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Postmaster General SP-2364 - History

Postmaster General SP-2364 - History


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Postmaster General

(SP-2364: t. 434; 1. 145'; b. 31'2"; dr. 8'6"; s. 14 k.; cpl. 6)

Postmaster General (SP-2364) was built in 1898 by Robert Palmer and Sons, Noank, Conn.; chartered by the Navy from
Harbor Steamboat Co., New Rochelle, N.Y. 28 February 1918; and commissioned at New York 20 June 1918, Chief Boatswain Edward Cunningham, USNRF, in command.

During World War I Postmaster General served with the 3rd Naval District patrol forces on mail duty. She was returned to her owner at New York 6 May 1919.


Records of the Post office Department [POD]

Established: As an independent agency, by an act of February 20, 1792 (1 Stat. 232).

  • Postmaster General, 2d Continental Congress (1775-81)
  • Postmaster General, Confederation Congress (1781-89)
  • Office of the Postmaster General (OPMG, 1789-92)

Functions: Provided mail processing and delivery services to individuals and businesses within the United States.

Abolished: Effective July 1, 1971, by the Postal Reorganization Act (84 Stat. 719), August 12, 1970, and functions transferred to the U.S. Postal Service (USPS).

Finding Aids: Arthur Hecht et al., comps., and Forrest R. Holdcamper, rev., Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Post Office Department, PI 168 (1967) supplement in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories. Janet Hargett, comp., List of Selected Maps of States and Territories, SL 29 (1971).

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Post Office Department and its components in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.

28.2 RECORDS OF THE OFFICE OF THE POSTMASTER GENERAL
1773-1971

History: Position of Postmaster General created by 2d Continental Congress, July 26, 1775. Continued under Confederation Congress following ratification of Articles of Confederation, March 1, 1781. Temporary Office of Postmaster General established in Federal Government by the Post Office Act (1 Stat. 70), September 22, 1789. Permanent Post Office Department established by the Post Office Act (1 Stat. 232), February 20, 1792. Postmaster General made Cabinet member, 1829. Post Office Department elevated to Cabinet status by Post Office Act (17 Stat. 283), June 8, 1872. Superseded by USPS, 1971. SEE 28.1.

28.2.1 General records

Textual Records: Journals containing orders of the Postmaster General, 1835-1953. Letters sent, 1789-1952 (with gaps). Letters received, 1837-43. Letters sent by the private secretary, 1867- 1901 (with gaps). Letters sent by the administrative assistant, July-December 1929. Letters sent by the executive assistant, 1930-35. Postage stamp printing contracts, 1850-1906. Correspondence files of Postmaster General William M. Blount, 1969-70. Publications providing details of a wide span of postal activities, 1961-71. Subject files of the Department Planning Committee, 1966-68.

Microfilm Publications: M601.

28.2.2 Records of the Office of the Chief Clerk

History: Established, April 1818, to supervise field and investigative operations. Shared responsibility with Assistant Postmaster General and supervised Office of Mail Contracts after departmental reorganization, 1825. Supervised Division of Special Agents and Mail Depredations, Office of the Topographer, the Superintendent of Buildings, and the Disbursing Clerk, 1836-72. Assigned general administrative and operating functions by Post Office Act (17 Stat. 283), June 8, 1872. Assigned supplementary responsibilities as Superintendent of Buildings, July 1, 1905, and as Director of Personnel, July 1, 1934. Superseded by Bureau of Personnel, 1955.

Textual Records: Fair copy of the journal of Hugh Finlay, Surveyor of Post Roads and Post Offices for the British Post Office Department, 1773-74. Continental Congress post office department dead letters book, 1777-88. Miscellaneous cashbooks, bonds, forms, printed material, and other records relating to U.S. and foreign post offices, 1794-1894. Manuscript annual reports, 1836-40, 1846. Congressional correspondence, 1839-58 (with gaps). Inquiries of the Keep Commission about administrative procedures, 1906-7. Letters sent, 1873-80, 1885- 1910. Records relating to buildings occupied by the POD, 1827-55. Records relating to the experimental telegraph line built in 1843 under the general direction of Samuel F.B. Morse and the Postmaster General, 1837-46. Telegraph rate agreements, 1866- 1913. Correspondence concerning personnel and operation of the Censorship Board, 1917-18. General correspondence and reports relating to personnel, 1904-13. Exhibits to a report on Railway Mail Service printing offices, 1908. Scrapbook of issuances and newspaper clippings relating to postal activities, 1823-71.

Microfilm Publications: T268.

Motion Pictures (124 reels): Post office buildings and the construction and dedication of the New Post Office, Washington, DC, 1931-34 (14 reels). Postal activities, equipment, and facilities, including the Dead Letter Office, mail processing, parcel post, mail bags, stamps, mail robbery and misuse of the mails, postal savings system, and instructions to mail users and prominent persons, including Presidents Herbert C. Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt, and various Postmasters General, 1915-68 (36 reels). Scenic film about Mount Rainier National Park, 1923 (1 reel). German propaganda films relating to the conquest (1939- 40) of Belgium, Holland, France, and Poland, 1940-41 (28 reels). Postal Service activities and events including the use of automation to improve mail service, n.d. (8 reels) how postal service operates, n.d. (14 reels) and how zip code works, n.d. (2 reels). Various stamp ceremonies, 1958-71 (43 reels). President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, and Postmaster General Summerfield attending the issuance of the Liberty 8-cent stamp, 1954 (1 reel). Postal equipment tests and demonstrations, and interiors of various U.S. post offices, 1964-65 (11 reels).

28.2.3 Records of the Office of the Disbursing Officer

History: Position of Disbursing Clerk established by a supplementary appropriations act of March 3, 1853 (10 Stat. 211). Title changed to Superintendent of the Post Office Building and Disbursing Officer (or Clerk) by Post Office Act (17 Stat. 283), June 8, 1872. Position transferred to Office of the Third Assistant Postmaster General by appropriations act of June 19, 1878 (20 Stat. 178). Established as independent office by order of August 1, 1891. Redesignated Office of the Disbursing Officer, November 1, 1905. Redesignated Director of Postal Finance, and assigned to Bureau of Third Assistant Postmaster General, November 15, 1943.

Textual Records: Fiscal and other records relating to supplies, property, salaries, and building maintenance, 1862-1913.

28.2.4 Records of the Division of Service Relations

History: Welfare Division established, April 21, 1921, superseding the Postal Employees' Cooperative Store Association, established 1917. Date of Welfare Division redesignation as Division of Service Relations not determined.

Textual Records: General records of the Postal Employees' Cooperative Store Association, Washington, DC, 1917-21. Records relating to postal employee welfare programs developed through national, county, local, and departmental councils and boards, 1921-30.

28.2.5 Records of the Office of the Solicitor

History: Established by act of May 8, 1794 (1 Stat. 354), to provide legal advice to Postmaster General. Assistant Attorney General for the Post Office Department (AAGPOD) authorized by Post Office Act (17 Stat. 283), June 8, 1872, to be paid, pursuant to appropriations act of March 3, 1873 (17 Stat. 508), out of Department of Justice funds. Initial appointment made by Postmaster General, March 20, 1873. Office of Solicitor began providing staff assistance to AAGPOD, 1878. AAGPOD redesignated Solicitor for the Post Office Department by appropriations act of June 6, 1914 (38 Stat. 497), but continued to be funded from Department of Justice appropriations. Postmaster General authorized to appoint and finance a Special Assistant to Attorney General, pursuant to act of July 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 412). Office of the Solicitor absorbed the Office of the Special Assistant to the Attorney General, 1934. Redesignated General Counsel, 1958.

Textual Records: Office files of Solicitor William H. Lamar, 1912-22. Opinions, 1868-74, 1895-97. Letters sent, 1877-79, 1906. Selected case files, 1905-21, concerning use of the mails for fraud, sedition, lotteries, false advertising, transportation of obscene matter, and other violations of postal laws and regulations, with indexes. Case files, registers, transcripts, and dockets relating to fraud cases, 1834-1951. Records relating to nonmailable publications, 1940-47. Records relating to federal operation of telephone, telegraph, and cable companies, 1918-21, with index and card file. Records relating to enforcement of the Espionage Act of 1917, as amended (1940), 1917-21, 1942-45. Correspondence and reports relating to investigations of airmail and ocean mail contracts, 1934-40. Registers of postmasters' claims for reimbursement, 1882-1929. Records relating to bonding of mail route carriers, 1901-2, 1908.

Subject Access Terms: Esquire Magazine case.

28.2.6 Records of the Office of the Purchasing Agent

History: Established by act of April 28, 1904 (33 Stat. 429).

Textual Records: Letters sent relating to supply and equipment purchases, 1904, 1910.

28.2.7 Records of the Special Assistant to the Postmaster General

History: Established in 1959 in response to the Post Office Department's growing responsibilities and increased demands. Textual Records: Nationwide improved mail services publicity file, 1961. Press release books, 1953-62. Press releases, 1962.

28.2.8 Records of the Bureau of Finance and Administration

History: Created in 1964 as a successor to the Bureau of Finance.

Textual Records: Directives and publications case files, 1935-72. Paperwork management studies, 1955-69. Reorganization studies, 1950-68. Subject files, 1957-69.

28.2.9 Records of the Bureau of Finance

History: Established by the 1949 Postal Reorganization Plan.

Textual Records: Records of the Cost Ascertainment Division, consisting of cost ascertainment final reports and appendices, 1923-59 and reports on the cost ascertainment system, 1944-56. Records of the Postal Funds Division, consisting of bank correspondence files, 1908-55. Migratory bird hunting stamp file, 1939-61. Embossed stamped envelope file, 1933-56. Regular, air mail, and commemorative stamp file, 1957-62.

28.2.10 Records of the Bureau of Facilities

History: Established by the 1949 Postal Reorganization Plan.

Textual Records: Organization history files and related records, 1931-60. Subject files, 1944-67.

28.2.11 Records of the Bureau of Research and Engineering

History: Established by PL 89-492, July 5, 1966.

Textual Records Subject files, 1958-67. Construction and engineering project files, 1965-68.

28.2.12 Records of the Bureau of Transportation and International Services

History: Established in 1964 as the result of a name change from the Bureau of Transportation. Most of the original functions were transferred.

Textual Records: Special project reports and related records, 1966-67. Subject files, 1962-67. Highway post office discontinuation case files, 1961-67. Railroad post office discontinuation case files, 1963-67. Sectional centers facility case files, 1963-66.

28.2.13 Records of the Post Office Changes Branch

History: Established as an unit of the Post Office Changes and Rural Appointment Division by the 1949 Postal Reorganization Plan. This unit by the late 1960's was termed the Postal Changes Branch.

Textual records: Establishment and discontinuation of post offices files, 1959-63.

28.3 RECORDS OF THE BUREAU OF THE FIRST ASSISTANT POSTMASTER GENERAL AND SUCCESSORS
1789-1971

History: Office of the Assistant Postmaster General established by 2d Continental Congress, July 26, 1775, and retained under Federal Government by Post Office Act (1 Stat. 70), September 22, 1789. Redesignated Office of the First Assistant Postmaster General pursuant to Post Office Act (2 Stat. 593), April 30, 1810, which created Office of the Second Assistant Postmaster. Redesignated Bureau of the First Assistant Postmaster General, 1942. Superseded by Bureau of Post Office Operations, in accordance with Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1949, effective August 20, 1949. Redesignated Bureau of Operations, ca. 1959. Established and managed post offices selected, nominated, or appointed postmasters administered delivery service and handled unmailable and undeliverable mail.

28.3.1 General records

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1793-1800. Orders ("Journals"), 1867-1905. Miscellaneous correspondence, 1911-41. Journal of the First Assistant Postmaster, 1941.

28.3.2 Records of the Division of Postmasters

Textual Records: Record of earliest returns received from postmasters, 1789-1818. Records relating to appointments of postmasters, 1815-1971. Records relating to the opening, closing, redesignation, and relocation of post offices, 1899-1914.

Microfilm Publications: M841, M1131.

28.3.3 Records of the Division of Post Office Clerical Service

Textual Records: Records relating to first- and second-class post offices, 1889-1936, including appointment and salary files (1889- 1907) and operating records (1916-36). Records relating to contract stations and branches, 1916-35. Records relating to Sunday service at post offices, 1911-12.

28.3.4 Records of the Division of City Delivery Service

Textual Records: Records relating to mail carriers employed in first- and second-class post offices, 1888-1907 and to carriers separated from the postal service, 1863-99. Reports of inspections of city delivery service in Baltimore, MD, Kalamazoo, MI, and Pittsburgh, PA, 1929-31. Records relating to the Detroit River Steamboat Service, 1895-1928.

28.3.5 Records of the Division of Rural Delivery Service

Textual Records: Correspondence, 1898-1936. Issuances of the Superintendent of the Free Delivery System, 1901-6. Statistical data, 1896-1910.

28.3.6 Records of the Division of Post Office Service

Textual Records: Correspondence and reports relating to classification of employees and measurement of work in post offices, 1912, 1923-34.

28.3.7 Records of the Division of Dead Letters

Textual Records: Miscellaneous records, 1897-1930.

28.4 RECORDS OF THE BUREAU OF THE SECOND ASSISTANT POSTMASTER
GENERAL AND SUCCESSORS
1808-1969

History: Office of the Second Assistant Postmaster General established by the Post Office Act (2 Stat. 593), April 30, 1810 (2 Stat. 593), to provide assistance in the field. Made responsible solely for transportation of the mail, November 15, 1851. Redesignated Bureau of the Second Assistant Postmaster General, 1942. Superseded by Bureau of Transportation (BOT), August 30, 1949. BOT abolished, with functions transferred to Bureau of Operations, 1969.

28.4.1 General records

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1891-1934. Administrative records, 1852-1968. Reports, 1911-31. Memorandums, 1914-29. Correspondence concerning airmail service, 1921-27. Notices to railway companies concerning mail transportation, 1885-1909. Roster of bureau employees, 1893-1912. Railway and Steamship Company mail pay cases, 1912-35. Ocean mail and airmail contract program and policy files, 1928-34. Files of the Deputy Assistant Postmaster General for the Bureau of Transportation (and International Services), 1958-66. Records of the special administrative aide, consisting of budget estimates and appropriations reports, 1920- 33, and reports of personnel changes, 1918-33. Correspondence and related records concerning the establishment of postal routes and air mail service in Alaska, 1934-48. Orders relating to mail route service by "electric cars," 1948-55.

28.4.2 Records of the Domestic Transportation Division

Textual Records: Historical files relating to airmail service, 1935-62 and to inaugural ceremonies for highway post offices, 1953-56. Case files pertaining to the establishment of routes for highway post offices, 1940-59 and to the discontinuation of highway and railway post offices, 1964-67.

28.4.3 Records of the Division of Railway Mail Service

Textual Records: Correspondence, 1902-29. Records relating to mail service to the American Expeditionary Forces, ca. 1917-19. Directives, 1894-1955. Circular letters sent to chief clerks of districts, 1911-17. Joint letter file, 1919-47. "Decision Book" relating to railway mail rules and procedures, 1872-98. Statements of annual travel allowance, 1928-38. Organization and job description sheets, ca. 1921-42. Rosters of clerks and agents, 1855-1915. Divisional newsletters, 1918-51. Registers of railroad and electric car mail route contracts, 1877-1948. Lists of mail service badges, 1905-19. Advertisements for Star Route carriers, 1808-1958. Route registers for screen body motor vehicles, 1934-53. Record of Star Route changes in NJ, NY, and PA, 1946-53. Lists of Star Route mail contractors, 1833-77. Paybooks for Star Route service, 1851-66. Records relating to government-operated Star Route service by motortrucks, 1917-24. Case files pertaining to the operation of panel body vehicles, 1949-53. Star Route mail contracts, 1814-1960 (with gaps), containing information about service to small post offices not on railroad lines. Orders, contracts, and correspondence relating to powerboat and steamboat mail route service, 1859-1963. Records relating to special service contracts, 1920-41. Records relating to construction and maintenance of railway post office cars, 1930-62.

28.4.4 Records of the Division of Railway Adjustments

Textual Records: Correspondence relating to rates paid for mail transportation, 1907-46. Case files and correspondence concerning transportation of mail matter by means other than the postal service in violation of federal statutes, 1896-1933. Reports by public carriers of railway mail service performed, 1916-22. Registers of the employment of mail messengers, 1877-81, 1900-47.

28.4.5 Records of the Division of International Postal Service

Textual Records: Record copies of postal conventions with foreign countries, 1848-1969. Records relating to postal congresses and conventions, 1888-1927. Publications of the Universal Postal Union, 1947-67. Correspondence with the Second Assistant Postmaster General relating to international postal policies and agreements, 1887-1966. Correspondence, reports, and questionnaires relating to vessels and routes employed in the ocean mail service, 1929-39. Correspondence relating to military postal service during the Spanish-American War, 1898-1902. Records relating to the operation of postal services in Cuba, 1896-1908 the Philippine Islands, 1895-1903 and Puerto Rico, 1899-1900. Correspondence, airline schedules, financial statements, surveys, and performance reports relating to the Foreign Airmail Service, 1918-39. Records relating to military mail, 1940-59. Miscellaneous records relating to international mail, 1914-37, and foreign parcel post facilities, 1911-12.

28.4.6 Records of the Division of Air Mail Service

Textual Records: General records of the Airmail Service, 1918-25, and the General Superintendent of the Service, 1926-42. Records of the Second Assistant Postmaster General concerning air transport, 1926-42. Airmail route contracts, 1927-34. Selected personnel records of air mail pilots and supervisors relating to operations of the air mail service, especially unusual flights, accidents, and aircraft testing, 1918-27. Airmail service publicity materials, 1918-37. Records relating to airmail routes and autogiro and helicopter service, 1919-49. Correspondence and reports concerning National Airmail Week, 1938-39. Performance and efficiency reports on domestic airmail service, 1920-41. Records relating to National Air Transport, Inc., 1926.

Maps (120 items): Landing fields and airmail routes, 1918-41 (98 items). Published maps relating to airmail, 1919-55 (22 items). SEE ALSO 28.12.

Architectural and Engineering Plans (1,620 items, in Washington Area): Blueprints and specifications for airplanes, hangars, and equipment, 1918-25. SEE ALSO 28.12.

Motion Pictures (2 reels): The Story of the U.S. Mail, n.d. (1 reel). Growth of airmail delivery, produced for National Airmail Week, 1938 (1 reel). SEE ALSO 28.13.

Photographs (1,350 images): Development of airmail service, including the first transcontinental flight, operation of Pan American Airlines Mail Service, air mail pilots (notably Charles Lindbergh), post office officials, airplane accidents, and safety devices, 1916-60 (MS). SEE ALSO 28.15.

28.5 RECORDS OF THE BUREAU OF THE THIRD ASSISTANT POSTMASTER GENERAL AND SUCCESSORS
1775-1968

History: Office of the Third Assistant Postmaster established by act of July 2, 1836 (5 Stat. 80), to supervise the settlement of accounts and, with Chief Clerk, to supervise the newly established Inspection Office. Made responsible for all financial operations not legally delegated to the Auditor, 1846, and subsequently acquired responsibility for issuing stamps and related philatelic issuances and managing money order, parcel post, postal savings, and registered mail systems. Redesignated Bureau of the Third Assistant Postmaster General, 1942. Superseded by Bureau of Finance, in accordance with Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1949, effective August 20, 1949. Redesignated Bureau of Finance and Administration, 1964.

28.5.1 General records

Textual Records: Files of the Deputy Assistant Postmaster General and Controller, 1955-63, and of the Assistant Controller for Field Operations, 1961-65.

28.5.2 Records of the Division of Finance

Textual Records: Accounts, ledgers, and journals of the General Post Office, 1775-1803. General Post Office cashbooks, 1792-95. Post Office cashbooks, 1955-68. Correspondence of the division, 1922-37. Salary journals and receipts of post offices, 1895-1956 (including 2 rolls of microfilm). General ledgers for the whole department, 1947-54.

28.5.3 Records of the Postal Savings System

Textual Records: Records relating to the establishment of the Postal Savings System, 1861-1913. Forms, 1912-13. Daily record of cases received, 1913-51. General records, 1883-1957. Annual reports, 1937-64. Ledgers, 1911-59. Records relating to the discontinuance of the Postal Savings System, 1951-68.

