Kawasaki Type 88 Reconnaissance Biplane

Kawasaki Type 88 Reconnaissance Biplane

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Kawasaki Type 88 Reconnaissance Biplane

The Kawasaki Type 88 Reconnaissance Biplane was a single-engined biplane designed by the German Dr Richard Vogt that served with the Imperial Japanese Army during the early 1930s.

The Type 88 Reconnaissance Biplane was designed by Dr Richard Vogt in response to an Imperial Japanese Army request. Vogt had previously worked with Kawasaki on the Dornier Do-N, which was co-produced in Germany and Japan as the Army Type 87 Night Bomber. During 1927 three prototypes of Vogt's new design were built, as the Kawasaki KDA-2. This was a conventional biplane, with wings of unequal length (longer upper wing), a fixed undercarriage, and powered by a BMW VI inverted-V water cooled inline engine with the radiator mounted under the nose.

The KDA-2 was approved for mass production by the Japanese Army, and entered service as the Type 88-I Reconnaissance Biplane. It was armed with two 7.7mm machine guns, one fixed forward firing and one flexibly mounted in the rear cockpit. The Type 88-I was followed by the Type 88-II, which had an improved engine cowling and new tail fin. A total of 707 Type 88-Is and -IIs were produced between 1927 and 1931, for a total of 710 aircraft including the prototypes. The type was also developed into the Type 88 Light Bomber, of which 407 were built. All three models were used during the conflict in Manchuria, and a small number were still in service during the 1937 fighting around Shanghai.

Engine: BMW VI inverted-V water cooled inline engine
Power: 600hp
Wing span: 49ft 2.5in
Maximum Take-off Weight: 6,283lb
Max Speed: 137mph
Armament: One fixed and one flexibly mounted 7.7mm machine gun

Kawasaki Type 88

Il Kawasaki KDA-2 ( ? ) , indicato in servizio Aereo da ricognizione Tipo 88 ( 八八式偵察機 ? ) in base alla convenzione di designazione adottata nel periodo, fu un aereo da ricognizione monomotore, biposto e biplano, sviluppato dall'azienda aeronautica giapponese Kawasaki Kōkūki Kogyo, divisione aeronautica della Kawasaki Jūkōgyō KK, nei tardi anni venti del XX secolo.

Entrato in linea nei reparti da ricognizione aerea del Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun Kōkū Hombu, componente aerea del Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun (esercito dell'Impero giapponese), rimase in servizio di prima linea fino allo scoppio della seconda guerra sino-giapponese.

Dal modello venne derivata una variante da bombardamento leggero, indicata come Bombardiere leggero Tipo 88, ed una da trasporto, indicata dall'azienda come KDC-2.

World War II Database

ww2dbase The KDA-2 aircraft began their careers as the Japanese Army Type 88-1 Reconnaissance Biplane. They were designed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries chief engineer Richard Vogt in the mid-1920s, and the maiden flight was taken in 1927. A light bomber variant, Type 88 Light Bomber, entered production one year later, featuring reinforced lower wing and lower fuselage to carry a light payload of bombs. When production ceased in 1932, 710 reconnaissance aircraft and 407 light bombers were built for a total of 1,117 (which did not include the about 5 prototype aircraft). In the mid-1930s, Manshu Aircraft Company in the Japanese-sponsored puppet state of Manchukuo license-built a small number of the KDA-2 aircraft. KDA-2 reconnaissance aircraft and light bombers saw actions in the early phases of the war against China, but by 1940 they were considered obsolete and were withdrawn from service.

ww2dbase Source: Wikipedia

Last Major Revision: Jul 2012


MachineryOne BMW VI engine rated at 600hp
Armament1x7.7mm forward Type 89 machine gun, 1x7.7mm flexible Type 89 machine gun, externally-mounted bombs
Span15.00 m
Length12.80 m
Height3.40 m
Wing Area48.00 m²
Weight, Empty1,800 kg
Weight, Loaded2,850 kg
Speed, Maximum221 km/h
Service Ceiling6,200 m

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Kawasaki Type 88 Reconnaissance Biplane - History

Aikoku #22 " Tei Sei " was an Army Type 88 Reconnaissance/Bomber or Kawasaki KDA-2 that was donated by the workers of the Tei koku Sei mei Hoken Kabushiki Kaisha (Imperial Life Insurance Co Ltd) on June 19, 1932 during a ceremony in Yoyogi parade grounds.
From March 1932 until May 1933 one KDA-2 model 1 Reconnaissance, five Model 2 Reconnaissance and 19 KDA-2 Light Bombers were donated as Aikoku-ki. The price of one light bomber was 30,000Yen. At that time a bottle of Johnnie Walker whiskey red label was 5.5Yen (3,580Yen or $US20 at today's prices).

