used any means of media possible, and the campaign was a huge success. Word spread quickly polls indicated after only one month that 90 percent of those responding were aware of war bonds. Bonds became the ideal channel for those on the home front to contribute to the national defense. Bond rallies were held throughout the country with famous celebrities, usually Hollywood film stars, to enhance the advertising's effectiveness. Free movie days were held in theaters nationwide with a bond purchase as the admission. Such popular Hollywood stars as Greer Garson, Bette Davis and Rita Hayworth completed seven tours in more than 300 cities and towns to promote war bonds. The "Stars Over America" bond blitz, in which 337 stars took part, surpassed its quota and netted $838,540,000 worth of bonds. One promotional cardboard had slots for 75 quarters, to equal $18.75. When it was full, one could turn it in to the post office for a $25 war bond that matured in 10 years. Local clubs, organizations, movie theaters and hotels also did their part with their own advertisements. Then there was the Civilian D-Day on June 6th, 1944, when thousands of ads flew from the sky over Chicago to capture the attention and hearts of potential contributors. Even the Girl Scouts became involved with each scout donating one stamp. Those stamps, starting at 10 cents each, were then traded into the national organization for the purchase of war bonds. Norman Rockwell created a series of illustrations in 1941 that became a centerpiece of war bond advertising. The Saturday Evening Post reproduced and circulated them, much to the public's approval. While Rockwell was the most notable artist of war bonds, Irving Berlin was the most celebrated composer. Famous for his "God Bless America," he wrote a song entitled "Any Bonds Today?" and it became the theme song of the Treasury Department’s National Defense Savings Program. The famous Andrew Sisters were among the primary performers of this historic song. One of the most successful single events was a 16-hour marathon radio broadcast on CBS, during which nearly $40 million worth of bonds were sold. The marathon featured singer Kate Smith, famous for her rendition of "God Bless America." Patriotism and the spirit of sacrifice could be expressed with war bond purchases. Millions jumped aboard the war bond effort. The sports world did its part as well, holding special football and baseball games with a war bond as the price of admission. An unusual baseball game took place in New York City with the New York Yankees, the New York Giants and the Brooklyn Dodgers. Each of the teams came to bat six times in the same nine-inning game. Their final score was the Dodgers 5, Yankees 1 and the Giants 0, and the U.S. Government was $56,500,000 richer in war bond sales. At the end of World War II, January 3, 1946, the last proceeds from the Victory War Bond campaign were deposited into the U.S. Treasury. More than 85 million Americans — half the population — purchased bonds totaling $185.7 billion. Those incredible results, due to the mass selling efforts of helping to finance the war, have never since been matched. The Series E bond was withdrawn on June 30, 1980, when the Series EE bond replaced it, and the War Bond became history.


Promoting Good Health and Economic Vitality Through Outdoor Recreation

USDA-managed National Forests and Grasslands provide opportunities for over 165 million visitors each year to experience the wonders of nature and be physically active. These recreational uses also support an estimated 200,000 full and part time jobs and contribute almost $13 billion to local communities each year. Over the last two years, USDA has helped support more than 25 state public access programs and opened an estimated 2.4 million acres for hunting, fishing and other outdoor recreational opportunities on privately-owned lands. Additionally, almost $30 million in grants, provided through the Voluntary Public Access and Habitat Incentive Program, will help promote an estimated 35 percent increase in the number of participating landowners and increase outdoor recreation in these states by 21 percent.

USDA has enrolled more than one million acres of private working lands specifically to protect habitat for duck, pheasant, quail and other birds through "continuous signup" Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) initiatives. Along with the U.S. Department of Interior, USDA established a Federal Interagency Council on Outdoor Recreation (FICOR) to improve recreational access to federal lands across federal agencies and proposed a special $5 million set-aside in the Land and Water Conservation Fund to improve hunting and fishing access to federal lands.


America’s national parks were established to preserve our country’s greatest collection of natural, historic, and cultural treasures. NPF is dedicated to the promise that our national parks, and all they possess, are protected forever. NPF programs help protect the over 400 national parks across the country through the conservation of landscapes and wildlife populations, innovative changes that will make parks more resilient and sustainable, the preservation of the stories and places that make up our unique American history, and the expansion of access to our parks. NPF is dedicated to supporting our parks and ensuring they thrive and inspire wonder for generations to come.

  • In 2019 alone, NPF supported the building and maintenance of 420 miles of trails, protected the habitat of 14 species, restored 190 miles of waterways, and planted over 71,000 trees and vegetation
  • Since 2009, NPF has supported recycling efforts at the National Mall and Memorial Parks in our nation’s capital, from the placement of recycling bins and education programs to a waste stream analysis that kicked off in 2019
  • From the work to donate the birth home of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to the National Park Service to the donation of funds to develop educational materials for Stonewall National Monument, NPF continues to support projects and programs that honor the legacies of American trailblazers


Watch the video: 21 Μαρτίου - Διεθνής Ημέρα Δασών (May 2022).


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