28.5.4 Records of the Division of Money Orders

Textual Records: Correspondence, memorandums, reports, and accounts, 1868- 1936. Copies of international money order conventions, with related correspondence, 1856-1966.

28.5.5 Records of the Division of Stamps

Textual Records: Stamp billbooks, 1870-97. Correspondence relating to envelopes, 1857-1925. Ledger showing quantities and costs of stamps furnished to postal services in Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippine Islands, and Guam, 1898-1900. Records of the postal card agent, 1893-1923. Historical file on early postage stamps, 1847-1901.

Related Records: Plate-proof stamp sheets, 1894-1962, in RG 28, are on permanent loan to the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

28.5.6 Records of the Division of Newspaper and Periodical Mail

Textual Records: Records relating to an increase in second-class rates, 1917-20.

28.6 RECORDS OF THE BUREAU OF THE FOURTH ASSISTANT POSTMASTER GENERAL
1837-1970

History: Office of the Fourth Assistant Postmaster General established by order of the Postmaster General, August 1, 1891, in accordance with provisions of appropriations act of March 3, 1891 (26 Stat. 944). Office redesignated Bureau of the Fourth Assistant Postmaster, 1942. Superseded by Bureau of Facilities in accordance with Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1949, August 20, 1949. Responsible for maintaining and operating post offices and equipment, for providing supplies, and for producing and distributing route maps.

28.6.1 General records

Textual Records: General records, 1905-32. Correspondence of Fourth Assistant Postmaster General James I. Blakslee, 1914-20.

28.6.2 Records of the Division of Topography

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1901-11. Reports of site locations and completed geographical information forms, 1837-1950.

Maps (2,924 items): Post route atlas of the United States compiled under the direction of David Burr, 1839 (13 items). Regional, state, county, and city maps, and a sampling of rural delivery route maps, showing post offices, mail delivery routes, mail-carrying railroads, navigable waters (1917), Congressional districts (1935-40), frequency of mail service, and distances between post offices, 1867-1970 (2,911 items). SEE ALSO 28.12.

28.6.3 Records of the Division of Motor Vehicle Service

Textual Records: Advertisements, contracts, and correspondence concerning manufacture and operation of mail transportation vehicles, 1858-1939. Correspondence relating to shipment of farm products by postal trucks, 1919-29.

Architectural and Engineering Plans (100 items, in Washington Area): Blueprints and similiar drawings of postal delivery vehicles submitted by vendors for possible procurement by the Post Office, 1967-70. SEE ALSO28.12.

Photographic Prints and Negatives (75 images): Postal delivery trucks and equipment, 1965-67 (TE). SEE ALSO 28.15.

28.6.4 Records of the Pneumatic Tube Service

Textual Records: Records, including interfiled blueprints, relating to the establishment and operation of the service, 1892- 1953. Records of the Commission to Investigate Pneumatic Tube Postal Systems (Pneumatic Tube Commission), 1912-14.

28.6.5 Records of the Division of Post Office Quarters

Textual Records: Correspondence and reports, 1916-42. Records relating to leases of postal quarters, 1916-32. Blueprints, plans, and estimates for construction of postal quarters, and interfiled reports concerning space and conditions in federal buildings, 1911-30. Records relating to dedications of post office buildings, 1933-42.

28.6.6 Records of the Division of Equipment and Supplies

Textual Records: Cost reports on work in mail-equipment shops, 1915-24. Miscellaneous records relating to division operations, 1868-1911.

28.6.7 Records of the Division of Rural Mails

Textual Records: Records relating to the employment of rural mail carriers, 1901-20. General and accounting records concerning the operation of rural mail routes and the administration of the division, 1906-34.

28.7 RECORDS OF THE BUREAU OF ACCOUNTS
1883-1948

History: Auditing of post office accounts vested in Office of the Comptroller of the Treasury by act of September 2, 1789 ( 1 Stat. 66). Assigned to Fifth Auditor of the Treasury by an act of March 3, 1817 (3 Stat. 366), and to Sixth Auditor of the Treasury by act of July 2, 1836 (5 Stat. 81). Functions transferred to Post Office Department and vested in newly established Bureau of Accounts by the Budget and Accounting Act (42 Stat. 24), June 10, 1921. Bureau terminated, 1953, and functions assigned to the Bureau of Finance.

Textual Records: Correspondence, memorandums, and issuances, 1862-1924. Copies of outgoing letters of George A. Howard, auditor, 1893-97. Letters sent, 1904-18. Accounts relating to postal services between the United States and foreign countries, 1883-1948. Cost ascertainment reports, 1926-47.

28.8 RECORDS OF THE BUREAU OF THE CHIEF INSPECTOR
1829-1970

History: Responsibility for investigation of irregularities in the POD vested by June 14, 1790, in Assistant Postmaster General, under supervision of the Office of Instructions, OPMG. Office of Instructions redesignated Office of Instructions and Mail Depredations and assigned to Office of the Second Assistant Postmaster General, 1830. Function transferred to Miscellaneous Division, OPMG, 1835. Thereafter successively vested in Contract Division, Office of the Second Assistant Postmaster General Office of Mail Depredations, OPMG Division of Special Agents and Mail Depredations, OPMG Division of Post Office Inspectors and Mail Depredations, OPMG (and later in Office of the Fourth Assistant Postmaster General) and Division of Post Office Inspectors, OPMG. Bureau of the Chief Inspector established, February 2, 1939.

Textual Records: General records of the Postal Inspection Service, 1832-1970. Indexes to mail depredations, 1845-48. Reports and letters sent by the Chief Special Agent, Office of Mail Depredations, 1875-78. Case files of investigations, 1877-1903, including reports of secret internal investigations, 1894-95. Press copies of investigative reports, 1907-18. Statements of arrest for offenses against postal laws, with related registers and indexes, 1864-99. Records relating to an investigation of the Railway Mail Service, 1925. Annual reports, 1905-35. Rosters of inspectors and other employees, 1898-1909. Records of Inspection Offices at St. Louis, 1876-78 Denver, 1879-1907 Philadelphia, 1896-1909 New York, 1907-8 Chicago, 1885-1907 San Francisco, 1884-1909 Atlanta, 1907 and Chattanooga, 1898-1906. Inspection reports on Rural Mail Service, 1904-31. Bimonthly general intelligence press reports of the Justice Department relating to radical publications, 1918-22. Records of the Fraud and Mailability Division, consisting of foreign political propaganda case files, 1958-59 foreign political propaganda in-transist lists, 1958-59 policy and precedent docket case files, 1913-53 transcripts of hearings, 1937-51 and air mail cases, 1943-53. Selected records relating to the John F. Kennedy assassination, 1962-68. Tables of investigation records exchanged between the POD and inspection offices in Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chattanooga, Chicago, Cincinnati, Denver, Kansas City, New York, Philadelphia, St. Louis, St. Paul, San Francisco, Spokane, and Washington, DC, 1923-25. Press copies of correspondence of inspectors in charge in Kansas City, 1902-8 (in Kansas City) and Boston, 1899-1908 (in Boston).

Photographs (28 images): Chief postal inspectors, 1829-1961 (IP). SEE ALSO 28.15.

28.9 RECORDS OF THE BUREAU OF TRANSPORTATION 1915-66

History: Established by the 1949 Postal Reorganization Plan. Abolished in 1964, its functions transferred to the newly created Assistant Postal General, Bureau of Transportation and International Services.

Textual Records: Subject files of the Assistant Postmaster General, 1915- 66. Records of the Administration Division, consisting of reorganization files, 1946-62 and administrative manual, 1922-55. Records of the Air Division, consisting of rate orders and related records, 1937-58 and foreign air mail rate case files, 1954-59. Records of the Railway Transportation Division, consisting of postal inspection reports, 1958-63 and railroad operating agreements, 1948-56. Records of the International Service Division, consisting of records relating to the VIIIth Congress of the Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, 1960. Records of the Division of the Transportation Research, including the records of the branch consisting of general research project 10 regional final reports, 1956 report of the departmental committee on expedited first-class mail, 1956 and transportation study reports, 1958-59.

28.10 RECORD OF REGIONAL POST OFFICES
1954-65

28.10.1 Records of the Atlanta Office

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Transportation Planning Branch air and surface transportation studies (Georgia), 1954-60.

Maps (25 items, in Atlanta): Used with Transportation Planning Branch air and surface transportation studies, 1954-60. SEE ALSO 28.12.

28.10.2 Records of the Chicago Office

Textual Records (in Chicago): Records relating to publicity, 1957-65.

28.11 LIBRARY COLLECTION OF POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT RECORDS
1804-1955

Textual Records: Letters received by the Postmaster General, 1836-1910. Letters of the Second Assistant Postmaster General addressed to all Superintendents of the Railway Mail Service, 1948-55. Correspondence of the First and Second Assistant Postmasters General, 1862-69 the Chief Clerk and Director of Personnel, 1912-44 and the U.S. Postal Card Agency, 1856-92. Correspondence relating to postal exhibitions, 1891-93, 1927, 1933-34. Correspondence and other records of the Dead Letter Office, 1830-35, 1862-63, 1898 the Inspection Office, 1863, 1914-52 the U.S. Stamped Envelope Agency, 1869- 1906 the Railway Mail Service, 1877-1939 and the Sea Post Service, 1924- 26, 1942. Records relating to the Money Order Service, 1857-68, 1876-1909, 1929-33 and to the international money order business, 1867-93. Documents relating to the Universal Postal Union, 1862-1929. Opinions of the Attorney General for the Post Office Department, 1909-25.

Maps (61 items): Collected by the Post Office Department Library, consisting chiefly of photostatic copies of maps of North America (1550 and 1700's), and including two printed maps showing U.S. post roads (1804 and ca. 1836), and maps of Prince George's and Montgomery Counties, MD (1878), and NJ (ca. 1882), 1804-1928. SEE ALSO 28.12.

28.12 CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS (GENERAL)

SEE Maps UNDER 28.4.6, 28.6.2, 28.10.1 and 28.11. SEE Architectural and Engineering Plans UNDER 28.4.6 and 28.6.3.

28.13 MOTION PICTURES (GENERAL)

28.14 SOUND RECORDINGS (GENERAL)
1960-70

Speeches, interviews, press conferences, and remarks by various Postmasters General, 1960-68 (32 items). Radio spot announcements, 1965 (2 items). Zip code campaign, featuring Ethel Merman singing the official zip code song, 1966 (1 item). U.S. Navy Band performing the "Post Office March," n.d. (1 item). President Richard M. Nixon signing the Postal Reform Bill, 1970 (2 items).

28.15 STILL PICTURES (GENERAL)
1883-1959

Photographic Prints (3,800 images): Post offices in over 2,000 communities throughout the United States, 1900-40 (PB).

Photographs (10,000 images): Construction of post offices in the District of Columbia, 1931-32 and interiors and exteriors of post offices and hazardous work areas, 1956-59 (F).

Photographic Prints (32 images): Post office buildings, ca. 1930- 59 methods of transporting mail, n.d. unidentified ceremony, 1934 postal employees at work, ca. 1930-40 portrait of Samuel Osgood, First Postmaster General, n.d. and a copy of an 1863 portrait of President Abraham Lincoln taken by Alexander Gardner, n.d. (M).

Color Photographic Prints (18 images): Design sketches for post office buildings, n.d. and "Parade of Postal Progress" exhibit at the U.S. World Trade Fair Show, n.d. (M).

Photomechanical Reproductions (30 images): Post Office five-year building modernization and new equipment program, in pamphlet, n.d. (M).

Drawings (3 images): Federal building, San Diego Exposition, n.d. Post Office Department Building, Washington, DC, n.d. post office building, Glen Ridge, NJ, 1883 (M).

Posters (1 image): Air Mail Service advertisement, ca. 1930 (M, 1 image).

Filmstrips (10 items): Mail transport by sea, 1920 (FS, 1 item).Used in training post office employees involved in mail delivery service, including such topics as the acceptance and delivery of domestic registered mail, duties of the transfer clerk, driving the fleetvan safely, and "schemes and schedules," ca. 1957-62 (D, 9 items).

SEE Photographs UNDER 28.4.6 and 28.8.

SEE Photographic Prints and Negatives UNDER 28.6.3.

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.


History

A celebrated legal case in 1734-1735 involved John Peter Zenger, a New York newspaper printer. He printed a newspaper that publicly bashed the ruler at this time, and he was taken to jail. He was taken to court and charged with seditious libel for assailing the corrupt royal governor of New York. His lawyer Andrew Hamilton defended him well, and was made famous for his speech “truth cannot be libel.” This court case paved the way for freedom of the press in the United States to be adopted in the constitution. [2]

Sedition

There have been a number of attempts in the United States to forbid speech that has been deemed “seditious”. In 1798, President John Adams signed into law the Alien and Sedition Acts, the fourth of which, the Sedition Act or “An Act for the Punishment of Certain Crimes against the United States” set out punishments of up to two years’ imprisonment for “opposing or resisting any law of the United States” or writing or publishing “false, scandalous, and malicious writing” about the President or Congress (but specifically not the Vice-President). The act was allowed to expire in 1801 after the election of Thomas Jefferson, Vice President at the time of the Act’s passage.

The Sedition Act of 1917, passed in connection with the United States joining the Allied Powers in the First World War, was a controversial law that led to imprisonment of many prominent individuals for opposing the war or the draft. State laws prohibiting “sedition” were also passed and used to prosecute and persecute alleged “seditionists” during this period, including many people guilty only of being members of the Wobblies. However, the Sedition Act expired shortly after the end of the First World War the state sedition acts, if in place, are undoubtedly unconstitutional under the Brandenburg doctrine of imminent lawless action as well as the former doctrine of clear and present danger.

Local censorship

For much of the nation’s history, the First Amendment was not held to apply to states and municipalities. Entities without any prohibition in their own charters were free to censor newspapers, magazines, books, plays, movies, comedy shows, and so on. Many did, as exemplified by the phrase “banned in Boston.”

The free speech decisions of the United States Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren, which served from 1953 to 1969, extended the protections of the First Amendment to local government, and brought much stricter standards of review for what government actions were acceptable.

The state of Maryland retained its movie ratings board an unusually long time, abandoning it in the 1980s in favor of the private MPAA’s voluntary ratings scheme.

Anti-Abolitionist

Beginning in the 1830s and until the Civil War, the US Postmaster General refused to allow the mails to carry abolitionist pamphlets to the South. [3]

Near v. Minnesota and prior restraint

The 1931 Near v. Minnesota case was the first to establish the doctrine that prior restraint was in most cases unconstitutional. Prior restraint is censorship which prevents material from being published in the first place. The alternative form of censorship occurs as punishment for unlawful or harmful material already published, usually after having the opportunity to dispute the charge in court.

Smith Act

The Alien Registration Act or Smith Act (18 U.S.C. § 2385) of 1940 is a United States federal statute that made it a criminal offense for anyone to

knowingly or willfully advocate, abet, advise or teach the duty, necessity, desirability or propriety of overthrowing the Government of the United States or of any State by force or violence, or for anyone to organize any association which teaches, advises or encourages such an overthrow, or for anyone to become a member of or to affiliate with any such association.

It also required all non-citizen adult residents to register with the government within four months, 4,741,971 aliens had registered under the Act’s provisions.

The Act is best known for its use against political organizations and figures, mostly on the left. From 1941 to 1957, hundreds of socialists were prosecuted under the Smith Act. The first trial, in 1941, focused on Trotskyists, the second trial in 1944 prosecuted alleged fascists and, beginning in 1949, leaders and members of the Communist Party USA were targeted. Prosecutions continued until a series of Supreme Court decisions in 1957 threw out numerous convictions under the Smith Act as unconstitutional. The statute itself, however, had not been removed from the books as of early-middle April 2008.

Film censorship

The first act of movie censorship in the United States was an 1897 statute of the State of Maine that prohibited the exhibition of prizefight films. [4] Maine enacted the statute to prevent the exhibition of the 1897 heavyweight championship between James J. Corbett and Robert Fitzsimmons. Some other states followed Maine.

In 1915, the US Supreme Court decided the case Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio in which the court determined that motion pictures were purely commerce and not an art, and thus not covered by the First Amendment. This decision was not overturned until the Supreme Court case, Joseph Burstyn, Inc v. Wilson in 1952. Popularly referred to as the “Miracle Decision”, the ruling involved the short film “The Miracle”, part of Roberto Rossellini’s anthology film L’Amore (1948).

Between the Mutual Film and the Joseph Burstyn decisions local, state, and city censorship boards had the power to edit or ban films. City and state censorship ordinances are nearly as old as the movies themselves, and such ordinances banning the public exhibition of “immoral” films proliferated.

Public outcry over perceived immorality in Hollywood and the movies, as well as the growing number of city and state censorship boards, led the movie studios to fear that federal regulations were not far off so they created, in 1922, the Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors Association (which became the Motion Picture Association of America in 1945), an industry trade and lobby organization. The association was headed by Will H. Hays, a well-connected Republican lawyer who had previously been United States Postmaster General and he derailed attempts to institute federal censorship over the movies.

In 1927 Hays compiled a list of subjects, culled from his experience with the various US censorship boards, which he felt Hollywood studios would be wise to avoid. He called this list “the formula” but it was popularly known as the “don’ts and be carefuls” list. In 1930, Hays created the Studio Relations Committee (SRC) to implement his censorship code, but the SRC lacked any real enforcement capability.

The advent of talking pictures in 1927 led to a perceived need for further enforcement. Martin Quigley, the publisher of a Chicago-based motion picture trade newspaper, began lobbying for a more extensive code that not only listed material that was inappropriate for the movies, but also contained a moral system that the movies could help to promote – specifically a system based on Catholic theology. He recruited Father Daniel Lord, a Jesuit priest and instructor at the Catholic St. Louis University, to write such a code and on March 31, 1930 the board of directors of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association adopted it formally. This original version especially was once popularly known to as the Hays Code, but it and its later revisions are now commonly called the Production Code.

However, Depression economics and changing social mores resulted in the studios producing racier fare that the Code, lacking an aggressive enforcement body, was unable to redress. This era is known as Pre-Code Hollywood.

An amendment to the Code, adopted on June 13, 1934, established the Production Code Administration (PCA), and required all films released on or after July 1, 1934 to obtain a certificate of approval before being released. For more than thirty years following, virtually all motion pictures produced in the United States and released by major studios adhered to the code. [1] The Production Code was not created or enforced by federal, state, or city government. In fact, the Hollywood studios adopted the code in large part in the hopes of avoiding government censorship, preferring self-regulation to government regulation.

The enforcement of the Production Code led to the dissolution of many local censorship boards. Meanwhile, the US Customs Department prohibited the importation of the Czech film Ecstasy (1933), starring an actress soon to be known as Hedy Lamarr, an action which was upheld on appeal.

In 1934, Joseph I. Breen (1888–1965) was appointed head of the new Production Code Administration (PCA). Under Breen’s leadership of the PCA, which lasted until his retirement in 1954, enforcement of the Production Code became rigid and notorious. Breen’s power to change scripts and scenes angered many writers, directors, and Hollywood moguls. The PCA had two offices, one in Hollywood, and the other in New York City. Films approved by the New York PCA office were issued certificate numbers that began with a zero.

The first major instance of censorship under the Production Code involved the 1934 film Tarzan and His Mate, in which brief nude scenes involving a body double for actress Maureen O’Sullivan were edited out of the master negative of the film. Another famous case of enforcement involved the 1943 western The Outlaw, produced by Howard Hughes. The Outlaw was denied a certificate of approval and kept out of theaters for years because the film’s advertising focused particular attention on Jane Russell’s breasts. Hughes eventually persuaded Breen that the breasts did not violate the code and the film could be shown.

Some films produced outside the mainstream studio system during this time did flout the conventions of the code, such as Child Bride (1938), which featured a nude scene involving 12-year-old actress Shirley Mills. Even cartoon sex symbol Betty Boop had to change from being a flapper, and began to wear an old-fashioned housewife skirt.