The insurance company was founded in 1888 by IJN paymaster Kakara Tameshige with Fukuhara Arinoba and members of of the IJN accounting school who had studied in the UK. In 1936 the company merged with Tokyo Seimei Hoken and in 1947 became Asahi Seimei Hoken (Asahi Mutual Life Insurance) which is now one of the biggest life insurance companies in Japan.


1933年にドイツに戻り、航空機部門の筆頭技術者として招聘するというブローム・ウント・フォス造船所の申し出を受けた。同社での最初の仕事はHa 136単葉練習機で、2番目が逆ガル翼のHa 137急降下爆撃機であった。成功作とはならなかったが、燃料タンクを内蔵した長方形または正方形断面の 主桁 (英語版) の美しい片持ち式の主翼といった、幾つかの先駆的な技術を備えていた。その特徴は日本で関わっていた川崎キ5の設計に似ている。これらの仕事の後、BV 138洋上偵察飛行艇、Ha 139水上輸送/偵察機、Ha 140水上雷撃機、 BV 141偵察機、BV 222輸送/偵察飛行艇 ヴィーキング(Viking)、BV 238輸送/偵察飛行艇は彼の指導と大幅な関与の下に製造された。BV 141はそのユニークな非対称構造で有名であり、BV 222とBV 238飛行艇は各々がその初飛行時、最も重い航空機であったと考えられている。もう1機種、8発エンジンで航続距離8,000kmの巨大な飛行艇 P.200 (英語版) の計画を立てていたが実現しなかった。

戦争の最終段階で戦況の悪化がより効果的な防御兵器の必要性を生じさせてきたことに応じて、大量の爆発物を搭載できる無人グライダーのBv 246 "Hagelkorn (Hailstone)"を設計した。この小型のグライダー爆弾は高高度でこれを投下した母機から無線で操縦されたが、1,000機以上製造されたにもかかわらず実戦では使用されなかった。ジェット戦闘機の開発計画も持っていたが、これは実行には移されなかった。

第二次世界大戦後、ペーパークリップ作戦を実施していたアメリカ空軍に請われ、米国へ移住した。1947年から1954年までオハイオ州のデイトンにあるアメリカ空軍の研究所で民間人として働き、その後航空物理開発社(Aerophysics Development Corporation)の主任設計技師となり、1960年にその業務を止める決断をするまで働いた。1960年8月から1966年8月までは、ボーイング社の研究試験部門で主任空力技師を務めていたジョージ・シャイラー(George Schairer)のチームの一員となった。ボーイング社では特に垂直離着陸機(VTOL)と水中翼船の設計に携わる。また主翼の長さと形状が航続距離に与える影響についての調査も行い、主翼の先端に小型の延長翼を取り付けることにより空気力学的改善が図られ、航空機の運用航続距離を増大させることを解明した。この発見は近代的な航空機では広く用いられ、延長翼はウイングチップやウィングレットという名称で知られている。最後の仕事はボーイング747の設計の出荷後評価(the after-launch evaluation)であった。退職後は転覆しない安全ヨットの設計と自伝の執筆に時間を費やしたが、1977年に自宅が火災で全焼、多くの個人記録や技術資料が失われた。

Hawker Aircraft Airplanes and Aircrafts

List of all Hawker Aircraft airplanes and aircraft types, with images, specs, and other information. These active and retired Hawker Aircraft planes are listed in alphabetical order, but if you're looking for a particular aircraft you can look for it using the "search" bar. The Hawker Aircraft aircrafts on this list include all planes, jets, helicopters, and other flying vehicles ever made by Hawker Aircraft. Unless you're an aviation expert you probably can't think of every aircraft made by Hawker Aircraft, so use this list to find a few popular Hawker Aircraft planes and helicopters that have been used a lot in the course of history.

The list you're viewing is made up of many different aircraft, like Hawker Hurricane and Hawker Typhoon.

This list answers the question, "What aircrafts are made by Hawker Aircraft?

Photo : Metaweb (FB) / CC-BY-2.5


Negli anni venti i vertici dell'esercito imperiale espressero la necessità di sostituire il Salmson 2 nei reparti da ricognizione aerea della sua componente aerea, emettendo una specifica per la fornitura di tre esemplari da avviare a prove di valutazione.