In 1952, in the case of Joseph Burstyn, Inc. v. Wilson, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously overruled its 1915 decision and held that motion pictures were entitled to First Amendment protection, so that the New York State Board of Regents could not ban “The Miracle”, a short film that was one half of L’Amore (1948), an anthology film directed by Roberto Rossellini. Film distributor Joseph Burstyn released the film in the U.S. in 1950, and the case became known as the “Miracle Decision” due to its connection to Rossellini’s film. That in turn reduced the threat of government regulation that justified the Production Code, and the PCA’s powers over the Hollywood industry were greatly reduced. [5]

At the forefront of challenges to the code was director Otto Preminger, whose films violated the code repeatedly in the 1950s. His 1953 film The Moon is Blue, about a young woman who tries to play two suitors off against each other by claiming that she plans to keep her virginity until marriage, was the first film to use the words “virgin”, “seduce” and “mistress”, and it was released without a certificate of approval. He later made The Man with the Golden Arm (1955), which portrayed the prohibited subject of drug abuse, and Anatomy of a Murder (1959) which dealt with rape. Preminger’s films were direct assaults on the authority of the Production Code and, since they were successful, hastened its abandonment.

In 1954, Joseph Breen retired and Geoffrey Shurlock was appointed as his successor. Variety noted “a decided tendency towards a broader, more casual approach” in the enforcement of the code.

Billy Wilder’s Some Like It Hot (1959) and Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho (1960) were also released without a certificate of approval due to their themes and became box office hits, and as a result further weakened the authority of the code.

The Pawnbroker and the end of the Code

In the early 1960s, British films such as Victim (1961), A Taste of Honey (1961), and The Leather Boys (1963) offered a daring social commentary about gender roles and homophobia that violated the Hollywood Production Code, yet the films were still released in America. The American gay rights, civil rights, and youth movements prompted a reevaluation of the depiction of themes of race, class, gender, and sexuality that had been restricted by the Code.

In 1964 The Pawnbroker, directed by Sidney Lumet and starring Rod Steiger, was initially rejected because of two scenes in which the actresses Linda Geiser and Thelma Oliver fully expose their breasts and a sex scene between Oliver and Jaime Sánchez, which it described as “unacceptably sex suggestive and lustful.” Despite the rejection, the film’s producers arranged for Allied Artists to release the film without the Production Code seal and the New York censors licensed The Pawnbroker without the cuts demanded by Code administrators. The producers also appealed the rejection to the Motion Picture Association of America. [6]

On a 6-3 vote, the MPAA granted the film an “exception” conditional on “reduction in the length of the scenes which the Production Code Administration found unapprovable.” The exception to the code was granted as a “special and unique case,” and was described by The New York Times at the time as “an unprecedented move that will not, however, set a precedent.” [7] The requested reductions of nudity were minimal, and the outcome was viewed in the media as a victory for the film’s producers. [6] The Pawnbroker was the first film featuring bare breasts to receive Production Code approval. In his 2008 study of films during that era, Pictures at a Revolution, author Mark Harris wrote that the MPAA’s action was “the first of a series of injuries to the Production Code that would prove fatal within three years.” [7]

When Jack Valenti became President of the MPAA in 1966, he was immediately faced with a problem regarding language in the film version of Edward Albee’s play Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966). Valenti negotiated a compromise: The word “screw” was removed, but other language, including the phrase “hump the hostess,” remained. The film received Production Code approval despite having language that was clearly prohibited. The British-produced, but American financed film Blowup (1966) presented a different problem. After the film was denied Production Code approval, MGM released it anyway, the first instance of an MPAA member company distributing a film that didn’t have an approval certificate. There was little the MPAA could do about it.

Enforcement had become impossible, and the Production Code was abandoned entirely.

Wartime censorship

During World War I, and to a greater extent during World War II, war correspondents accompanied military forces, and their reports were subject to advance censorship to preserve military secrets. The extent of such censorship was not generally challenged, and no major court case arose from this issue, and even the Supreme Court found it constitutional on the grounds that it “protected free speech from tyranny”. [8]

The Office of Censorship, an emergency wartime agency, heavily censored reporting during World War II. On December 19, 1941 President Franklin Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8985, which established the Office of Censorship and conferred on its director the power to censor international communications in “his absolute discretion.” Byron Price was selected as the Director of Censorship. However, censorship was not limited to reporting. “Every letter that crossed international or U.S. territorial borders from December 1941 to August 1945 was subject to being opened and scoured for details.” [9]

In later conflicts the degree to which war reporting was subject to censorship varied, and in some cases it has been alleged that the censorship was as much political as military in purpose. This was particularly true during the Vietnam War and the invasion of Grenada. The executive branch of the federal government attempted to prevent the New York Times from publishing the top-secret Pentagon Papers during the Vietnam War, warning that doing so would be considered an act of treason under the Espionage Act of 1917. The newspaper prevailed in the famous New York Times Co. v. United States case.

In 1991, during the U.S.-led UN invasion of Iraq during the presidency of George H. W. Bush, The Pentagon placed restrictions on media coverage of the ground war to protect confidential military information. [10]

Such issues arose again during the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, when many embedded reporters accompanied soldiers as they made their way into the country. These reports were subject to censorship in that they were not allowed to reveal a unit’s exact location.

Second Red Scare

McCarthyism is the term describing a period of intense anti-Communist suspicion in the United States that lasted roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s.

The Alien Registration Act or Smith Act of 1940 made it a criminal offense for anyone to “knowingly or willfully advocate, abet, advise or teach the […] desirability or propriety of overthrowing the Government of the United States or of any State by force or violence, or for anyone to organize any association which teaches, advises or encourages such an overthrow, or for anyone to become a member of or to affiliate with any such association”. Hundreds of Communists were prosecuted under this law between 1941 and 1957. Eleven leaders of the Communist Party were charged and convicted under the Smith Act in 1949. Ten defendants were given sentences of five years and the eleventh was sentenced to three years. All of the defense attorneys were cited for contempt of court and were also given prison sentences. In 1951, twenty-three other leaders of the party were indicted including Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, a founding member of the American Civil Liberties Union, who was removed from the board of the ACLU in 1940 for membership in a totalitarian political party. By 1957 over 140 leaders and members of the Communist Party had been charged under the law. [11]

In 1952, the Immigration and Nationality, or McCarran-Walter, Act was passed. This law allowed the government to deport immigrants or naturalized citizens engaged in subversive activities and also to bar suspected subversives from entering the country.

The Communist Control Act of 1954 was passed with overwhelming support in both houses of Congress after very little debate. Jointly drafted by Republican John Marshall Butler and Democrat Hubert Humphrey, the law was an extension of the Internal Security Act of 1950, and sought to outlaw the Communist Party by declaring that the party, as well as “Communist-Infiltrated Organizations” were “not entitled to any of the rights, privileges, and immunities attendant upon legal bodies.”

Weapons proliferation

On March 15, 1950, Scientific American published an article by Hans Bethe about thermonuclear fusion, but the United States Atomic Energy Commission successfully ordered printed copies of the magazine destroyed, and a redacted version was published. The censorship was not disputed by Bethe.

Under the Invention Secrecy Act of 1951 and the Atomic Energy Act of 1956, patents may be withheld and kept secret on grounds of national security.

In 1979, the magazine The Progressive was sued by the U.S. government (United States v. The Progressive) and temporarily blocked from publishing an article that purported to reveal the “secret” of the hydrogen bomb. The article was eventually published after another person published similar information and the government dropped the charges.

In 1997, Congress voted unanimously to add an amendment to a Department of Defense spending bill forbidding the distribution of instructions that teach “the making or use of an explosive, a destructive device, or a weapon of mass destruction” if those instructions are intended to assist in the actual building and use of such a device. This was known as Feinstein Amendment SP 419.

The COINTELPRO operations

The COINTELPRO (COunter INTELligence PROgram) was a program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. Although covert operations have been employed throughout FBI history, the formal COINTELPRO operations of 1956-1971 were broadly targeted against organizations that were (at the time) considered to have politically radical elements, ranging from those whose stated goal was the violent overthrow of the U.S. government (such as the Weathermen) non-violent civil rights groups such as Martin Luther King Jr.’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference and violent groups like the Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party. The founding document of COINTELPRO directed FBI agents to “expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize” the activities of these movements and their leaders.

Export of sensitive software

The export of cryptography software is regulated as a munition under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, although in recent years the regulations have relaxed, due in part to industry lobbying.

In 1995, Daniel J. Bernstein challenged the regulations (see Bernstein v. United States) on First Amendment grounds. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that software source code was speech protected by the First Amendment and that the government’s regulations preventing its publication were unconstitutional. [12] However, some regulations remain.


Postmaster General SP-2364 - History

US Post Office, 1789 to 1875

  • This document is a "draft for public comment" -- it isn't finished yet, and its current location is not permanent.
  • If you have a suggestion of something to add, subtract, rewrite or reformat, please send email to dheller5720 'at' yahoo.com .
  • Print in landscape mode for best results.
  • nomination, the date of the President's nominating letter to the Senate
  • confirmation, the date of the Senate's consent to the nomination
  • appointment, or commission, the date on which the nominee is authorized to take the office
  • beginning, the date on which the nominee actually took the office
  • ending, the date on which the office holder relinquished it

Notes (R), and (1) through (5), follow the tables. Continuing reappointments or reconfirmations are listed second. Vacancies are not noted, unless filled ad interim. The first column links to Wikipedia biographies.

Postmaster General appointment nomination confirmation beginning ending journals
Samuel Osgood Sep. 26, 1789 Sep. 25, 1789 Sep. 26, 1789 Sep. 26, 1789 Aug. 19, 1791 SEJ v.1 p.32-33
Letterbooks
Timothy Pickering
USPS bio
(R) Aug. 12, 1791 Oct. 31, 1791 Nov. 7, 1791 Aug. 19, 1791 Jan. 2, 1795 SEJ v.1 p.86
SEJ v.1 p.88
Joseph Habersham Feb. 25, 1795 Feb. 24, 1795 Feb. 25, 1795 Feb. 25, 1795 Nov. 2, 1801 SEJ v.1 p.173-174
Gideon Granger (R) Nov. 28, 1801 Jan. 6, 1802 Jan. 26, 1802 Nov. 28, 1801 Feb. 25, 1814 SEJ v.1 p.400-405
Return J. Meigs, Jr. Mar. 17, 1814 Feb. 25, 1814 Mar. 17, 1814 Apr. 11, 1814 June 30, 1823 SEJ v.2 p.499
SEJ v.2 p.501
SEJ v.2 p.504
SEJ v.2 p.511
John McLean, or M'Lean (R) June 26, 1823 Dec. 5, 1823 Dec. 9, 1823 July 1, 1823 Mar. 9, 1829
Mar. 6, 1829
SEJ v.3 p.343-344
ASP p.328
SEJ v.4 p.6-7
Abraham Bradley (1)
---
---
---
Mar. 7, 1829
Mar. 10, 1829
Apr. 5, 1829
ASP p.328
ASP p.336
William T. Barry Mar. 9, 1829 Mar. 9, 1829 Mar. 9, 1829 Apr. 6, 1829 Apr. 30, 1835 SEJ v.4 p.8-9
ASP p.216
ASP p.328
Amos Kendall (R) May 1, 1835 Dec. 28, 1835 Mar. 15, 1836 May 1, 1835 May 25, 1840 SEJ v.4 p.498-499
SEJ v.4 p.522
John M. Niles May 19, 1840
eff. May 25, 1840
May 16, 1840 May 18, 1840 May 26, 1840 Mar. 3, 1841 SEJ v.5 p.284-285
Selah R. Hobbie (2) --- --- --- Mar. 4, 1841 Mar. 7, 1841
Francis Granger Mar. 6, 1841 Mar. 5, 1841 Mar. 6, 1841 Mar. 8, 1841 Sep. 13, 1841 SEJ v.5 p.369-370
Selah R. Hobbie (2) --- --- --- Sep. 14, 1841 Oct. 12, 1841
Oct. 11, 1841

OR 1843
Charles A. Wickliffe Sep. 13, 1841 Sep. 13, 1841 Sep. 13, 1841 Oct. 13, 1841
Oct. 12, 1841
Mar. 6, 1845 SEJ v.5 p.443
OR 1843
Cave Johnson Mar. 6, 1845 Mar. 5, 1845 Mar. 5, 1845 Mar. 7, 1845 Mar. 5, 1849 SEJ v.6 p.425-426
Selah R. Hobbie (2) --- --- --- Mar. 6, 1849 Mar. 7, 1849
Jacob Collamer Mar. 8, 1849 Mar. 6, 1849 Mar. 7, 1849 Mar. 8, 1849 July 22, 1850 SEJ v.8 p.68,70,71
Nathan K. Hall July 23, 1850 July 20, 1850 July 20, 1850 July 23, 1850 Sep. 13, 1852 SEJ v.8 p.205
Samuel D. Hubbard Aug. 31, 1852 Aug. 31, 1852 Aug. 31, 1852 Sep. 14, 1852 Mar. 7, 1853 SEJ v.8 p.451
James Campbell Mar. 7, 1853 Mar. 7, 1853 Mar. 7, 1853 Mar. 8, 1853 Mar. 6, 1857 SEJ v.9 p.51-52
Aaron V. Brown (4) Mar. 6, 1857 Mar. 6, 1857 Mar. 6, 1857 Mar. 7, 1857 Mar. 8, 1859 SEJ v.10 p.224
Horatio King (2) --- --- --- Mar. 9, 1859 Mar. 13, 1859
Joseph Holt Mar. 14, 1859 Mar. 9, 1859 Mar. 9, 1859 Mar. 14, 1859 Dec. 31, 1860 SEJ v.11 p.95
Horatio King (2) --- --- --- Jan. 1, 1861 Feb. 11, 1861 [House Doc.]
Horatio King Feb. 12, 1861 Feb. 1, 1861 Feb. 12, 1861 Feb. 12, 1861 Mar. 9, 1861 SEJ v.11 p.256
SEJ v.11 p.271
Montgomery Blair Mar. 5, 1861 Mar. 5, 1861 Mar. 5, 1861 Mar. 9, 1861 Sep. 30, 1864 SEJ v.11 p.289-290
William Dennison, Jr. (R) Sep. 24, 1864 Dec. 5, 1864
Dec. 8, 1864
Oct. 1, 1864 July 16, 1866 SEJ v.14 p.1,5
Alexander W. Randall (2) --- --- --- July 17, 1866 July 24, 1866
Alexander W. Randall July 25, 1866 July 14, 1866 July 25, 1866 July 25, 1866 Mar. 4, 1869 SEJ v.14 p.922
SEJ v.14 p.967
SEJ v.14 p.1052
St. John B.L. Skinner (2) --- --- --- Mar. 4, 1869 Mar. 5, 1869
John A.J. Creswell Mar. 5, 1869 Mar. 5, 1869 Mar. 5, 1869 Mar. 6, 1869 July 6, 1874 SEJ v.17 p.3-4
James W. Marshall (3) (R) July 3, 1874 --- --- July 7, 1874 Aug. 31, 1874
Marshall Jewell (R) Aug. 24, 1874 Dec. 7, 1874 Dec. 15, 1874 Sep. 1, 1874 July 12, 1876 SEJ v.19 p.373
SEJ v.19 p.432
James N. Tyner July 12, 1876 July 11, 1876 July 12, 1876 July 13, 1876 Mar. 12, 1877 SEJ v.20 p.279-280
David M. Key
Mar. 12, 1877
Mar. 7, 1877
Mar. 10, 1877
Mar. 13, 1877
Aug. 24, 1880
SEJ v.21 p.3,6-7
Horace Maynard
June 2, 1880
May 19, 1880
June 2, 1880
Aug. 25, 1880
Mar. 7, 1881
SEJ v.22 p.335,345
Thomas L. James
Mar. 5, 1881
Oct. 27, 1881
Mar. 5, 1881
Oct. 27, 1881
Mar. 5, 1881
Oct. 27, 1881
Mar. 8, 1881
Jan. 4, 1882
SEJ v.23 p.3,4
SEJ v.23 p.150,157
Timothy O. Howe (4)
Dec. 20, 1881 Dec. 20, 1881 Dec. 20, 1881
Jan. 5, 1882
Mar. 25, 1883
SEJ v.23 p.218,219
Frank Hatton (2)
---
---
---
Mar. 26, 1883
Apr. 10, 1883

Walter Q. Gresham
(R) Apr. 3, 1883
Dec. 5, 1883
Dec. 11, 1883
Apr. 11, 1883
Sep. 24, 1884
SEJ v.24 p.3,27
Frank Hatton (2)
---
---
---
Sep. 25, 1884
Oct. 13, 1884

Frank Hatton
(R) Oct. 14, 1884
Dec. 2, 1884
Dec. 4, 1884
Oct. 14, 1884
Mar. 6, 1885
SEJ v.24 p.347,358
William F. Vilas
Mar. 6, 1885
Mar. 5, 1885
Mar. 6, 1885
Mar. 7, 1885
Jan. 16, 1888
SEJ v.25 p.3,5
Don M. Dickinson
Jan. 16, 1888
Dec. 6, 1887
Jan. 16, 1888
Jan. 17, 1888
Mar. 5, 1889
SEJ v.26 p.3,141
John Wanamaker
Mar. 5, 1889 Mar. 5, 1889 Mar. 5, 1889
Mar. 6, 1889
Mar. 6, 1893
SEJ v.27 p.4
Wilson S. Bissell
Mar. 6, 1893 Mar. 6, 1893 Mar. 6, 1893
Mar. 7, 1893 Apr. 3, 1895
SEJ v.28 p.407,408
William L. Wilson
Mar. 1, 1895 Feb. 28, 1895
Mar. 1, 1895
Apr. 4, 1895
Mar. 5, 1897
SEJ v.29 p.954,960
James A. Gary
Mar. 5, 1897 Mar. 5, 1897 Mar. 5, 1897
Mar. 6, 1897
Apr. 21, 1898
SEJ v.30 p.439,441
Charles Emory Smith
Apr. 21, 1898
Mar. 5, 1901
Apr. 21, 1898
Mar. 5, 1901
Apr. 21, 1898
Mar. 5, 1901
Apr. 22, 1898 Jan. 14, 1902
SEJ v.31 p.700,702
SEJ v.32 p.727
Henry C. Payne (4)
Jan. 9, 1902
Jan. 7, 1902
Jan. 9, 1902
Jan. 15, 1902
Oct. 4, 1904
SEJ v.33 p.224,236
Robert J. Wynne
(R) Oct. 10, 1904 Dec. 6, 1904
Dec. 7, 1904
Oct. 10, 1904

SEJ v.35 p.364,383
George B. Cortelyou
Mar. 6, 1905 Mar. 6, 1905
Mar. 6, 1905
Mar. 7, 1905

SEJ v.35 p.549,560
George von L. Meyer
Jan. 15, 1907 Dec. 3, 1906
Dec. 13, 1906
Jan. 15, 1907
Mar. 4, 1907

SEJ v.37 p.35,38
SEJ v.37 p.67,69
SEJ v.37 p.119
Frank H. Hitchcock
Mar. 5, 1909 Mar. 5, 1909
Mar. 5, 1909
Mar. 6, 1909

SEJ v.39 p.251,254
Albert S. Burleson
Mar. 5, 1913 Mar. 5, 1913
Jan. 23, 1918
Mar. 5, 1913
Jan. 24, 1918
Mar. 5, 1913

SEJ v.46 p.3,5
SEJ v.52 p.306-307
Will H. Hays
Mar. 5, 1921 Mar. 4, 1921 Mar. 4, 1921 Mar. 5, 1921

SEJ v.57 p.3,5
Hubert Work
Mar. 4, 1922 Mar. 2, 1922
Mar. 2, 1922
Mar. 4, 1922

SEJ v.59 p.444,450
Harry S. New
Feb. 27, 1923 Feb. 27, 1923
Mar. 5, 1925
Feb. 27, 1923
Mar. 5, 1925
Mar. 4, 1923

SEJ v.61 p.326-327
SEJ v.64 p.3-4
Walter F. Brown
Mar. 5, 1929 Mar. 5, 1929 Mar. 5, 1929 Mar. 6, 1929

SEJ v.68 p.3-5
James A. Farley
Mar. 4, 1933 Mar. 4, 1933
Jan. 22, 1937
Mar. 4, 1933
Jan. 22, 1937
Mar. 4, 1933

SEJ v.74 p.3,5
SEJ v.78 p.91-92
Frank C. Walker
Sep. 10, 1940 Sep. 5, 1940
Jan. 23, 1941
Jan. 22, 1945
Sep. 6, 1940
Jan. 27, 1941
Feb. 5, 1945
Sep. 11, 1940

SEJ v.82 p.970,975
SEJ v.83 p.32,41
SEJ v.87 p.31,49
Robert E. Hannegan
May 8, 1945 May 2, 1945
May 7, 1945
July 1, 1945

SEJ v.87 p.255
SEJ v.87 p.263-267
Jesse M. Donaldson
Dec. 16, 1947
Feb. 8, 1949
Nov. 26, 1947
Jan. 31, 1949
Dec. 15, 1947
Feb. 7, 1949
Dec. 16, 1947
Jan. 20, 1953
SEJ v.89 p.3327
SEJ v.89 p.3389
SEJ v.91 p.735
SEJ v.91 p.775
Arthur E. Summerfield
Jan. 21, 1953 Jan. 20, 1953
Jan. 23, 1957
Jan. 21, 1953
Feb. 4, 1957
Jan. 21, 1953

SEJ v.95 p.67-73
SEJ v.99 p.245,275
J. Edward Day
Jan. 21, 1961 Jan. 20, 1961
Jan. 21, 1961
Jan. 21, 1961

SEJ v.103 p.216,218
John A. Gronouski
Sep. 30, 1963 Sep. 10, 1963
Feb. 17, 1965
Sep. 24, 1963
Feb. 17, 1965
Sep. 30, 1963

SEJ v.105 p.892,934
SEJ v.107 p.234,261
Lawrence F. O'Brien
Nov. 3, 1965 Aug. 30, 1965
Sep. 1, 1965
Nov. 3, 1965

SEJ v.107 p.793,806
W. Marvin Watson
Apr. 26, 1968 Apr. 10, 1968
Apr. 23, 1968
Apr. 26, 1968

SEJ v.110 p.176,186
Winton M. Blount
Jan. 22, 1969 Jan. 20, 1969
Jan. 20, 1969 Jan. 22, 1969

SEJ v.111 p.102,104

US Postal Service, appointments by the USPS Board of Governors (5)

Postmaster General
beginning
Scott Cat.
from news reports
Winton M. Blount July 1, 1971 --
Resigned, Oct. 29, 1971. Merrill A. Hayden, Deputy PMG, became acting PMG.
E.T. Klassen
Jan. 1, 1972 Dec. 7, 1971
Appointed Dec. 7, 1971, effective Jan. 1, 1972.
Resigned Jan. 8, 1975, effective Feb. 15, the end of his contract.
Benjamin F. Bailar
Feb. 15, 1975 same
Appointed Jan. 8, 1975, effective Feb. 15, 1975.
William F. Bolger
Mar. 15, 1978 Mar. 1, 1978
Appointed Mar. 1, 1978, effective Mar. 16, 1978.
Paul N. Carlin
Jan. 1, 1985 same

Albert V. Casey
Jan. 7, 1986 Jan. 6, 1986
Appointed Jan. 6 or 7, 1986 [reports differ].
Preston R. Tisch
Aug. 16, 1986 Aug. 17, 1986
Appointed Aug. 5, 1986 Casey to leave the post Aug. 15, 1986.
Anthony M. Frank
Mar. 1, 1988 same

Marvin T. Runyon
July 6, 1992 same

William J. Henderson
May 16, 1998 same

John E. Potter
June 1, 2001 same

Patrick R. Donahoe
Dec. 6, 2010
Oct. 25, 2010
On Oct. 25, 2010, Potter announced his retirement, effective [Friday] Dec. 3, 2010, and the Board chose Donahoe to succeed him. Donahoe thus began on Monday, Dec. 6, 2010.
Megan J. Brennan
Feb. 1, 2015 same

Biographies of the Postmasters General may be found in Wikipedia (linked above), Ellsworth (1960), in the series of articles by Daniel Meschter (2002-2012), and in the books by Grossman (2000), Smith (1925), Sobel/Sicilia (1971, 1977, 1990, 2003), and Vexler (1975), which cover the entirety of Cabinet officers. The various editions of the Biographical Directory (1859 to 2005) are useful for the PMGs who were also members of the House or Senate.

There is a "last day in office" letter from John McLean, Mar. 9, 1829 Richard Frajola auction, Sep. 10, 1983, lot 54, http://www.rfrajola.com/catalogs/rcf10.pdf

The transition from Creswell to Marshall to Jewell is nicely explained by Fowler (1943, p. 150-152). Pres. Grant announced that Creswell had resigned, much to Creswell's surprise. Jewell was Ambassador to Russia, and not able to return immediately. Marshall was First Assistant PMG, but could not legally hold the interim PMG position for more than 10 days (18 Stat. 28, sec. 180), so he was appointed PMG without a nomination being sent to the Senate, and he returned to the First Assistant's position on Jewell's arrival.


Where have all the blue boxes gone?

Finding a good old-fashioned mailbox where you can drop off a letter is becoming almost as difficult as finding a pay phone. The iconic blue boxes are getting to be few and far between.

Fifteen years ago, there were almost 400,000 collection boxes in the country. Now there are fewer than 160,000 of them, and the number goes down every year.

Earlier this week the Postal Service submitted its Annual Compliance Report (ACR) to the Postal Regulatory Commission for the Commission's Annual Compliance Determination report. The main purpose of the review process is to determine the extent to which each type of mail is covering (or not) its attributed costs. The ACR therefore contains a mountain of data about postal rates.

According to the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act, which says what the ACR should include, the Postal Service is also supposed to report on customer access to postal services. But the subject gets just one page in the report, and collection boxes merit just one sentence:

&ldquoNationally, there were 156,349 collection boxes available at the end of FY 2014, compared to 159,729 at the beginning of FY 2014.&rdquo

The ACR also includes a table showing the number of boxes, area by area, at the end of FY 2012, 2013, and 2014. The following table uses those numbers, along with the year-to-year changes in percent from the previous year.

Nationwide, over the past two years the number of boxes has decreased by nearly 8,000. That's the net decrease. Considering that the Postal Service sometimes puts up boxes in new locations, it's likely that more than that have been removed. Even so, the rate of decrease &mdash 2.1 pecent over the past year &mdash is not as bad as it's been in previous years, as a look at the history of collection boxes shows.

Here today, gone tomorrow

Collection boxes were first introduced in 1858. In their heyday, the boxes also served as storage facilities for carriers who made their rounds on foot, holding items such as rain gear and coats. Now that most carriers have vehicles, the gear is in the truck and the mailboxes just collect mail.

For well over a century, the number of collection boxes grew along with the population of the country. By the early 1970s, there were almost 400,000 of them.

According to data provided to the PRC by the Postal Service (in connection with a complaint filed by postal watchdog Douglas Carlson in 2002), the number of boxes fluctuated throughout the 1970s and 1980s, sometimes going up, sometimes down. In some years, there were as few as 260,000, while at other times, there were as many as 386,000. According to this USPS report, in 2000 there were still 365,000 collection boxes on the street.

Then in 2002, in order to save fuel and labor costs, the Postal Service began an aggressive program to cull what it considered underused boxes. Over the next few years, the number of collection boxes decreased dramatically. A 2009 news report observed that the Postal Service had been removing the boxes nationally at the rate of more than 60 per day. According to a BBC report, there were 175,000 boxes as of July 2009.

Since then, the rate of decline has diminished considerably. Over the past two fiscal years, some 7,750 boxes have been removed &mdash about 15 per day.

In order to identify which boxes are underperforming, a postal employee does a density check that involves counting pieces of mail per day over a period of two weeks. Back in 2006, when the Postal Service was aggressively removing the boxes, if there were fewer than 50 pieces of mail per day, a box could be targeted for disposal.

According to the Postal Operations Manual, the current policy is that if a mailbox isn't seeing an average of 25 pieces per day, the Postal Service may remove it. The Postal Service is required to post a 30-day notice on the box before it&rsquos removed, and customers are invited to comment.

While the rate of removing boxes may not be as bad as it was a few years ago, customers still don&rsquot like it when their box vanishes. News articles regularly report collection boxes disappearing and customers complaining.

This past summer, there was a report that 39 boxes had been removed from the streets of Rockford, Illinois, which left the city with 102. In January, 16 boxes were removed from Redlands, California, after the Postal Service determined that they were being underused.

Earlier this month, a news team in Coronado, California, observed that several boxes had vanished. A mail carrier said that many folks along his route had complained about the &ldquomissing boxes.&rdquo He also said that it's harder for the elderly to get down to the post office or find parking.

And that&rsquos basically the issue: By removing the collection boxes, the Postal Service saves some money, but the savings comes at the expense of average customers, who end up having to spend their own time &mdash and often gas too &mdash going to a box that is further away.

Collection times at collection boxes

In addition to culling the blue boxes, there&rsquos the issue of collection times. The Postal Service has a history of moving up the collection times to earlier in the day, often to help make postal managers look good so they can earn bonuses. That practice may have become more common now that the deadlines at processing plant consolidations have been moved up as a result of all the consolidations.

Mail deposited in the box after the pickup ends up sitting there an extra day. It's another way the Postal Servce slows down the mail in order to save some money.

For many years, Douglas Carlson has been on the Postal Service&rsquos case about this issue. He has filed FOIA requests, written complaints to the PRC, and even taken the Postal Service to court.

According to Carlson&rsquos findings, problems with collection services are pervasive, and postal regulations and directives are regularly ignored.

A year ago this week, Mr. Carlson filed a lawsuit against the Postal Service challenging its lack of cooperation in responding to his FOIA request for data about collection points. Carlson had made several requests for information about collection points where the final collection time has been moved to earlier in the day compared to what it was at the end of 2012. The case is still working its way through the court system.

FedEx boxes at the post office

While the USPS has been getting rid of its collection boxes, the number of FedEx boxes has just been increasing. According to the FedEx website, there are now more than 43,000 FedEx drop boxes, &ldquoconveniently located near where you work and play&rdquo &mdash grocery stores and shopping malls, airports, and office buildings. There are also many FedEx boxes standing right in front of your neighborhood post office.

That&rsquos because in 2001 Postmaster General William J. Henderson made a groundbreaking deal with FedEx CEO Fred Smith. The Postal Service agreed to pay $6.3 billion over seven years to use spare capacity on FedEx aircraft to carry the mail. As part of the new alliance, the Postal Service also gave FedEx the option of putting a drop-box in front of every USPS location.

In the first eighteen months of the contract, FedEx planned to put 10,000 drop boxes in front of post offices (sometimes inside). According to the contract, depending on the number of boxes it placed, FedEx would pay between $126 million and $232 million for the opportunity. FedEx expected to produce approximately $900 million in increased drop box revenues from the deal.

So it was that over the next few years, FedEx put thousands of its own boxes in front of post offices. In the meantime, in the years 2001 through 2004, the Postal Service eliminated 3,841 of its own Express Mail collection boxes &mdash almost 30 percent of them &mdash as well as removing tens of thousands of regular blue boxes.

The contract with FedEx was a matter of some controversy. Emory Worldwide Airlines, which had a contract with the Postal Service doing similar air transportation work, didn't like the deal because FedEx was taking away its business. An Emory spokesperson said, " 'We think this contract is unfair and anti-competitive and that it's illegal because it violates the Postal Service's own procurement regulations that require them to bid competitively for big contracts."

Wisconsin Senator Russell Feingold was also concerned about how the FedEx deal went down. As Chris Shaw notes in Preserving the People's Post Office, Feingold said this: &ldquoIn the past, Federal Express has used its clout with the Congress, so it&rsquos fair to ask whether its powerful lobby paved the way for the strategic alliance with the U.S. Postal Service… FedEx competitors, employees, and American consumers are entitled to ask whether or not the deal is a good one for the country. The lack of openness in the decision-making process also is cause for concern.&rdquo

Postmaster General Henderson was a big advocate of partnering with the private sector. Shortly after his retirement, a few months after making the FedEx deal, he wrote an op-ed for the Washington Post entitled "End of the Route I Ran the Postal Service it Should be Privatized." It begins like this:

"While having contracts with private companies is nothing new (airlines have tossed sacks of mail into their cargo holds for as long as they've been flying), the deal with FedEx, the Postal Service's traditional competitor, is a major step forward in the Postal Service's increasing collaboration with private business. The most visible sign of that collaboration, and the symbol of the extent to which the Postal Service is rethinking business as usual, are the distinctive FedEx drop boxes that began appearing at neighborhood post offices last spring."

Henderson went on to note that many foreign postal systems were being privatized and then made his own position very clear: &ldquoWhat the Postal Service needs now," wrote the Postmaster General, "is nothing short of privatization.&rdquo

The FedEx partnership with the Postal Service has grown significantly over the past thirteen years. Last year, FedEx was once again the USPS&rsquos top supplier, receiving almost $1.8 billion in payments.

Everywhere but here

The Postal Service says that after a collection box is removed, it&rsquos sold for scrap metal. But this commercial for the "USPS Is Everywhere" ad campaign shows where the boxes really end up.

In a few days, the PRC will ask the Postal Service for a list of all the collection boxes in operation as part the Commission's compliance determination review. Till then, you can find last year&rsquos list, with all the collection times, here.

You can find the collection boxes near any location on the USPS Find Locations page. Just select &ldquoCollection Boxes&rdquo in the Location Types. The site also indicates the collection times.

There&rsquos a good discussion of the history of collection boxes and times and Mr. Carlson&rsquos efforts in Chris Shaw&rsquos Preserving the People Post Office (pp. 90ff).

There&rsquos a great post on Going Postal showing some of the variety in the style of collection boxes. (They&rsquore not all blue.)

Correction: An earlier version of this article indicated that mail was being picked up earlier than scheduled on the box, but that's not likely since the carriers scan the box when they pick up the mail.

Stop the Slow Down

If you'd like to submit comments about the USPS plan to slow down the mail, you can use this form to submit comments to the Federal Register. You can also file comments with the Postal Regulatory Commission, which is reviewing the plan the instructions can be found on our N2021-Dashboard.


Popular in Slate

DeJoy will continue to face lawsuits that activists have brought against him and USPS. Some of these lawsuits were narrowly focused on the agency’s performance during the election and may wrap up soon, while others take a more expansive look at USPS’ overall operations since DeJoy came to power. “Paying your bills, getting your medication, there’s a lot of important mail other than election mail,” said Allison Zieve, an attorney representing the NAACP in a federal case against USPS in D.C. “If they continue to slow down the mail for whatever reason, it’s just a huge problem for a lot of people.” There are concerns, though, that USPS will escape the level of scrutiny it’s faced over the last few months now that the election is over and Trump is on his way out. “There is a lot of fear in the union community that as soon as the administration transitions, their issues are not going to be sexy anymore. And they’re right—they should be afraid of that,” said J. Remy Green, an attorney representing a group of voters suing USPS in New York. “Without the high-profile nature of the election, I think a lot of the legal support that is there is going to dry up.”

Steidler contends that it might be wiser for Democrats to reconcile with DeJoy in order to pass much-needed reforms at USPS like integrating workers’ retiree health benefits into Medicare, expanding the vehicle fleet, and eliminating pension prefunding requirements that have financially constrained the agency. USPS has notably appealed a number of court orders blocking DeJoy’s cost-cutting measures. But Steidler doesn’t think that DeJoy will try to reinstate all of the changes he initially implemented at USPS during the summer, which included overtime cuts. “That’s just a nonstarter. That would be a disaster politically for him to go there,” said Steidler. “You still have Democrats in control of the House, and they’d call him up [for a hearing] the next day if he attempted to do that again.” Remember how that went?


Louis DeJoy

Louis DeJoy is the 75th Postmaster General of the United States and the Chief Executive Officer of the world&rsquos largest postal organization.

Appointed by the Governors of the Postal Service, DeJoy began his tenure as Postmaster General in June 2020. Prior to joining the Postal Service, he spent more than 35 years growing and managing a successful nationwide logistics company.

As chairman and CEO of New Breed Logistics, DeJoy spent decades in collaboration with the U.S. Postal Service, Boeing, Verizon, Disney, United Technologies and other public and private companies to provide supply chain logistics, program management and transportation support. New Breed Logistics was a contractor to the U.S. Postal Service for more than 25 years, supplying logistics support for multiple processing facilities. The company received Quality Supplier Awards from the Postal Service on four separate occasions.

In 2014, New Breed merged with XPO Logistics, with DeJoy serving as CEO of XPO Logistics&rsquo supply chain business in the Americas before his retirement in December 2015. He then joined the company&rsquos board of directors where he served until 2018.

As Postmaster General, DeJoy has committed to creating a long-term, viable operating model for the Postal Service that will ensure the organization can fulfill its public service mission while remaining self-sustaining.

DeJoy is a member of the Board of Trustees at Elon University in North Carolina. He received his Bachelor of Business Administration from Stetson University.


Postmaster General SP-2364 - History

US Post Office, 1789 to 1875

Assistant Postmasters General

Don Heller, 9 October 2019

  • This document is a "draft for public comment" -- it isn't finished yet, and its current location is not permanent.
  • If you have a suggestion of something to add, subtract, rewrite or reformat, please send email to dheller5720 'at' yahoo.com .
  • [First] Assistant Postmaster General, since 1782 and 1789
  • Second Assistant Postmaster General, since 1810 (Act of 30 April 1810 Act of 3 Mar. 1825)
    • Senior and Junior, later First and Second.
    • 1782, Ordinance for regulating the Post Office
      • There is a draft version which allowed two assistants, for the eastern and southern departments (link).
      1. Appointment Branch
      2. Finance
      3. Contracts and Transportation, Chief Clerk
        • PMGs McLean and Barry recommended this position be upgraded to Asst. PMG
      1. Book-keepers, Solicitor's Office, Pay Office, Examiner's Office, Register's Office
      2. Appointment Office, Dead Letter Office, Office of Instruction and Mail Depredations
      3. Office of Mail Contracts, Office of the Chief Clerk
      1. Appointment Office
      2. Contract Office
      3. Inspection Office
      • Contract Office
      • Appointment Office
      • Inspection Office
      • Amos Kendall suggested four Assistant PMG's would be appropriate (283 S.doc. 362, May 9, 1836 318 S.doc. 436, May 15, 1838).
      1. Contract Office
      2. Appointment Office
      3. Inspection Office
      • Auditor's Office, in the Treasury Dept.
      1. Appointment Office
      2. Contract Office
      3. Finance Office
      • Inspection Office, Chief Clerk
      1. Appointment Division, Bond Division, Salary and Allowance Division, Free Delivery, Blank Agency Division
      2. Contract Division, Inspection Division, Mail-Equipment Division
      3. Division of Finance, Division of Postage-Stamps and Stamped Envelopes, Division of Registered Letters, Division of Dead Letters, Superintendent of Foreign Mails, Superintendent of Money-Order System
      • Bureau of Post Office Operations renamed Bureau of Operations, effective 1 July 1957
      • Bureau of Transportation
      • Bureau of Finance
      • Bureau of Facilities

      date, yr m/d
      First / Senior
      Second / Junior
      Third
      ref
      1782, 1/28
      James Bryson


      journals
      1789, 10/5
      Jonathan Burrall


      [B]
      1792
      (Prosper Wetmore)


      news
      1792
      Charles Burrall


      PGR
      1794
      Charles Burrall


      USR
      1800
      Abraham Bradley, jr.

      PGR
      1802, 2/12
      Abraham Bradley, jr.