A tale scopo la Kawasaki Kōkūki affidò all'ingegnere tedesco Richard Vogt il progetto di un velivolo adatto allo scopo, il quale avviò lo sviluppo di un modello che abbinava l'impostazione per l'epoca convenzionale, un biposto, monomotore in configurazione traente, dalla velatura biplana a scalamento positivo, con alcune soluzione tecniche innovative, come la costruzione interamente metallica con una fusoliera dalla ridotta sezione frontale, con la parte anteriore realizzata con la tecnica del rivestimento lavorante, e carrello d'atterraggio biciclo fisso e ammortizzato a gambe indipendenti, al quale l'azienda assegnò la denominazione KDA-2. [3]

I tre prototipi previsti vennero completati nel corso del 1927, quindi, una volta sottoposti positivamente alle valutazioni dell'Esercito, accettati e avviati alla produzione in serie, equipaggiati con motore BMW VI, un 12 cilindri a V raffreddato a liquido da 600 hp (447 kW), con la designazione "Aereo da ricognizione biplano per l'Esercito Tipo 88-1". In seguito venne sviluppata una versione migliorata, indicata come Tipo 88-II, che si distingueva per un diverso disegno della cappottatura del motore e dell'impennaggio. [3]

Al termine del 1931, la produzione si attestò, inclusi i tre prototipi, su 710 unità, costruite sia dalla Kawasaki che dalla Tachikawa Hikōki (187 esemplari). [3]

Inoltre, tra il 1929 e il 1932, venne costruita anche una variante da bombardamento indicata come "Bombardiere leggero (per l'Esercito) Tipo 88", la quale si differenziava per l'intervento sulla velatura, che era stata irrobustita da una coppia di montantini centrali, e dall'ala inferiore anch'essa più robusta per consentire di trasportare il carico di bombe da caduta montate su rastrelliere agganciate sotto di essa. Di questo modello ne vennero costruiti 407 esemplari. [4]

Infine venne realizzata una variante da trasporto, indicata dall'azienda come KDC-2, che integrava nella fusoliera la cabina di pilotaggio monoposto ed uno scompartimento per quattro i passeggeri. Il KDC-2 venne costruito in soli due esemplari, uno dei quali provato in configurazione idrovolante a scarponi. [5]

Sia la versione da ricognizione che quella da bombardamento vennero assegnate ai reparti della Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun Kōkū Hombu, la componente aerea dell'Esercito imperiale, ed impiegate in azione in Manciuria durante la seconda guerra sino-giapponese. Alcuni esemplari erano ancora in servizio nel 1937 durante la battaglia di Shanghai.

The Best World War 1 Airplanes

Mike Rothschild

List Rules List of airplanes of World War 1 to be ranked based on greatness

World War One airplanes began as primitive, unarmed artillery spotters that could barely take offensive action - and ended as powerful bombers and sleek modern fighters. Germany, the UK, and France led the way in aircraft development, creating iconic aircraft like the SPAD, Sopwith Camel, and the scourge of allied pilots, the German Fokker.

This was a time when air-to-air combat was quite literally being made up as pilots went along. The first fighter planes were little more than lumbering artillery spotters with an extra man carrying a revolver. Soon, the interrupter gear was invented, giving aircraft the ability to shoot through their propellers. German technology quickly took control of the skies, first in the "Fokker scourge" of 1916, then "Bloody April" 1917. But Allied pilots fought back, and by the end of the war, both sides had thousands of the most sophisticated planes available, and experienced pilots to fly them.

Aircraft technology developed so quickly that fighters would be rolled out in mass quantities, and be obsolete by the time they were actually used. Even so, the war pioneered many of the tactics used in World War 2 aircraft, including heavy bombers escorted by fighters, deep-penetration reconnaissance planes, night fighters and bombers, and innovative technology.

Here are some of the most important, widely-produced, iconic, and effective planes of World War 1. Vote up your favorites or add your own.

The Raid on Clark Field: How the U.S. Air Force Intercepted a Kamikaze Attack

In January 1945, planes of the U.S. Fifth Air Force smashed Japanese kamikazes at Clark Field in the Philippines before they could attack U.S. Navy ships.

Here's What You Need to Remember: Japanese suicide missions dropped off appreciably after January 7, and the U.S. Navy Lingayen Gulf invasion force received only sporadic attacks. The raid unquestionably saved hundreds, possibly thousands, of American lives.