      OR
      1810
      Abraham Bradley, jr. Seth Pease
      PGR
      1813, 3/3
      Abraham Bradley, jr. Seth Pease
      OR
      1816, 9/30
      Abraham Bradley, jr. Seth Pease
      OR
      1817, 9/30
      Abraham Bradley, jr. Seth Pease

      OR
      1818
      Abraham Bradley, jr. Phineas Bradley
      PGR
      1819, 9/30
      Abraham Bradley, jr. Phineas Bradley
      OR
      1820
      Abraham Bradley, jr. Phineas Bradley
      NC
      1821, 9/30
      Abraham Bradley, jr. Phineas Bradley
      OR
      1822
      Abraham Bradley, jr. Phineas Bradley
      NC
      1823, 9/30
      Abraham Bradley, jr.
      Phineas Bradley
      OR
      1824
      Abraham Bradley, jr. Phineas Bradley
      NC
      1825, 9/30
      Abraham Bradley Phineas Bradley
      OR
      1827, 9/30
      Abraham Bradley
      Phineas Bradley

      OR
      1828
      Abraham Bradley Phineas Bradley
      NC
      1829
      Abraham Bradley Phineas Bradley
      NC
      1829, 9/30
      Charles K. Gardner Selah R. Hobbie
      (Obadiah B. Brown) OR
      1829-30
      Charles K. Gardner Selah R. Hobbie (Obadiah B. Brown) CD
      1830, 5
      Charles K. Gardner Selah R. Hobbie (Obadiah B. Brown) ASP p.254-256
      1831, 9/30
      Charles K. Gardner Selah R. Hobbie (Obadiah B. Brown)
      OR
      1833, 9/30
      Charles K. Gardner Selah R. Hobbie (Obadiah B. Brown) OR
      1835, 9/30
      Charles K. Gardner
      Selah R. Hobbie (Robert Johnston)
      OR
      1836, 7
      Selah R. Hobbie Robert Johnston Daniel Coleman [A]
      1837, 9/30
      Selah R. Hobbie
      Robert Johnston
      Daniel Coleman OR
      1838
      Selah R. Hobbie Robert Johnston Daniel Coleman CD
      1839, 9/30
      Selah R. Hobbie Robert Johnston
      Daniel Coleman
      OR
      1840
      Selah R. Hobbie Robert Johnston Daniel Coleman CD, W
      1841
      Selah R. Hobbie Philo C. Fuller John S. Skinner CD
      1841, 9/30
      Selah R. Hobbie Philo C. Fuller
      John S. Skinner OR
      1842
      Selah R. Hobbie Philo C. Fuller John S. Skinner W
      1843, 9/30
      Selah R. Hobbie John A. Bryan
      John S. Skinner
      OR
      1843-44
      Selah R. Hobbie J. Washington Tyson John S. Skinner CD
      1844
      Selah R. Hobbie John S. Skinner N. Miller H.rp.
      1845, 9/30
      Selah R. Hobbie William Medill
      N.M. Miller
      OR
      1846
      Selah R. Hobbie William J. Brown N.M. Miller CD
      1847, 9/30
      Selah R. Hobbie William J. Brown
      John Marron OR
      1849, 9/30
      Selah R. Hobbie Fitz Henry Warren John Marron OR
      1851, 9/30
      Solomon D. Jacobs
      Fitz Henry Warren
      John Marron OR
      1853, 9/30
      Selah R. Hobbie
      William H. Dundas John Marron OR
      1855, 9/30
      Horatio King William H. Dundas John Marron OR
      1857, 7/13
      Horatio King William H. Dundas John Marron LPO
      1857, 9/30
      Horatio King William H. Dundas John Marron
      OR
      1859, 4/1
      Horatio King William H. Dundas Alexander N. Zevely LPO
      1859, 9/30
      Horatio King
      William H. Dundas
      Alexander N. Zevely OR
      1861, 9/30
      John A. Kasson
      George W. McLellan Alexander N. Zevely OR
      1862, 11
      Alexander W. Randall George W. McLellan Alexander N. Zevely Blue Book
      1863, 9/30
      Alexander W. Randall
      George W. McLellan Alexander N. Zevely
      OR
      1865, 9/30
      Alexander W. Randall
      George W. McLellan Alexander N. Zevely OR
      1866, 10/1
      Alexander W. Randall George W. McLellan Alexander N. Zevely LPO
      1867, 9/30
      St. John B.L. Skinner
      George W. McLellan
      Alexander N. Zevely
      OR
      1869

      Giles A. Smith
      [C]
      1869, 3/29
      George Earle



      1869, 4/16


      (A.H. Markland)

      1869, 9/30
      James W. Marshall Giles A. Smith
      W.H.H. Terrell OR
      1870, 9/1
      James W. Marshall Giles A. Smith W.H.H. Terrell LPO
      1871, 9/30
      James W. Marshall John L. Routt W.H.H. Terrell
      OR
      1873, 9/30
      James W. Marshall John L. Routt
      E.W. Barber OR
      1874
      James H. Marr, acting



      1874, 10/1
      James W. Marshall
      Jno. L. Routt
      Edward W. Barber
      PG
      1875, 9/30
      James W. Marshall
      James N. Tyner E.W. Barber
      OR
      1876, 11/4
      James H. Marr, acting Thomas J. Brady E.W. Barber PGR 1876
      1877, 9/30
      James N. Tyner
      Thomas J. Brady
      A.D. Hazen
      OR
      etc.




      • 1782, see notes on James Bryson
      • Sep. 22, 1789, An Act for the temporary establishment of the Post-Office, 1 Stat. 70, authorizing an "assistant or clerk and deputies".
      • Feb. 20, 1792, An Act to establish the Post-Office and Post Roads within the United States, 1 Stat. 232, Sec. 3, "authority to appoint an assistant, and deputy postmasters".
      • Mar. 2, 1799, An Act to establish the Post-Office of the United States, 1 Stat. 733, Sec. 1, "shall appoint an assistant".
      • Apr. 30, 1810, An Act regulating the Post-office Establishment, 2 Stat. 592, Sec. 1, "shall appoint two assistants", the "senior assistant" to act as PMG when necessary.
      • Jan. 13, 1830, PMG W.T. Barry recommended a third Asst. PMG (link).
      • July 2, 1836, An Act to change the organization of the Post Office Department, and to provide more effectually for the settlement of the accounts thereof, 5 Stat. 80 Sec. 20, authorizing "a third Assistant Postmaster General" Sec. 40, the "First Assistant Postmaster General" to act as PMG when necessary.
        • also, Auditor of the Treasury for the Post Office Department, 5 Stat. 80, Sec. 8.
        • USR = The United States Register, Philadelphia, 1794 and 1795
        • OR = Rolls (1802, 1813), Official Register (1816-1959)
        • CD = Congressional Directory
        • NC = National Calendar (1820-36)
        • W = Watterston (1840, 1842)
        • PG = Postal Guide, Oct. 1874 - 1954
        • PGR = Postmaster General, Annual Report (1919, 1970, etc.)
        • LPO = List of Post Offices (1866, 1870)
        • H.doc., H.exdoc., H.misdoc., H.rp. = House of Representatives, document, executive document, miscellaneous document, report
          • given with a volume number of the US Serial Set, and a document/report number

          [B] Elisha Whittlesey, Post Office Facilities, The American Pioneer, Cincinnati, Jan. 1843, vol. 2, p. 460-463 (link).

          [C] The Proper Agents of Reform, The Chicago Tribune, May 24, 1872, http://archives.chicagotribune.com/.
          Chorpenning Again, The Chicago Tribune, Aug. 19, 1872, http://archives.chicagotribune.com/.
          The Chorpenning Case, The Telegraph, Houston, Texas, Aug. 29, 1872, http://texashistory.unt.edu/.

          [D] Charles S. Bradley, A Sketch of the Bradleys of Washington, 1902, http://archive.org/details/sketchofbradleys00lcbrad
          same, The Bradley Family and the Times in which they Lived, 1902, http://books.google.com/books?id=Bfo7AAAAIAAJ
          Abraham and Phineas Bradley, in A Biographical History of the County of Litchfield, Connecticut, 1851, p. 154-160, http://books.google.com/books?id=b_EnAQAAMAAJ

          [E] The Philadelphia Directory, 1791, p. 158. (Evans 23205)
          The staff of the General Post Office, now located in Philadelphia at 9 So. Water St., consisted of Samuel Osgood, Postmaster General, still residing in New York Jonathan Burrall, Assistant Postmaster General and Charles Burrall, Clerk.

          [F] Letter of PMG, W.T. Barry, Jan. 1, 1835, in Examination of the Post Office, Feb. 13, 1835, 277 H.rp. 103, p. 851-864. This contains an extensive description of duties assigned to the Assistant PMG's, clerks, etc. with the organizational structures in 1831, 1833 and 1835.

          [R] Register of Employees in the Post-Office Department, July 1, 1907. Historical Register of the Post-Office Department, p. 3-13. Previous editions, 1893, 1896, 1898, 1901, 1904, 1906.

          [S] Daniel A. Piazza, Introduction to the Stamp Design Files, Third Assistant Postmaster General's Office, http://www.sil.si.edu/DigitalCollections/npm/essays.cfm

          [T] Stamp Smarter, Postmasters General and Assistant Postmasters General, http://www.stampsmarter.com/learning/ID_Postmasters.html

          • Poore's PMG list is completely correct, but his Asst. PMG list is deficient
          • Lanman/Morrison, 1869/1876/1887, gives only the appointment year, and is unreliable on several points
          • Meschter's dates are often given without reference, and some are clearly guesswork.
          • Lists of those receiving salaries in the quarter ending Dec. 31, 1844.
          • Asst. Postmaster Generals, Selah R. Hobbie, John S. Skinner, N. Miller
          • Nathan K. Hall, Postmaster General
          • Solomon D. Jacobs, First Assistant Postmaster General, Mail Arrangement
          • Fitz Henry Warren, Second Assistant Postmaster General, Appointments
          • John Marron, Third Assistant Postmaster General, Finances
          • William H. Dundas, Chief Clerk, Inspection of Mail Service
          • John W. Farrelly, Auditor of the Treasury for the Post Office Department, Settlement of Accounts
          • Nathan K. Hall, Postmaster General
          • Solomon D. Jacobs, First Assistant Postmaster General, Appointment Office
          • Fitz Henry Warren, Second Assistant Postmaster General, Contract Office
          • John Marron, Third Assistant Postmaster General, Finance Office
          • William H. Dundas, Chief Clerk, Inspection Office
          • John W. Farrelly, Auditor
          • 3rd Asst. PMG, nominated and confirmed Mar. 17, 1873 [SEJ v.19 p.64,73,74], resigned May 1877
            • in office, Oct. 1874 [PG]
            • "The year 1861 was the last year of my residence in the town, an election as clerk of Eaton county in 1860, as clerk of the house of representatives in the State legislature in 1861 and 1863, the appointment as Reading Clerk of the national house of representatives in 1864, as Supervisor of Internal Revenue for Michigan and Wisconsin in 1869 and as Third Assistant Postmaster General in 1873, taking me away permanently still it is the one place on earth that has the associations and charms of home." (p. 47, link)
            • He joined the Post Office Dept. (in Philadelphia) as Timothy Pickering's confidential clerk in 1791, and was appointed Asst. PMG in 1799. With the rest of the government, he relocated to Washington, DC, in May 1800. [D]
              • in 1794, Clerk (The United States Register, Philadelphia, for the year 1794, p. 82, and for 1795, p. 81).
                • The Preface dates are Jan. 1794 and Nov. 1794.
                • in Nov. 1796 (Morse, American Gazetteer, 1797)
                • Meschter refers to "the Assistant Postmaster General's letter book", presumably in the National Archives no reference is given.
                • Abraham Bradley, is appointed assistant postmaster general, vice Charles Burrall, resigned.
                • similar, in other papers, at later dates
                • Bradley left Philadelphia May 27, arriving in Washington May 29 (link) also, (link)
                • PMG Habersham was in Georgia at the time (link).
                • Union Bank of Georgetown, appointed President Jan. 1814, re-elected 1819
                • news reports, Sep. 15, 1829, from the National Intelligencer
                • ". the functions of Abraham Bradley, Esq., as Assistant Postmaster General will cease from and after this date."
                • Succeeded by Charles K. Gardner.
                • He was a Federalist, and was swept out after the election of Andrew Jackson.
                • 1803-1887
                • joined the Post Office in 1792 as a clerk Asst. PMG in 1800
                • Abraham Bradley, Sr., the father of Abraham, Jr., and Phineas, died in 1824.
                • Abraham Bradley, 3d, son of Abraham, Jr., died in June 1827 he was employed by the Post office in 1813 [Rolls] to . [OR].
                • Clerk in 1800 at the time of the move from Philadelphia to Washington [ASP Finance vol. 1, p. 813, link]
                • arrived in Washington, 1801 [D]
                • Clerk, in 1813 [Rolls]
                • Principal Clerk, in 1816, 1817
                • promoted to Asst. PMG, Oct., 1818, after the resignation of Seth Pease (newspaper reports)
                • Brother of Abraham Bradley, Jr. a medical doctor
                • first appointed to the Post Office in 1799 removed in Sep. 1829 [ASP p. 333]
                  • Like his brother, he was a Federalist, and was swept out after the election of Andrew Jackson.
                  • Phineas Jones Bradley was the second son of Dr. Phineas Bradley he died in July 1828.
                  • 1794-1867 portrait (link) Wikipedia
                  • US Consul in St. Thomas, West Indies, nominated and confirmed, Dec. 1870 [SEJ v.17 p.553,584]
                  • Supervisor of Internal Revenue, recess appointment, nominated Dec. 6, 1875 [SEJ v.20 p.81] confirmed Dec. 14, 1875 [SEJ v.20 p.110]
                  • 2nd Asst. PMG, nominated July 22, 1876 [SEJ v.20 p.289], in place of James N. Tyner, appointed PMG confirmed July 24, 1876 [SEJ v.20 p.291]
                  • [SEJ v.23 p.58]
                  • Clerk, 1816
                  • Chief Clerk
                  • The Third Division, before creation of the office of Third Assistant Postmaster General, was led by Obadiah B. Brown and Robert Johnston.
                  • 2nd Asst. PMG, from Oct. 1, 1842 [OR 1843]
                  • Cleveland Herald, Oct. 3, 1842, "The appointment of John A. Bryan to this responsible office [Second Assistant Postmaster General] is in perfect keeping with Tylerism. If office under Mr. Tyler be the reward for foul abuse of the Whigs and Whig principles, Mr. Bryan is truly deserving. . Mr. Fuller probably did not consult the whims of Mr. Tyler in all cases, so off with his head." (link)
                  • The New World, New York, June 3, 1843 (link)
                  • Jan. 28, 1782, elected assistant to PMG Ebenezer Hazard
                    • Bryson had been a surveyor of the post office at least since Nov. 1777 (ref). In the British and early American systems, a surveyor would visit and report on the operations of the post office, with the goal of identifying problems and making suggestions for improvements.
                    • Journals of the Continental Congress, 1777, IX, 860 1778, X, 360 1779, XV, 1203 1780, XVII, 553
                    • Pennsylvania Packet, Philadelphia, Apr. 17, 1779, General Post Office notice, signed "James Bryson, Surveyor of the Post-Offices, Middle District".
                    • Congress proceeded to the election of a postmaster general and, the ballots being taken, Mr. Ebenezer Hazard was elected, having been previously nominated by Mr. [Roger] Sherman: Mr. James Bryson was elected assistant or clerk to the postmaster general, having been previously nominated by Mr. [Abraham] Clark.
                    • A letter of January 31 from Ebenezer Hazard, accepting the office of Postmaster General. A letter of January 31, from James Bryson, accepting appointment as assistant or clerk to the Postmaster General.
                    • On the 28th ult. [Jan. 28] Congress appointed Ebenezer Hazard, esquire, post-master general, and James Bryson, esquire, assistant post-master general. We hear that Congress have reduced postage to the peace price.
                    • An Ordinance for Regulating the Post Office of the United States of America.
                    • A broadside, signed James Bryson, Assistant, excerpting the Ordinance of Oct. 18.
                    • Published in the Pennsylvania Packet, Oct. 26, 1782.
                    • in the Pennsylvania Packet, Feb. 5, 1782 (cited above) Oct. 26, 1782 Nov. 9 and 16, 1782 May 29, 1788
                    • in the Pennsylvania Gazette, June 4, 1783 Sep. 15, 1784 Sep. 28, 1785
                    • in the Pennsylvania Journal, Dec. 7, 1782 Jan. 11, 1783 Aug. 6, 1783 Jan. 17, 1784 Sep. 24, 1785 Dec. 12, 1787
                    • in the Pennsylvania Mercury, Sep. 22, 1786 Nov. 24, 1786
                    • in the New York Morning Post, Oct. 5, 1786
                    • in the New York Journal, Aug. 9, 1787
                    • in the Pennsylvania Gazette, Dec. 20, 1786 Jan. 10, 1787 Aug. 6, 1788 Jan. 7, 1789
                    • in the Pennsylvania Journal, Jan. 28, 1786 Feb. 2, 1786 . Sep. 12, 1789
                    • in the Independent Gazette, Philadelphia, Jan. 28, 1786
                    • Robert Patton was Philadelphia postmaster in Dec. 1789
                    • in the Independent Gazetteer, Philadelphia, Oct. 26, 1782
                    • See next for Burrall family tree.
                    • In 1786, a "clerk in the Offices of the Commissioners of the five great departments" (ref).
                      • Was this position associated with his brother Jonathan Burrall?
                      • "Resolved, by ten states, That the board of treasury take Order for paying to James Burnside, Doyle Sweeny, Robert Underwood, William Simmons, Charles Burral, Charles Garvis and Thomas Benedict, who were employed as clerks in the Offices of the Commissioners of the five great departments, their salaries, from the 15 of April last, to the time when the books and papers of the respective departments were delivered over to the present Commissioners . ". Journals of the Continental Congress, Oct. 12, 1786, vol. 31, p. 771.
                      • appointed Aug. 12, 1791 [Meschter]
                      • but, on p. 176, Timothy Pickering, PMG Jonathan Burrall, Asst. PMG Robert Patton, Postmaster [of Philadelphia]
                      • the same error persists in 1794, and is corrected in 1796
                      • The Preface dates are Jan. 1794 and Nov. 1794.
                      • Journal of the Senate, Mar. 26, 1798
                      • See also, letter of April 18, 1798 (link)
                      • Feb. 1802 [OR]
                      • Abraham Bradley, is appointed assistant postmaster general, vice Charles Burrall, resigned.
                      • in the Providence Gazette, May 30, 1795
                      • in a letter, June 24, 1795 (link) Apr. 18, 1798 (link)
                      • in the Federal Gazette, Feb. 13, 1800 May 20, 1800
                      • in the civil roll, 1802, PM since 1800
                      • LCP, http://pacscl.exlibrisgroup.com:48992/F?func=direct&doc_number=000051764

                      • from [New] Canaan, Litchfield County, Connecticut.
                        • William Burrall, 1680-1723
                          + [Col.] Charles Burrall, 1720-1803
                          + Charles Burrall, 1751-1820
                          + Jonathan Burrall, 1759-1805
                          + Jonathan Burrall, 1721-1772
                          + Jonathan Burrall, 1753-1834
                          + Charles Burrall, 1762-1836
                        • Journals of the Continental Congress, vol. 30, p. 135
                        • Quartermaster, Commissary, Hospital, Marine, Clothier


                        • news reports, Gazette of the United States, Oct. 7, 1789 Pennsylvania Packet, Oct. 9, 1789 etc.
                        • historical review, with quotes from correspondence, http://books.google.com/books?id=C4EbAQAAMAAJ
                        • news reports, The Mail (Philadelphia), Feb. 9, 1792
                        • Prosper Wetmore was proposed, but not appointed, to replace Burrall.
                        • New York Branch of the Bank of the United States
                        • Journal of the Senate, 16 Dec. 1793 (link)
                        • b. 1753 d. 18 Nov. 1834, Goshen, NY
                        • 3rd Asst. PMG, in office Oct. 1840, http://books.google.com/books?id=O2ZHAQAAIAAJ
                        • 2nd Asst. PMG, removed in 1841 (between Mar. 4 and July 16) [404 H.doc. 170, p. 115]
                        • Clerk, Mail Contracts, in 1831, 1833, 1835
                        • Principal Clerk, in 1837, 1839, 1841, 1843, 1845
                        • Chief Clerk, in 1847, 1849, 1851
                        • temporary Assistant PMG, in place of Fitz Henry Warren (NY Times, May 28, 1852)
                        • not found in SEJ
                        • PMG Creswell's former law partner, he was deeply involved with the Chorpenning case [C].
                        • 1st Asst. PMG, nominated Mar. 29, 1869, confirmed Apr. 3, 1869 [SEJ v.17 p.34,35,37,72-73]
                        • resigned Dec. 1869, replaced by James W. Marshall [SEJ v.17 p.292]

                  • former Speaker of the Assembly of Michigan (until Apr. 3, 1841), and former Congressman from New York, Fuller was a Whig political appointment in Mar. 1841, concurrently with John S. Skinner (3rd Asst. PMG)
                  • 2nd Asst. PMG, to Sep. 30, 1842 [OR 1843]
                  • Resigned, effective Oct. 1, 1842
                    • Adjutant General, US Army, 1816 [SEJ v.3 p. 50]
                      • Adj. gen. & col. bvt. [OR 1816]
                      • but Abraham Bradley had not been dismissed by that date
                      • portrait (link)
                      • 1849, replaced by William A. Bradley, son of Phineas Bradley and nephew of Abraham Bradley
                      • Clerk, in 1867, 1869, 1871, 1873 Chief of Division of Postal Stamps, 1875
                      • Chief of Division of Postage Stamps and Stamped Envelopes and Postal Cards
                        • in office, Oct. 1874 [PG]
                        • nominated Oct. 16, 1877 [SEJ v.21 p. 44] confirmed Oct. 23, 1877 [SEJ v.21 p. 713]
                        • Member of Congress, 1827-29
                        • 2nd Asst. PMG, appointed Mar. 4, 1829 [Meschter]
                          • but Phineas Bradley had not been dismissed by that date, so Meschter is just guessing about "Mar. 4" (Andrew Jackson's inauguration day)
                          • see also, Niles' Register, Nov. 21, 1829, vol. 37, p. 196 (link) Dec. 5, 1829, vol. 37, p. 235 (link)
                          • already in office Sep. 30, 1829 [OR]
                          • Acting PMG, 1 Oct. to 11 Oct. 1841 (also earlier?)
                          • resigned, poor health, Apr. 1, 1851 Meschter has more details
                          • succeeded by Solomon D. Jacobs
                          • This was the first instance of an Asst. PMG being confirmed by the Senate under the law of Mar. 3, 1853.
                          • 1st Asst. PMG, appointed Jan. 23, 1851 (Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Jan. 25, 1851, link)
                            • Washington, Jan. 23, 1851, Solomon D. Jacobs, of Tennessee, has been appointed first Assistant Postmaster General, vice Hobbie resigned.
                            • Accountant, Third Division, in 1835 (from May 8, to July 2, 1836)
                            • Chief Clerk, July 14-31, 1836
                            • 2nd Asst. PMG, from 1836 (July 2?, which was when C.K. Gardner went to Treasury) to 1841 (between Mar. 4 and July 16) [404 H.doc. 170, p. 115]
                            • 1st Asst. PMG, nominated Mar. 6, 1861 confirmed Mar. 8, 1861 [SEJ v.11 p. 291-292]
                            • resigned, end of July, 1862 (NY Times, Aug. 1, 1862)
                            • American Philatelist, Apr. 1992, p. 331-335
                            • Clerk, in 1839 (from Mar. 15), 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1853
                            • 1851, Superintendent of the General Post Office Building, July 1 - Nov. 15
                            • 1853, Disbursing Clerk and Superintendent of the Post Office Building
                            • [Vexler] Superintendent of Foreign Mail Service, 1850
                            • [Smith] head of the Bureau of Foreign Mails
                            • 1st Asst. PMG, appt. 28 Mar. 1854, after death of Hobbie
                              • nominated, Mar. 27, 1854 [SEJ v.9 p.270]
                              • confirmed, Mar. 28, 1854 [SEJ v.9 p.271]
                              • took office Mar. 30, 1854 [H.doc]
                              • 3rd Asst. PMG, nominated, Apr. 16, 1869 [SEJ v.17 p.192,196] to replace A.N. Zevely
                              • reported from committee without recommendation, Apr. 20, 1869 [SEJ v.17 p.230]
                              • no confirmation vote was taken, so he did not take office
                              • Post Office dept., July 1869 to Oct. 1874
                                • from the Official Register,
                                • 1861, 1863, 1865, in the list of Special Agents
                                • 1867, not listed
                                • 1869, in the list of Special Agents
                                • 1871, in the list of Special Agents, as Assistant Superintendent of postal railway service, one of seven
                                • 1873, in the list of Special Agents, as Superintendent of railway mail service, one of eight
                                • 1875, 1877, not found
                                • Chief Clerk, Appointment Office first appointed 27 May 1867 [1987 S.exdoc.42, 1882]
                                • 1870, Chief Clerk, Appointment Office [LPO]
                                • 1874, Chief Clerk, Appointment Office [Blue Book]
                                • James H. Marr, appt. interim 1st Asst. PMG, 7 Jul. 1874, while James W. Marshall was PMG [Poore]
                                • Oct. 1874, Chief Clerk, Office of the 1st Asst. PMG [PG]
                                • Clerk, Pay Office, in 1830 (from May 17), 1831, 1832 Appointments Office, in 1833, 1834, 1835 [OR, H.doc]
                                • Chief Clerk, in 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846 [OR, CD, W]
                                • 3rd Asst. PMG, appointed 1846
                                • died, March 1859 [SEJ v.11 p.73]
                                • 1st Asst. PMG, in office Sep. 30, 1869 [OR], appointed Dec. 1, 1869 [Poore], nominated Dec. 5, 1869 [SEJ v.17 p.292,308,313], confirmed Dec. 21, 1869 [SEJ v.17 p.326-327]
                                • PMG, July 7 to Aug. 31, 1874 (without being nominated, see the Postmasters General file)
                                • 1st Asst. PMG, appointed Aug. 24, 1874 [Poore], nominated Dec. 15, 1874, confirmed Dec. 17, 1874 [SEJ v.19 p.429,431,438-439,441], in office Oct. 1, 1874 [PG] (from Virginia)
                                • Superintendent of the Railway Mail Service, until 1880
                                • 2nd Asst. PMG, nominated Mar. 8, 1861, confirmed Mar. 13, 1861 [SEJ v.11 p.292-294,303]
                                • removed from office Mar. 1869, in favor of Giles A. Smith [SEJ v.17 p.19]
                                • 2nd Asst, PMG, appointed Mar. 4, 1845 [Lanman], immediately upon the 29th Congress's initial special session.
                                • Nominated as Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Dec. 29, 1845 [SEJ v.7 p. 21] confirmed Jan. 3, 1846 [SEJ v.9 p.24-25].
                                • 1857-1859, Treasury Dept., 1st Comptroller [OR]
                                • papers, LOC, http://lccn.loc.gov/mm78032524
                                • 2nd Asst. PMG, took office in Nov. 1844 in office, Feb. 10, 1845
                                • moved to 3rd Asst. PMG, concurrently with removal of John S. Skinner, and appointment of William Medill as 2nd Asst. PMG
                                • official usage as 3rd Asst. PMG, for the Inspection Office, July 31, 1845, http://philamercury.com/covers.php?id=20918
                                • Referred to as "Dr. Miller" in several news reports, he was a physician in Columbus, Ohio, and part-owner of a Whig newspaper.
                                • Referred to as "the brother-in-law of President Tyler" in several news reports, he was married to one of Letitia Christian Tyler's sisters.
                                  • Mary Christian, m. Dr. Nathaniel Massie Miller, 1798-1870, b. Virginia, M.D. 1818, Univ. of Pennsylvania
                                  • "a clerk in the post-office" in Oct. 1804 [Evening Fire-side, Philadelphia, June 14, 1806, link]
                                  • Described as "a clerk in the general post-office" in June 1806 (Aurora General Advertiser, Philadelphia, June 6, 1806).
                                  • Surveyor of Public Lands, 1807 [SEJ v.2 p.50], [SEJ v.2 p. 54]
                                  • 2nd Asst. PMG, appointed in late July 1810 (newspaper notices)
                                    • copied from the National Intelligencer, earliest seen is July 31, 1810
                                    • City of Washington Gazette, Oct. 2, 1818
                                    • apparently nothing of postal interest

                                    • 1st Asst. PMG, nominated Dec. 23, 1862 [SEJ v.13 p.21], confirmed Jan. 14, 1863 [SEJ v.13 p.29]
                                      • appointed Jan. 9, 1863 [Poore]
                                      • Chief Clerk to the 2nd Asst. PMG, 1869 [http://www.colorado.gov/pacific/archives/john-long-routt]
                                        • not confirmed by OR
                                        • in office, Oct. 1874 [PG] (Jno. L. Routt)
                                        • in office until Mar. 4, 1875, succeeded by James N. Tyner
                                        • 1814, Purser, US Navy [SEJ, 25 Mar. 1814, v.2 p.514, 515]
                                        • in 1819-29, editor of The American Farmer, Baltimore
                                        • in 1816-37 (or 1839), postmaster of Baltimore [SEJ, 2 July 1836, v.4, p.568, 571]
                                        • nominated as 3rd Asst. PMG, concurrently with Philo C. Fuller in 1841
                                        • in office, Mar. 4, 1844, http://books.google.com/books?id=O2ZHAQAAIAAJ
                                        • removed from office in Mar. 1845 (reported Mar. 25, 1845, New York Herald Mar. 28, 1845, National Intelligencer)
                                        • in 1845-47, editor of the Monthly Journal of Agriculture, New York
                                        • lengthy and detailed obituary, by Ben: Perley Poore, July 1854 (link).
                                        • see also, http://libx.bsu.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/ConspectusH/id/650
                                        • Clerk, in 1853, 1855, 1857, 1859 Principal Clerk, in 1861, 1863, 1864 (Appointment Office) Chief Clerk in 1865
                                        • acting 1st Asst. PMG, Feb. 8, 1861 [SJ v.61 p.901]
                                        • acting PMG, Sep. 26, 1862 [SJ v.61 p.901]
                                        • 1st Asst. PMG, nominated and confirmed, July 28, 1866 [SEJ v.14 p.1172-1173]
                                        • removed from office in Mar. 1869, replaced by George Earle
                                          • The first news reports were that George V. Lawrence, of Pennsylvania, would replace Skinner.
                                          • rose to Major General in the Civil War
                                          • 2nd Asst. PMG, nominated Mar. 24, 1869 [SEJ v.17 p.19,22,31], confirmed Mar. 26, 1869 [SEJ v.17 p.32-33]
                                          • resigned, ill health, effective Oct. 15, 1871, replaced by John L. Routt (Boston Journal, Oct. 13, 1871)
                                          • 3rd Asst. PMG, in office by Sep. 1869 [OR], nominated Jan. 10, 1870 [SEJ v.17 p.331,334,336], confirmed Jan. 24, 1870 [SEJ v.17 p.348]
                                          • Appointed Special Agent, 7 Mar. 1861
                                          • Official Register, 1861-66, in the list of Special Agents
                                          • Congress, 1869-75
                                          • 2nd Asst. PMG, nominated and confirmed, Feb. 26, 1875, to be effective Mar. 4, 1875 [SEJ v.19 p.531,532]
                                            • in office, Apr. 1875 [PG]


                                            • His appointment was reported in the newspapers (Daily National Intelligencer, Oct. 30, 1843). He took office mid-Nov. 1843, was still in office in March 1844, and out of office by Nov. 1844. Previously Surveyor of the Customs at the Port of Philadelphia, appointed April 1841, effective July 1, 1841 [SEJ v.5 p.385]. He was turned down by the Senate for a different position in April 1842 [SEJ v.6 p.56].
                                            • 2nd Asst. PMG, appointed 1849
                                            • resigned, effective May 25, 1852.
                                            • In May 1785, Prosper Wetmore was employed as "first clerk in the General Post Office in the City of New York" (link).
                                            • In Sep. 1791, Samuel Osgood, PMG until Aug. 19, 1791, recommended Wetmore to Timothy Pickering, his successor as PMG (link).
                                            • In Oct. 1791, Sebastian Baumann, the Postmaster of New York, recommended Wetmore to Timothy Pickering (link).
                                            • "Prosper Whetmore" is listed by Watterston as Assistant PMG, appointed Feb. 9, 1792 (link). We have seen no other list of Assistant PMG's that mentions him.
                                            • "Appointment, Prosper Wetmore, Esq., Assistant Postmaster-General, in the place of Jonathan Burrall, Esq., resigned.", The Federal Gazette, Philadelphia, Mar. 10, 1792, p. 2, from Readex/Newsbank.
                                            • Presidential appointments, with the advice and consent of the Senate, "Prosper Wetmore, esq., Assistant Postmaster-General, in the place of Jonathan Burrall, esq., resigned.", The Mail, or Claypoole's Daily Advertiser, Philadelphia, March 12, 1792, p. 3, from Readex/Newsbank.
                                              • The military appointments in this article appear in the Senate Executive Journal (Mar. 6, 1792, v.1 p. 101-102), but the final part about Wetmore does not.
                                              • Clerk, in 1834 (from Dec. 19), 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844 (class 3), 1845, 1846, 1847, 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, 1854, 1855, 1856 [OR]
                                              • Disbursing Clerk and Superintendent of the Post Office Building, in 1855, 1857 [OR]
                                              • 3rd Asst. PMG, nominated and confirmed, Mar. 5, 1859 [SEJ v.11 p.73,75,76]
                                                • in office Apr. 14, 1860 [SJ v.51 p.407]
                                                • first appointed 28 July 1868 [1987 S.exdoc.42, 1882]
                                                • previously Chief Clerk of the P.O. Dept. [OR 1865-67], and Clerk [OR 1853-63]
                                                • first appointed 1 July 1864 [1987 S.exdoc.42, 1882] the system began public operations 1 Nov. 1864
                                                • previously Clerk in the Sixth Auditor's office [OR 1855], and Principal Clerk of the Finance Office [OR 1861, 1863]
                                                • afterward, US Consul, Hamilton, Ontario [OR 1893, 1895]
                                                • Bequest of Dr. Charles F. Macdonald, Aug. 1913 (link) see also, P.S. (journal), 1985, no. 26, p. 56.
                                                • Charles K. Gardner, July 2, 1836 [SEJ v.4 p.569,571], until Mar. 18, 1841 [OR 1841]
                                                  • previously, Asst. PMG
                                                  • later, Postmaster, Washington, DC nominated Dec. 29, 1845 [SEJ v.7 p.15]
                                                  • nominated June 17, 1841 confirmed June 29, 1841 [SEJ v.5 p. 386, v.5 p. 396]
                                                  • OR, 1849-1855, Treasury Dept., First Comptroller
                                                  • nominated Dec. 18, 1843 [SEJ v.6 p.197]
                                                  • confirmed when?
                                                  • OR, 1823-1843, Clerk of the House of Representatives
                                                  • nominated Dec. 29, 1845 confirmed Mar. 24, 1846 [SEJ v.7 p.21, v.7 p.57]
                                                  • at Treasury since May 1816
                                                  • OR, 1817-1821, Clerk, office of the Third Auditor of the Treasury
                                                  • OR, 1823-1827, Clerk, office of the Secretary of the Treasury
                                                  • OR, 1829-1835, Chief Clerk, Treasurer's Office
                                                  • OR, 1837-1843, Chief Clerk, Auditor [of the Treasury] for the Post Office Department
                                                    • since July 3, 1836
                                                    • OR, 1851
                                                    • OR, 1853-1857
                                                    • nominated Jan. 18, 1858 confirmed Feb. 3, 1858 [SEJ v.10 p.293-294, v.10 p.301]
                                                    • OR, 1859
                                                    • nominated July 8, 1861 confirmed July 15 [SEJ v.11 p.376, v.11 p.445]
                                                    • OR, 1861
                                                    • nominated Dec. 12, 1864 confirmed Jan. 12, 1865 [SEJ v.14 p.16, v.14 p.83]
                                                    • also noted as Jacob J. Martin, Oct. 1874 - Apr. 1875 [PG]
                                                    • in office, July 1875 [PG]
                                                    • previously, Chief Clerk, in 1865, 1867, 1869, 1871, 1873, 1874, 1875 [PG, Jan., Apr. 1875]
                                                    • first appointed to Treasury, 13 Sep. 1862
                                                    • had been appointed Fifth Auditor, Jan. 1, 1872 or, 19 Dec. 1871
                                                    • When this office was first listed in the Official Register (1837) there were 35 clerks who had been with the General Post Office in 1835, including Gardner. Only one, Peter G. Washington, had come from Treasury. The remaining 13 1837 Auditor's clerks do not appear in the 1835 register.
                                                    • See also, 404 H.doc. 170, 31 Mar. 1842, p. 114. List of 14 clerks transferred on 5 July 1836.
                                                    • For the organization of the office, see Robert Mayo, The Treasury Department and its Various Fiscal Bureaus, 1847, p. 161-191 (link).
                                                    • Thomas Johnson, Jr., appointed June 24, 1795 took office July 17, 1795
                                                      • died Nov. 3, 1795 (The Herald, New York, Nov. 25, 1795, via Readex/NewsBank)
                                                      • died May 1796
                                                      • offered the position, May 11, 1796 (link)
                                                      • dismissed for non-payment of debts, Jan. 29, 1799
                                                      • A distant relative of George Washington. Peter G. Washington was his son.
                                                      • Nominated and confirmed July 2, 1836 [SEJ v.4 p.567-568,570-571] under the new postal law of July 2, 1836.
                                                      • nominated Jan. 24, 1840 [SEJ v.5 p.253], confirmed Feb. 10, 1840 [SEJ v.5 p.256]
                                                      • until July 14, 1841 [OR 1843]
                                                      • nominated June 22, 1841 [SEJ v.5 p.392], confirmed July 10, 1841 [SEJ v.5 p.403]
                                                      • took office July 15, 1841 [OR 1843], until Mar. 31, 1845 [OR 1845]
                                                      • took office Apr. 1, 1845 [OR 1845]
                                                      • nominated Dec. 29, 1845 [SEJ v.7 p.15], confirmed July 7, 1846 [SEJ v.7 p.115]
                                                      • portrait (link)
                                                      • nominated Jan. 16, 1850 [SEJ v.8 p.125], confirmed Aug. 28, 1850 [SEJ v.8 p.224]
                                                      • until May 31, 1853 [OR 1853]
                                                      • son of Phineas Bradley and nephew of Abraham Bradley
                                                      • president, Patriotic Bank
                                                      • mayor of Washington
                                                      • mail contractor, lines south from Washington
                                                      • took office May 31, 1853 [OR 1853]
                                                      • nominated Dec. 8, 1853 [SEJ v.9 p.180], confirmed Feb. 23, 1854 [SEJ v.9 p.247-248]
                                                      • until Feb. 23, 1858 [SEJ v.10 p.323]
                                                      • nominated Feb. 25, 1858 [SEJ v.10 p.323], confirmed Mar. 30, 1858 [SEJ v.10 p.355]
                                                      • until May 15, 1861 [OR 1861]
                                                      • took office May 16, 1861 [OR 1861]
                                                      • nominated July 10, 1861 [SEJ v.11 p.395], confirmed July 16, 1861 [SEJ v.10 p.465-468]
                                                      • until Mar. 31, 1863 [OR 1863]
                                                      • took office Apr. 1, 1863 [OR 1863]
                                                      • nominated Feb. 19, 1864 [SEJ v.13 p.410], confirmed Mar. 8, 1864 [SEJ v.13 p.439]
                                                      • until July 31, 1868 [OR 1869]
                                                      • nominated July 25, 1868 [SEJ v.16 p.362,383], confirmed July 27, 1868 [SEJ v.16 p.385]
                                                      • took office Aug. 1, 1868, until May 17, 1869 [OR 1869]
                                                      • suspended under an act of Congress approved Apr. 5, 1869 [SEJ v.17 p.282]
                                                      • took office May 18, 1869 [OR 1869]
                                                      • nominated Dec. 6, 1869 [SEJ v.17 p.282] confirmed Jan. 24, 1870 [SEJ v.17 p.348]
                                                      • renominated Jan. 6, 1874, as his term was to end Jan. 24, 1874 confirmed Jan. 8, 1874 [SEJ v.19 p.201,205,210]
                                                      • died in office, Dec. 14, 1879 (Wikipedia)
                                                      • nominated Jan. 7, 1880, confirmed Jan. 8, 1880 [SEJ v.22 p. 154,162]
                                                      • This data is from the Senate Executive Journal, the Official Register, and Madison Davis, A History of the [Washington] City Post-Office, Records of the Columbia Historical Society, 1903, vol. 6, p. 143-213 (link). Davis has additional biographical information he was formerly Chief Clerk to the 3rd Asst PMG.
                                                      • There were also D.C. post offices in Alexandria (from 1772, transferred to Virginia in 1846), Georgetown (from before 1776, to 1877), College Hill (1822 - Dec. 31, 1841), Tennallytown (1846 - 1894), Anacostia (1849 - 1855, 1856 - 1858), Alexandria Ferry (1856 - 1858), Oak Grove (1856 - 1861 1861, renamed to Brightwood, continuing to 1901), Uniontown (1865 - 1868 1869, renamed to Anacostia, continuing to 1900), Benning (1874 - 1903), etc. For more information, see http://www.dcstampclub.org/postal_history_project.htm or Jim Forte's Post Office list, http://www.postalhistory.com/postoffices.asp?state=DC