General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Allied Commander Southwest Pacific Area, kept his promise to return to the Philippine Islands when his Sixth Army under the command of Lt. Gen. Walter Krueger landed at Leyte in October 1944.

The Imperial Japanese response was swift. In the largest naval actions of the Pacific War the Imperial Japanese Navy fought and lost a series of bruising naval battles to Admiral William F. Halsey’s Third Fleet and Admiral Thomas Kinkaid’s Seventh Fleet in the Battle of Leyte Gulf during the same month. Even though the Imperial Japanese Navy had been thoroughly defeated, the Imperial General Headquarters still had over 410,000 soldiers in the Philippines under the command of General Tomoyuki Yamashita in the Japanese 14th Area Army and General Shigeyaku Suzuki’s 35th Area Army.

The Japanese also had considerable airpower in the Philippines with the 4th Air Army under Lt. Gen. Kyoji Tominga, the Imperial Japanese Navy 2nd Air Fleet under the command of Vice Admiral Shigeru Fukudome, and the 1st Air Fleet under Vice Admiral Takajiro Onishi. These Japanese air forces were primarily stationed on Luzon at the Clark Air Field complex and launched relentless conventional and kamikaze attacks on the U.S. Third and Seventh Fleets.

From October to the end of 1944, a total of 79 U.S. Navy warships, merchantmen, and amphibious vessels were sunk or damaged by land-based conventional and kamikaze attacks. Among the damaged warships were the aircraft carriers Intrepid, Franklin, Belleau Wood, Cabot, and Essex. The light carrier Princeton was sunk by a conventional land-based Japanese bomber attack.

Clark Field: A Crucial Japanese Airbase in the Philippines

General MacArthur ordered Fifth Air Force commander Lt. Gen. George C. Kenney to launch major land-based air raids against Luzon as soon as his planes were established on Leyte. The stage was being set for one of the largest medium- and light-bomber attacks of the Pacific War.

The target for the attack was Clark Field, operated by the Japanese since their conquest of the Philippines in 1942. The Japanese Navy units known to have been at Clark consisted of the 261st, 761st, 762nd, 752nd, and 901st Kokutai equipped with Mitsubishi G4M Betty bombers, and the 201st Kokutai equipped with Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero fighters.

Known Japanese 4th Air Army units at Clark included the 60th Sentai equipped with Kawasaki Ki-21 Sally bombers, the 208th Sentai equipped with Kawasaki Ki-48 Lilly bombers, the 26th Sentai equipped with Kawasaki Ki-43 Oscar fighters, the 13th Sentai equipped with Kawasaki Ki-45 Nick fighters, the 19th Sentai Equipped with Kawasaki Ki-61 Tony fighters, the 22nd Sentai equipped with Kawasaki Ki-44 Tojo fighter, the 62nd Sentai equipped with Kawasaki Ki-49 Helen bombers, and the 15th Sentai equipped with Kawasaki Ki-46 Dinah reconnaissance aircraft.

Clark airbase facilities consisted of six airstrips, Clark runways 1-6, and the five runways at Angeles City adjacent to Clark airbase. The antiaircraft defenses surrounding Clark were some of the most formidable in the Pacific Theater and as potentially hazardous as any heavily defended target in the European Theater. The Japanese defenses included 74 heavy antiaircraft guns of the 75mm Model 88, 237 medium guns of mixed types including Model 96 dual and triple 25mm, Type 40 40mm, Model 98 20mm, and Model 93 13mm twinbarreled AA weapons. The 174 light guns were dominated by Model 92 7.7mm machine guns.

These 485 guns were dispersed around the complex and manned by over 1,200 Japanese Army and Navy gunners. The Japanese also used combat air patrols of fighters to defend the airfields. In addition, 16 Japanese Army and Navy ground radars were present and still active with the potential of providing advanced warning to the Japanese defenders.

The Japanese also used ground-based visual observers to provide information on Allied aircraft passing nearby. They dispersed and heavily camouflaged their aircraft and constructed decoy aircraft and gun positions to protect their vital resources from air attack.

The Plan of Attack

The Fifth Air Force moved bomber and fighter units to Leyte and Mindoro as soon as their bases were ready for operations. Aircraft from Tanauan and Tacloban airfields on Leyte and San Jose airfield on Mindoro were slated to launch airstrikes against Clark, beginning on January 7, 1945.

The actual planning for the first mission was accomplished by the staff of the 310th Bomb Wing. From Tanauan airfield 48 Douglas A-20G Havoc aircraft of the 312th Bomb Group, commanded by Colonel Robert Strauss, would take off. The 312th was represented by 12 aircraft each from the 386th, 387th, 388th, and 389th Squadrons. The 312th had unique unit markings, each bomber emblazoned with a skull and crossbones on the nose, through which the machine guns fired.