                                                      First Assistant Postmaster General [R] [PGR 1970]
                                                      James Bryson, 28 Jan. 1782
                                                      Jonathan Burrall, 1789
                                                      Charles Burrall, 1791
                                                      Abraham Bradley, jr., Connecticut, 1800
                                                      Selah R. Hobbie, 1829 [R] Charles K. Gardner, New Jersey, 1829 [PGR 1970]
                                                      Selah R. Hobbie, New York, 1836 [PGR 1970]
                                                      S.D. Jacobs, Tennessee, 1851
                                                      Selah R. Hobbie, New York, 22 Mar. 1853
                                                      Horatio King, Maine, 28 Mar. 1854
                                                      St. John B.L. Skinner, 13 Feb. 1861 [R]
                                                      John A. Kasson, Iowa, 8 Mar. 1861
                                                      Alex. W. Randall, Wisconsin, 9 Jan. 1863
                                                      St. John B.L. Skinner, New York, 28 July 1866
                                                      George Earle, Maryland, 2 Apr. 1869
                                                      James W. Marshall, New Jersey, 1 Dec. 1869
                                                      James H. Marr, Maryland, 7 July 1874
                                                      James W. Marshall, 24 Aug. 1874
                                                      James N. Tyner, Indiana, 16 Mar. 1877
                                                      Frank Hatton, Indiana, 29 Oct. 1881
                                                      John Schuyler Crosby, New York, 10 Nov. 1884 [R] 1885 [PGR 1970]
                                                      Malcolm Hay, Pennsylvania, 18 Mar. 1885 [R] Milton Hay [PGR 1970]
                                                      A.E. Stevenson, Illinois, 6 July 1885 [R] 1886 [PGR 1970]
                                                      James S. Clarkson, Iowa, 14 Mar. 1889
                                                      S.A. Whitfield, Ohio, 29 Sep. 1890
                                                      H. Clay Evans, Tennessee, 7 Jan. 1893
                                                      Frank H. Jones, Illinois, 10 May 1893
                                                      Perry S. Heath, Indiana, 17 Mar. 1897
                                                      Wm. H. Johnson, 23 Aug. 1900 [R] William M. Johnson, New Jersey, 23 Aug. 1900 [PGR 1970]
                                                      Robert J. Wynne, Pennsylvania, 17 Apr. 1902
                                                      Frank H. Hitchcock, Massachusetts, 16 Mar. 1905
                                                      Charles P. Grandfield, Missouri, 29 Feb. 1908
                                                      Daniel C. Roper, South Carolina, 14 Mar. 1913
                                                      John C. Koons, Maryland, 2 Sep. 1916
                                                      Hubert Work, Colorado, 7 Apr. 1921
                                                      John H. Bartlett, New Hampshire, 13 Mar. 1922
                                                      Arch Coleman, Minnesota, 1 July 1929
                                                      Joseph C. O'Mahoney, Wyoming, 6 Mar. 1933
                                                      William W. Howes, South Dakota, 17 Jan. 1934
                                                      Ambrose O'Connell, New York, 16 June 1940
                                                      Kildroy P. Aldrich, Illinois, 1 Mar. 1943
                                                      Jesse M. Donaldson, Illinois, 15 July 1945
                                                      Vincent C. Burke, Kentucky, 1 Feb. 1948

                                                      Assistant Postmaster General [PGR 1970]
                                                      Vincent C. Burke, Kentucky, 20 Aug. 1949

                                                      Assistant Postmaster General, Bureau of Post Office Operations [PGR 1970]
                                                      Joseph J. Lawler, Pennsylvania, 24 Apr. 1950
                                                      Norman Ross Abrams, New Jersey, 28 Apr. 1953
                                                      John M. McKibbin, Pennsylvania, 27 Feb. 1957

                                                      Assistant Postmaster General, Bureau of Operations, effective 1 July 1957 [PGR 1970]
                                                      John M. McKibbin, Pennsylvania, 27 Feb. 1957
                                                      Bert B. Barnes, Iowa, 19 Nov. 1959
                                                      Frederick C. Belen, Virginia, 2 Mar. 1961
                                                      William M. McMillan, Texas, 28 Feb. 1964
                                                      Frank J. Nunlist, New Jersey, 29 Apr. 1969
                                                      nominated 16 Apr. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.276], confirmed 29 Apr. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.314]

                                                      The Bureau of Operations merged with the Bureau of Transportation, to form the
                                                      Bureau of Planning, Marketing, and Systems Analysis, effective 10 May 1969. [PGR 1970]

                                                      Assistant Postmaster General, Bureau of Planning, Marketing, and Systems Analysis
                                                      Ronald B. Lee [Senate hearings, 25 Apr. 1969]

                                                      Assistant Postmaster General, Bureau of Planning and Marketing, effective 5 June 1969 [PGR 1970]
                                                      Ronald B. Lee, Maryland, 29 Apr. 1969
                                                      nominated 16 Apr. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.276], confirmed 29 Apr. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.313]


                                                      Second Assistant Postmaster General [R] [PGR 1970]
                                                      Seth Pease, Connecticut, 1810
                                                      Phineas Bradley, Connecticut, 1818
                                                      Charles K. Gardner, 1829 [R] Selah R. Hobbie, New York, 1829 [PGR 1970]
                                                      Robert Johnstone, 1839 [R] Robert Johnston, 1836 [PGR 1970]
                                                      Philo C. Fuller, 1841 [R] Philip C. Fuller, Michigan, 1841 [PGR 1970]
                                                      John A. Bryan, Ohio, 1841 [PGR 1970]
                                                      J.W. Tyson, 1843
                                                      N.M. Miller, Virginia, 1845 [R], 1844 [PGR 1970]
                                                      William Medill, Ohio, 1845
                                                      William J. Brown, Indiana, 1845
                                                      Fitz Henry Warren, Iowa, 1849
                                                      William H. Dundas, Virginia, 1852
                                                      George W. McLellan, Massachusetts, 13 Mar. 1861
                                                      Giles A. Smith, Illinois, 26 Mar. 1869
                                                      John L. Routt, Illinois, 12 Oct. 1871
                                                      James N. Tyner, Indiana, 26 Feb. 1875
                                                      Thomas J. Brady, Indiana, 24 July 1876
                                                      Richard A. Elmer, New York, 16 May 1881
                                                      Henry D. Lyman, New York, 15 Feb. 1884 [R] 1883 [PGR 1970]
                                                      W.B. Thompson, Michigan, 23 Dec. 1884
                                                      A. Leo Knott, Maryland, 1 Apr. 1885
                                                      S.A. Whitfield, Ohio, 18 Mar. 1889
                                                      J. Lowrie Bell, Pennsylvania, 29 Sep. 1890
                                                      Charles Nielson, Maryland, 4 June 1894
                                                      William S. Shallenberger, Pennsylvania, 29 Mar. 1897 [R] 5 Apr. 1897 [PGR 1970]
                                                      James T. McCleary, Minnesota, 29 Mar. 1907
                                                      Joseph Stewart, Missouri, 29 Sep. 1908
                                                      Otto Praeger, Texas, 1 Sep. 1915
                                                      Edw. H. Shaughnessy, Illinois, 11 Apr. 1921
                                                      Paul Henderson, Illinois, 14 Apr. 1922
                                                      W. Irving Glover, New Jersey, 1 Aug. 1923
                                                      William W. Howes, South Dakota, 6 Mar. 1933
                                                      Harlee Branch, Georgia, 17 Jan. 1934
                                                      Ambrose O'Connell, New York, 1 Oct. 1938
                                                      Smith W. Purdum, Maryland, 16 June 1940
                                                      Gael Sullivan, Illinois, 1 Oct. 1945
                                                      Paul Aiken, Kansas, 15 Oct. 1947

                                                      Assistant Postmaster General [PGR 1970]
                                                      Paul Aiken, Kansas, 20 Aug. 1949

                                                      Assistant Postmaster General, Bureau of Transportation [PGR 1970]
                                                      Paul Aiken, Kansas, 24 Apr. 1950
                                                      John M. Redding, Illinois, 24 Aug. 1950
                                                      John C. Allen, Illinois, 6 Feb. 1953
                                                      E. George Siedle, Pennsylvania, 4 Oct. 1954
                                                      George M. Moore, Kentucky, 6 Oct. 1959
                                                      William J. Hartigan, Massachusetts, 9 Aug. 1961, 27 Mar. 1963

                                                      Assistant Postmaster General, Bureau of Transportation and International Services, effective 19 Sep. 1963 [PGR 1970]
                                                      Hartigan

                                                      Assistant Postmaster General, Bureau of Transportation, effective 7 Nov. 1967 [PGR 1970]
                                                      Frederick E. Batrus, Maryland, 26 Feb. 1968

                                                      The Bureau of Transportation merged with the Bureau of Operations, to form the Bureau of Planning, etc., effective 10 May 1969


                                                      Third Assistant Postmaster General [R] [S] [PGR 1970]
                                                      Daniel Coleman, North Carolina, 1836
                                                      John S. Skinner, Maryland, 1842 [R], 1841 [PGR 1970]
                                                      N.M. Miller, Virginia, 1845
                                                      John Marron, Georgia, 1846
                                                      A.N. Zevely, North Carolina, 5 Mar. 1859
                                                      W.H.H. Terrell, Indiana, 22 May 1869
                                                      E.W. Barber, Michigan, 17 Mar. 1873
                                                      Abraham D. Hazen, Pennsylvania, 1 July 1877
                                                      Henry R. Harris, Georgia, 1 Apr. 1887
                                                      Abraham D. Hazen, 18 Mar. 1889
                                                      Kerr Craige, North Carolina, 19 May 1893
                                                      John A. Merritt, New York, 20 Apr. 1897
                                                      Edwin C. Madden, Michigan, 1 July 1899
                                                      Abraham L. Lawshe, Indiana, 22 Mar. 1907
                                                      James J. Britt, North Carolina, 1 Dec. 1910
                                                      Alexander M. Dockery, Missouri, 17 Mar. 1913
                                                      W. [Warren] Irving Glover, New Jersey, 26 May 1921
                                                      Robert S. Regar, Pennsylvania, 1 Aug. 1923
                                                      Frederic A. Tilton, Michigan, 20 June 1929
                                                      Clinton B. Ellenberger, Pennsylvania, 6 Mar. 1933 Eillenberger [PGR 1970]
                                                      Ramsey S. Black, Pennsylvania, 1 Feb. 1938
                                                      Joseph J. Lawler, Pennsylvania, 16 May 1945

                                                      Assistant Postmaster General [PGR 1970]
                                                      Joseph J. Lawler, Pennsylvania, 20 Aug. 1949

                                                      Assistant Postmaster General, Bureau of Finance [S] [PGR 1970]
                                                      Osborne A. Pearson, California, 24 Apr. 1950
                                                      William J. Bray, Connecticut, 11 Sep. 1952
                                                      Albert J. Robertson, Iowa, 17 Mar. 1953
                                                      Hyde Gillette, Illinois, 27 Feb. 1957
                                                      Ralph W. Nicholson, New York, 21 Mar. 1961

                                                      Assistant Postmaster General, Bureau of Finance and Administration, effective 26 Apr. 1964 [S] [PGR 1970]
                                                      Ralph W. Nicholson, 1964
                                                      James W. [Ward] Hargrove, Texas, 7 Feb. 1969
                                                      b. 1922, former VP of Texas Eastern Transmission Co.
                                                      nominated 31 Jan. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.151], confirmed 7 Feb. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.169]


                                                      Fourth Assistant Postmaster General [R] [PGR 1970]
                                                      E.G. Rathbone, Ohio, 27 June 1891
                                                      R.A. Maxwell, New York, 22 Mar. 1893
                                                      Jos. L. Bristow, Kansas, 22 Mar. 1897 [R], 1 Apr. 1897 [PGR 1970]
                                                      P.V. De Graw, Pennsylvania, 20 Mar. 1905
                                                      James I. Blakslee, Pennsylvania, 17 Mar. 1913
                                                      Harry H. Billany, Delaware, 14 Mar. 1921
                                                      John W. Philip, Texas, 8 July 1929
                                                      Silliman Evans, Texas, 6 Mar. 1933
                                                      Smith W. Purdom, Maryland, 19 June 1934
                                                      Walter Myers, Indiana, 16 June 1940

                                                      Assistant Postmaster General [PGR 1970]
                                                      Walter Myers, Indiana, 20 Aug. 1949

                                                      Assistant Postmaster General, Bureau of Facilities [PGR 1970]
                                                      Walter Myers, Indiana, 24 Apr. 1950
                                                      Ormond E. Kleb, New Jersey, 17 Mar. 1953
                                                      Rollin D. Barnard, Colorado, 12 Mar. 1959
                                                      Robert J. Burkhardt, New Jersey, 20 Feb. 1961
                                                      Sidney W. Bishop, California, 28 Mar. 1962
                                                      Tyler Abell, D.C., 2 Jan. 1964
                                                      John L. O'Marra, Oklahoma / Maryland, 4 Aug. 1967 reappointed, 7 Feb. 1969
                                                      b. 1920
                                                      nominated 5 Feb. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.157], confirmed 7 Feb. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.169]
                                                      Henry Lehne, Massachusetts, 29 Apr. 1969
                                                      nominated 16 Apr. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.276], confirmed 29 Apr. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.313]


                                                      Bureau of Accounts, by Act of 10 June 1921, 42 Stat. 24
                                                      transferred to the Bureau of Finance, 1953


                                                      Assistant Postmaster General for Personnel, by Act of 23 July 1953 [PGR 1970]
                                                      Eugene J. Lyons, New Jersey, 2 Dec. 1953
                                                      Frank Barr, Kansas, 31 Mar. 1960
                                                      Richard J. Murphy, Maryland, 21 Mar. 1961
                                                      Kenneth A. [Alfred] Housman, Connecticut, 7 Feb. 1969
                                                      former Manager of Public Affairs, Union Carbide Corp.
                                                      nominated 31 Jan. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.151], confirmed 7 Feb. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.169]


                                                      Director, Office of Research and Engineering, effective 1 July 1956 [PGR 1970]
                                                      Clyde W. Gray, Massachusetts, 20 Feb. 1957
                                                      Wade S. Plummer, Pennsylvania, 14 July 1958
                                                      Edward E. Harriman, Maine, 14 May 1961

                                                      Director, Bureau of Research and Engineering, effective 5 July 1966 [PGR 1970]
                                                      Leo S. Packer, New York, 13 June 1966

                                                      Assistant Postmaster General, Bureau of Research and Engineering [PGR 1970]
                                                      Leo S. Packer, New York, 14 Sep. 1966
                                                      Harold F. Faught, Pennsylvania, 20 June 1969
                                                      nominated 16 June 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.452], confirmed 18 June 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.463]


                                                      General Counsel, by Act of 31 July 1956 [PGR 1970]
                                                      Abe McGregor Goff, Idaho, 10 Oct. 1956
                                                      Herbert B. Warburton, Delaware, 22 May 1958
                                                      Louis J. Doyle, Maryland, 1 May 1961
                                                      Timothy J. May, Maryland, 23 Feb. 1966
                                                      David A. [Aldrich] Nelson, Ohio, 7 Feb. 1969
                                                      b. 1932, lawyer in private practice, Cleveland, Ohio
                                                      nominated 31 Jan. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.151], confirmed 7 Feb. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.169]


                                                      From the Official Register, Government Manual, and the Senate Executive Journal

                                                      OR (biennial) 1881-1921 (annual) 1925-1934, 1936-1959
                                                      1917 [1 Jan. 1918], 1919 [11 Feb. 1920], 1921 [16 Mar. 1922]
                                                      GM (annual) 1935 to 1970/71 (complete for the Post Office dept.)
                                                      SEJ vol. 65-71, 1926-1930 vol. 74-101, 1933-1959

                                                      Thomas L. James, New York, PMG OR 1881
                                                      Walter Q. Gresham, Indiana, PMG OR 1883
                                                      William F. Vilas, Vermont, PMG OR 1885, 1887
                                                      John Wanamaker, Pennsylvania, PMG OR 1889, 1891
                                                      Wilson S. Bissell, New York, PMG OR 1893
                                                      William L. Wilson, Virginia, PMG OR 1895
                                                      James A. Gary, Connecticut, PMG OR 1897
                                                      Charles Emory Smith, Connecticut, PMG OR 1899, 1901
                                                      Henry C. Payne, Massachusetts, PMG OR 1903
                                                      George B. Cortelyou, New York, PMG OR 1905
                                                      George von L. Meyer, Massachusetts, PMG OR 1907
                                                      Frank H. Hitchcock, Massachusetts, PMG OR 1909, 1911
                                                      Albert S. Burleson, Texas, PMG OR 1913, 1915, 1917, 1919
                                                      Hubert Work, Colorado, PMG OR 1921
                                                      Harry S. New, Indiana, PMG OR 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928 nominated and confirmed 5 Mar. 1925 SEJ v.64 p.3
                                                      Walter F. [Folger] Brown, Ohio, PMG OR 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932 nominated and confirmed 5 Mar. 1929 SEJ v.68 p.3-5
                                                      James A. Farley, New York, PMG OR 1933, 1934, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939 GM 1940 (July) nominated and confirmed 4 Mar. 1933 SEJ v.74 p.3,5 nominated and confirmed 22 Jan. 1937 SEJ v.78 p.91-92
                                                      Frank C. Walker, Pennsylvania, PMG OR 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945 GM 1940 (Oct.) - 1945 (1st) nominated 5 Sep. 1940 SEJ v.82 p.970 confirmed 6 Sep. 1940 SEJ v.82 p.975,982 nominated 23 Jan. 1941 SEJ v.83 p.32 confirmed 27 Jan. 1941 SEJ v.83 p.41 nominated 22 Jan. 1945 SEJ v.87 p.31 confirmed 5 Feb. 1945 SEJ v.87 p.49-50
                                                      Robert E. Hannegan, Missouri, PMG OR 1946, 1947 GM 1945 (2nd), 1946, 1947 nominated 3 May 1945, effective 1 July 1945 SEJ v.87 p.255 confirmed 7 May 1945 SEJ v.87 p.263-267
                                                      Jesse M. Donaldson, Illinois, PMG OR 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952 GM 1948-1952 nominated 26 Nov. 1947 SEJ v.89 p.3327 confirmed 15 Dec. 1947 SEJ v.89 p.3389 nominated 31 Jan. 1949 SEJ v.91 p.735 confirmed 7 Feb. 1949 SEJ v.91 p.775
                                                      Arthur E. Summerfield, Michigan, PMG OR 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959 GM 1953-1960 nominated 20 Jan. 1953 SEJ v.95 p.67,70-71 confirmed 21 Jan. 1953 SEJ v.95 p.71-73 nominated 23 Jan. 1957 SEJ v.99 p.245 confirmed 4 Feb. 1957 SEJ v.99 p.275
                                                      J. Edward Day, PMG GM 1961, 1962, 1963
                                                      John A. Gronouski, PMG GM 1964, 1965
                                                      Lawrence F. O'Brien, PMG GM 1966, 1967
                                                      W. Marvin Watson, PMG GM 1968
                                                      Winton M. Blount, PMG GM 1969, 1970 nominated 20 Jan. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.102] confirmed 20 Jan. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.104]