From Tacloban, 40 North American B-25J-11 aircraft of the 345th Bomb Group, commanded by Colonel Chester Coltharp, would join the 312th. The 345th squadrons represented in the raid included the 498th, 499th, 500th, and 501st with 10 aircraft each. Coltharp was the strike leader for the mission. The 345th also had colorful aircraft markings. Known as the Air Apaches, their planes had an American Indian chief logo on the rudders. In addition, various aircraft had bat’s head images or hawk’s head images painted on the noses with additional personal markings.

The combined formation would fly northwest over the Visayan Sea until they were off the southwest coast of Mindoro, where 48 A-20G aircraft of the 417th Bomb Group, commanded by Lt. Col. Milton W. Johnson and consisting of 12 aircraft each from the 672nd, 673rd, 674th, and 675th Squadrons, would join the effort. The formation would be escorted by 24 Lockheed P-38 Lightning fighters of the 8th Fighter Group, which would depart from San Jose and join up with the formation.

The formation would split into two waves on the run into the target. The first wave would consist of 24 A-20Gs of the 312th Bomb Group’s 388th and 389th Squadrons and all 40 B-25J aircraft of the 345th Bomb Group. The 312th aircraft were on the right side of the first wave formation with the 345th to their left. The second wave would consist of 24 A-20G aircraft of the 312th, 386th, and 387th Squadrons and the 48 A-20Gs of the 417th Bomb Group. The 312th was also on the right side of this formation with the 417th on the left.

The first wave would attack Clark flying northwest to southeast. The second attack wave would fly from northeast to southwest. The two waves would create a large X pattern over the target. The mission planners’ hope was that this would help the attackers locate and destroy all the dispersed and camouflaged aircraft hidden close to the airstrips.

23-Pound Parafrags

The primary weapons for the mission would be thousands of 23-pound AM 40 parachute fragmentation bombs, otherwise known as parafrags. The mission planners also hoped that by flying up the west coast of Luzon the attackers would reduce the potential for detection from Japanese radar sites and confuse Japanese ground observers as to the mission’s true target. With three bomb groups attacking Clark from the north, it was hoped that an element of surprise could be achieved, catching the Japanese antiaircraft gunners flat-footed, reducing losses. Radio silence was to be maintained to prevent detection by Japanese listening posts.

Each of the three bomb groups came to the raid with different motivations. The 345th Bomb Group had lost over 200 dead, wounded, and missing ground personnel in a kamikaze attack on the Liberty Ship SS Thomas Nelson and lost an additional 22 dead and 40 wounded in a second kamikaze attack on the Liberty Ship SS Morrison R. Waite on November 12, 1944. The 417th Bomb Group had endured frequent air attack and had lost a number of aircraft on the ground. The unit also had lost its popular commander, Colonel Howard S. Ellmore, killed when his A-20G struck the superstructure of a Japanese merchant ship and crashed during a low-level attack on January 2, 1945. The January 7 raid would be the first group-size raid led by Ellmore’s replacement, Lt. Col. Johnson.

The 312th Bomb Group was the most recent of the three to arrive in the Philippines. An experienced group, the 312th’s flying element had just arrived days before this planned raid, eager to get in the fight.

Challenges of the Raid

The Japanese were not idle during this period. They were desperately trying to find ways to get aerial reinforcements to the Luzon bases and were to trying figure out ways to strike back at the growing American airpower in the region. Despite heroic efforts and ghastly sacrifices, nothing seemed to be slowing down the American airpower buildup despite the losses the Japanese inflicted. The Japanese knew that if land-based American airpower built up enough, Japanese air operations would be finished in the Philippines.

All the American aircrews were briefed on the mission on the night of January 6. The ground crews spent most of the night ensuring that the bombers were ready for the morning’s important mission. The aircrews were awakened at 4 am for breakfast and preflight checks. The 312th Bomb Group’s A-20Gs took off at 6:50 am into a bright, clear sky over Leyte. During the takeoff a 388th Squadron A-20G piloted by 2nd Lt. Eugene M. Bussard with gunner Sergeant Harvey Walker made one turn from Tanauan and crashed into the bay. Both airmen were killed. The cause of the crash was never determined but was presumed to be some type of mechanical failure.

Watch the video: Shooting German Flak 36 88 mm (July 2022).


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