                                                      James N. Tyner, Indiana, 1st Asst PMG, Indiana OR 1881
                                                      Frank Hatton, Ohio, 1st Asst PMG OR 1883
                                                      Adlai E. Stevenson, Kentucky, 1st Asst PMG OR 1885, 1887
                                                      James S. Clarkson, Indiana, 1st Asst PMG OR 1889
                                                      Smith A. Whitfield, New Hampshire, 1st Asst PMG OR 1891
                                                      Frank H. Jones, Illinois, 1st Asst PMG OR 1893, 1895
                                                      Perry S. Heath, Indiana, 1st Asst PMG OR 1897, 1899
                                                      William M. Johnson, New Jersey, 1st Asst PMG OR 1901
                                                      Robert J. Wynne, New York, 1st Asst PMG OR 1903
                                                      Frank H. Hitchcock, Ohio, 1st Asst PMG OR 1905, 1907
                                                      Charles P. Grandfield, 1st Asst PMG OR 1909, 1911
                                                      Chief Clerk, Office of the 1st Asst PMG OR 1907
                                                      Daniel C. Roper, 1st Asst PMG OR 1913, 1915
                                                      John C. Koons, 1st Asst PMG OR 1917, 1919
                                                      John H. Bartlett, New Hampshire, 1st Asst PMG OR 1921, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928
                                                      nominated 7 Mar. 1921, confirmed 8 Mar. 1921, formerly President of the Civil Service Commission [OR 1921 p.91]
                                                      Arch Coleman, Minnesota, 1st Asst PMG OR 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932 nominated and confirmed 19 June 1929 SEJ v.68 p.180-181
                                                      Joseph C. O'Mahoney, Wyoming, bio, 1st Asst PMG OR 1933 nominated 11 Mar. 1933 SEJ v.74 p.11 confirmed 13 Mar. 1933 SEJ v.74 p.12-13
                                                      William W. Howes, South Dakota, 1st Asst PMG OR 1934, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940 GM 1935 - 1940 (Feb.) nominated 8 Jan. 1934 SEJ v.75 p.55 confirmed 11 Jan. 1934 SEJ v.75 p.77
                                                      Acting PMG GM 1936
                                                      Ambrose O'Connell, New York, 1st Asst PMG OR 1941, 1942 GM 1940 (July) - 1942 (Fall) nominated 23 May 1940 SEJ v.82 p.532 confirmed 24 May 1940 SEJ v.82 p.567
                                                      Executive Assistant to the PMG GM 1935, 1936, 1937
                                                      Kildroy P. Aldrich, Illinois, 1st Asst PMG OR 1943, 1944, 1945 GM 1943 - 1945 (1st) nominated 18 Feb. 1943 SEJ v.85 p.80 confirmed 1 Mar. 1943 SEJ v.85 p.109
                                                      Jesse M. Donaldson, Illinois, 1st Asst PMG OR 1946, 1947 GM 1945 (2nd) - 1947 nominated 6 July 1945 SEJ v.87 p.414 confirmed 13 July 1945 SEJ v.87 p.425
                                                      Vincent C. Burke, Kentucky, 1st Asst PMG OR 1948, 1949 GM 1948, 1949 nominated 16 Jan. 1948 SEJ v.90 p.12 confirmed 30 Jan. 1948 SEJ v.90 p.96-97
                                                      Joseph J. Lawler, Pennsylvania, Asst PMG, Bureau of Post Office Operations OR 1950, 1951, 1952 GM 1950, 1951, 1952
                                                      Norman R. [Ross] Abrams, New Jersey, Asst PMG, Bureau of Post Office Operations OR 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956 GM 1953 - 1956 nominated 17 Apr. 1953 SEJ v.95 p.289 confirmed 23 Apr. 1953 SEJ v.95 p.319
                                                      John M. McKibbin, Pennsylvania, Asst PMG, Bureau of Post Office Operations OR 1957, 1958, 1959 GM 1957 nominated 1 Feb. 1957 SEJ v.99 p.254 confirmed 27 Feb. 1957 SEJ v.99 p.328-329
                                                      Bureau of Operations, GM 1958, 1959
                                                      Bert B. Barnes, Asst PMG, Bureau of Operations GM 1960
                                                      Frederick C. Belen, Asst PMG, Bureau of Operations GM 1961, 1962, 1963
                                                      William M. McMillan, Asst PMG, Bureau of Operations GM 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968
                                                      Frank J. Nunlist, Asst PMG, Bureau of Operations GM 1969, 1970

                                                      Richard A. Elmer, New York, 2nd Asst PMG OR 1881, 1883
                                                      A. Leo Knott, Maryland, 2nd Asst PMG OR 1885, 1887
                                                      Smith A. Whitfield, New Hampshire, 2nd Asst PMG OR 1889
                                                      J. Lowrie Bell, Pennsylvania, 2nd Asst PMG OR 1891, 1893
                                                      Charles Neilson, Maryland, 2nd Asst PMG OR 1895
                                                      William S. Shallenberger, Pennsylvania, 2nd Asst PMG OR 1897, 1899, 1901, 1903, 1905
                                                      James T. McCleary, 2nd Asst PMG OR 1907
                                                      Joseph Stewart, 2nd Asst PMG OR 1909, 1911, 1913
                                                      Superintendent of division, Office of the 2nd Asst PMG OR 1907
                                                      Otto Praeger, 2nd Asst PMG OR 1915, 1917, 1919
                                                      Praeger was appointed postmaster of Washington, DC, 1 April 1914.
                                                      (vacant), 2nd Asst PMG OR 1921
                                                      Paul Henderson
                                                      W. [Warren] Irving Glover, New Jersey, 2nd Asst PMG OR 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932 recess appointment, 22 July 1925 nominated 15 Dec. 1925 SEJ v.64 p.176 confirmed 17 Dec. 1925 SEJ v.64 p.287
                                                      William W. Howes, South Dakota, 2nd Asst PMG OR 1933 nominated 11 Mar. 1933 SEJ v.74 p.11 confirmed 13 Mar. 1933 SEJ v.74 p.12-13
                                                      Harllee Branch, Georgia, 2nd Asst PMG OR 1934, 1936, 1937, 1938 GM 1935, 1936, 1937 nominated 8 Jan. 1934 SEJ v.75 p.54 confirmed 11 Jan. 1934 SEJ v.75 p.77
                                                      acting PMG, 30 Oct. 1937, http://books.google.com/books?id=jqc3AQAAIAAJ&pg=RA2-PA68
                                                      Ambrose O'Connell, New York, 2nd Asst PMG OR 1939, 1940 GM 1938 (10 Oct.), 1939, 1940 (Feb) recess appointment nominated 10 Jan. 1939 SEJ v.81 p.67 confirmed 16 Jan. 1939 SEJ v.81 p.84
                                                      moved to 1st Asst PMG
                                                      Smith W. Purdum, Maryland, 2nd Asst PMG OR 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945 GM 1940 (July) - 1945 (1st) nominated 23 May 1940 SEJ v.82 p.532 confirmed 24 May 1940 SEJ v.82 p.567
                                                      Gael E. Sullivan, Illinois, 2nd Asst PMG OR 1946 GM 1945 (2nd), 1946, 1947 (1st) nominated 12 Sep. 1945 effective 1 Oct. 1945 SEJ v.87 p.549 confirmed 26 Sep. 1945 SEJ v.87 p.592
                                                      John J. Gillen, New York, Acting 2nd Asst PMG OR 1947 GM 1947 (2nd)
                                                      Paul [J.] Aiken, Kansas, 2nd Asst PMG recess appointment OR 1948, 1949 GM 1948, 1949 nominated 4 Dec. 1947 SEJ v.89 p.3329 confirmed 15 Dec. 1947 SEJ v.89 p.3389
                                                      Paul [J.] Aiken, Kansas, Asst PMG, Transportation OR 1950
                                                      (vacancy), Asst PMG, Bureau of Transportation GM 1950
                                                      John M. Redding, Illinois, Asst PMG, Bureau of Transportation OR 1951, 1952 GM 1951, 1952 nominated 2 Aug. 1950 SEJ v.92 p.621 confirmed 11 Aug. 1950 SEJ v.92 p.646
                                                      John C. Allen, Illinois, Asst PMG, Bureau of Transportation OR 1953, 1954 GM 1953, 1954 nominated 26 Jan. 1953 SEJ v.95 p.80 confirmed 29 Jan. 1953 SEJ v.95 p.119
                                                      E. George Siedle, Pennsylvania, Asst PMG, Bureau of Transportation OR 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959 GM 1955 - 1959 nominated 5 Aug. 1954 SEJ v.96 p.752 confirmed 16 Aug. 1954 SEJ v.96 p.780
                                                      George M. Moore, Asst PMG, Bureau of Transportation GM 1960
                                                      (vacancy), Asst PMG, Bureau of Transportation GM 1961
                                                      F.E. Batrus, acting Asst PMG, Bureau of Transportation GM 1962
                                                      William J. Hartigan, Asst PMG, Bureau of Transportation GM 1963
                                                      William J. Hartigan, Asst PMG, Bureau of Transportation and International Services GM 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967
                                                      Frederick E. Batrus, Asst PMG, Bureau of Transportation GM 1968

                                                      Abraham D. Hazen, Pennsylvania, 3rd Asst PMG OR 1881, 1883, 1885
                                                      Henry R. Harris, Georgia, 3rd Asst PMG OR 1887
                                                      Abraham D. Hazen, Pennsylvania, 3rd Asst PMG OR 1889, 1891
                                                      Kerr Craige, North Carolina, 3rd Asst PMG OR 1893, 1895
                                                      John A. Merritt, Michigan, 3rd Asst PMG OR 1897
                                                      Edwin C. Madden, Canada, 3rd Asst PMG OR 1899, 1901, 1903, 1905
                                                      Abraham L. Lawshe, 3rd Asst PMG OR 1907, 1909
                                                      James J. Britt, 3rd Asst PMG OR 1911
                                                      Alexander M. Dockery, 3rd Asst PMG OR 1913, 1915, 1917, 1919
                                                      Warren I. Glover, 3rd Asst PMG OR 1921
                                                      Robert S. Regar, Pennsylvania, 3rd Asst PMG OR 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928 recess appointment, 22 July 1925 nominated 15 Dec. 1925 SEJ v.64 p.176 confirmed 17 Dec. 1925 SEJ v.64 p.287
                                                      Appointment Clerk, Office of the PMG OR 1919, 1921
                                                      Frederic A. Tilton, Michigan, 3rd Asst PMG OR 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932 nominated [as Frederick A. Tilton] 11 June 1929 SEJ v.68 p.165 confirmed 13 June 1929 SEJ v.68 p.173-174 nominated and confirmed [correctly as Frederic A. Tilton] 19 June 1929 SEJ v.68 p.177,181
                                                      Clinton B. Eilenberger, Pennsylvania, 3rd Asst PMG OR 1933, 1934, 1936, 1937 GM 1935, 1936 nominated 11 Mar. 1933 SEJ v.74 p.11 confirmed 13 Mar. 1933 SEJ v.74 p.12-13 died in office
                                                      (vacancy), 3rd Asst PMG GM 1937
                                                      Ramsey S. Black, Pennsylvania, 3rd Asst PMG OR 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945 GM 1938 - 1945 (1st) nominated and confirmed 11 Jan. 1938 SEJ v.80 p.11-12
                                                      Joseph J. Lawler, Pennsylvania, 3rd Asst PMG OR 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949 GM 1945 (2nd) - 1949 nominated 3 May 1945 effective 6 May 1945 SEJ v.87 p.255 confirmed 15 May 1945 SEJ v.87 p.294
                                                      Osborne A. Pearson, California, Asst PMG, Bureau of Finance OR 1950, 1951, 1952 GM 1950, 1951, 1952 nominated 24 Feb. 1950 SEJ v.92 p.184 confirmed 17 Apr. 1950 SEJ v.92 p.330
                                                      filling vacancy caused by move of Burke to Deputy PMG
                                                      William J. Bray, Connecticut, Asst PMG, Bureau of Finance recess appointment, 9 Sep. 1952 [NYTimes] nominated 9 Jan. 1953 SEJ v.95 p.3 withdrawn 6 Mar. 1953 SEJ v.95 p.224 previously Secretary to the PMG see also, http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/stowebray.htm
                                                      Albert J. Robertson, Iowa, Asst PMG, Bureau of Finance OR 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956 GM 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956 nominated 4 Mar. 1953 SEJ v.95 p.211 confirmed 12 Mar. 1953 SEJ v.95 p.236
                                                      also, Controller GM 1955, 1956
                                                      Hyde Gillette, Illinois, Asst PMG, Bureau of Finance OR 1957, 1958, 1959 GM 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960 nominated 30 Jan. 1957 SEJ v.99 p.251 confirmed 27 Feb. 1957 SEJ v.99 p.328
                                                      also, Controller GM 1957, 1958
                                                      Ralph W. Nicholson, Asst PMG, Bureau of Finance GM 1961, 1962, 1963
                                                      Ralph W. Nicholson, Asst PMG, Bureau of Finance and Administration GM 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968
                                                      James W. Hargrove, Asst PMG, Bureau of Finance and Administration GM 1969, 1970

                                                      Estes G. Rathbone, Pennsylvania 4th Asst PMG OR 1891
                                                      Chief Post Office Inspector, OR 1889
                                                      Robert A. Maxwell, New York, 4th Asst PMG OR 1893, 1895
                                                      Joseph L. Bristow, Kentucky, 4th Asst PMG OR 1897, 1899, 1901, 1903
                                                      Peter V. De Graw, New Jersey, 4th Asst PMG OR 1905, 1907, 1909, 1911
                                                      James I. Blakslee, 4th Asst PMG OR 1913, 1915, 1917, 1919
                                                      Harry H. Billany, Delaware, 4th Asst PMG OR 1921, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928
                                                      John W. Philp, Texas, 4th Asst PMG OR 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932 nominated and confirmed 19 June 1929 SEJ v.68 p.180-181
                                                      Silliman Evans, Texas, 4th Asst PMG OR 1933 nominated 11 Mar. 1933 SEJ v.74 p.11 confirmed 13 Mar. 1933 SEJ v.74 p.12-13
                                                      Smith W. Purdum, Maryland, 4th Asst PMG OR 1934, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940 GM 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940 (Feb) nominated 12 June 1934 SEJ v.75 p.758 confirmed 14 June 1934 SEJ v.75 p.789 For Mr. O'Mahoney's remarks [Sen. Joseph C. O'Mahoney, Wyoming, Senate Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads, former 1st Asst PMG, bio], Congressional Record, p. 11462 (PDF).
                                                      Walter Myers, Indiana, 4th Asst PMG OR 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949 GM 1940 (July), 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949 nominated 31 May 1940 SEJ v.82 p.611 confirmed 5 June 1940 SEJ v.82 p.670
                                                      Walter Myers, Indiana, Asst PMG, Bureau of Facilities OR 1950, 1951, 1952 GM 1950, 1951, 1952
                                                      Ormonde A. Kieb, New Jersey, Asst PMG, Bureau of Facilities OR 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958 GM 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958 nominated 4 Mar. 1953 SEJ v.95 p.211 confirmed 13 Mar. 1953 SEJ v.95 p.236,239
                                                      Rollin D. Barnard, Colorado, Asst PMG, Bureau of Facilities OR 1959 GM 1959, 1960 nominated 4 Feb. 1959 SEJ v.101 p.232 delayed 9 Mar. 1959 SEJ v.101 p. 325 confirmed 11 Mar. 1959 SEJ v.101 p.330
                                                      Robert J. Burkhardt, Asst PMG, Bureau of Facilities GM 1961
                                                      Sidney W. Bishop, Asst PMG, Bureau of Facilities GM 1962, 1963
                                                      Tyler Abell, Asst PMG, Bureau of Facilities GM 1964, 1965, 1966
                                                      (vacancy), Asst PMG, Bureau of Facilities GM 1967
                                                      John L. O'Marra, Asst PMG, Bureau of Facilities GM 1968
                                                      Henry Lehne, Asst PMG, Bureau of Facilities GM 1969, 1970

                                                      Owen A. Keen, Chief Clerk GM 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940 (Feb)
                                                      Audus T. Davis, Asst Chief Clerk and Personnel Officer GM 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940 (Feb)
                                                      Frank H. Ellis, Chief Clerk and Director of Personnel GM 1940 (July), 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945
                                                      Harold W. Bresnahan, Asst Chief Clerk and Personnel Officer GM 1940 (July), 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945
                                                      Edgar B. Jackson, Chief Clerk and Director of Personnel GM 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953
                                                      Harold W. Bresnahan, Asst Chief Clerk and Asst Director of Personnel GM 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949
                                                      Eugene J. [James] Lyons, New Jersey, Asst PMG, Bureau of Personnel OR 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959 GM 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959 recess appointment nominated 11 Jan. 1954 SEJ v.96 p.5 confirmed 5 Feb. 1954 SEJ v.96 p.160
                                                      Frank E. Barr, Asst PMG, Bureau of Personnel GM 1960
                                                      Richard J. Murphy, Asst PMG, Bureau of Personnel GM 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968
                                                      Kenneth A. Housman, Asst PMG, Bureau of Personnel GM 1969, 1970

                                                      Clyde W. Gray, Director, Office of Research and Engineering GM 1957
                                                      Wade S. Plummer, Director, Office of Research and Engineering GM 1958 (acting), 1959, 1960
                                                      Edward E. Harriman, Director, Office of Research and Engineering GM 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
                                                      Leo S. Packer, Asst PMG, Bureau of Research and Engineering GM 1967, 1968
                                                      Harold F. Faught, Asst PMG, Bureau of Research and Engineering GM 1969, 1970

                                                      (vacancy), Director of Planning GM 1966
                                                      Ronald B. Lee, Director of Planning GM 1967, 1968
                                                      Ronald B. Lee, Asst PMG, Bureau of Planning and Marketing GM 1969, 1970

                                                      • A new position under the 1949 Reorganization Plan.
                                                      • to 2011, http://about.usps.com/who-we-are/postal-history/deputy-postmasters-general.pdf
                                                      • Vincent C. Burke, Kentucky
                                                        • previously, 1st Asst PMG
                                                        • nominated 12 Oct. 1949 SEJ v.91 p.1502 confirmed 18 Oct. 1949 SEJ v.91 p.1543
                                                        • 21 Oct. 1949 [PGR 1970]
                                                        • OR 1950, 1951, 1952
                                                        • GM 1950, 1951, 1952
                                                        • nominated 22 Jan. 1953 SEJ v.95 p.75 confirmed 29 Jan. 1953 SEJ v.95 p.119
                                                        • 20 Jan. 1953 [PGR 1970]
                                                        • OR 1953, 1954, 1955
                                                        • GM 1953, 1954, 1955
                                                        • recess appointment, 1 Oct. 1955 [PGR 1970]
                                                        • nominated 12 Jan. 1956 SEJ v.98 p.99 confirmed 16 Apr. 1956 SEJ v.98 p.499
                                                        • OR 1956, 1957
                                                        • GM 1956, 1957
                                                        • recess appointment, 19 Sep. 1957 [PGR 1970]
                                                        • nominated 13 Jan. 1958 SEJ v.100 p. 296 confirmed 23 Jan. 1958 SEJ v.100 p.362
                                                        • OR 1958, 1959
                                                        • GM 1958, 1959
                                                        • 23 Oct. 1959 [PGR 1970]
                                                        • GM 1960
                                                        • 25 Jan. 1961 [PGR 1970]
                                                        • GM 1961, 1962
                                                        • GM 1963
                                                        • 3 July 1963 [PGR 1970]
                                                        • 28 Feb. 1964 [PGR 1970]
                                                        • GM 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968
                                                        • b. 1908, former President and COO of American Can Company
                                                        • nominated 31 Jan. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.150] confirmed 7 Feb. 1969 [SEJ v.111 p.169]
                                                        • 7 Feb. 1969 [PGR 1970]
                                                        • GM 1969, 1970
                                                        • Kildroy P. Aldrich
                                                          • GM 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942
                                                          • GM 1943, 1944, 1945 (1st)
                                                          • later, PMG
                                                          • GM 1945 (2nd), 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949
                                                          • GM 1950, 1951, 1952
                                                          • 6 Feb. 1953 [PGR 1970]
                                                          • GM 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960
                                                          • 14 Feb. 1961 [PGR 1970]
                                                          • GM 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968
                                                          • 7 Apr. 1969 [PGR 1970]
                                                          • GM 1969, 1970
                                                          • Jesse M. Donaldson, Jr., Illinois, Asst Chief Post Office Inspector OR 1951, 1952
                                                          • Jesse M. Donaldson, Jr., Illinois, Asst Postal Inspector in Charge, Kansas City, Missouri OR 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959
                                                          • The Dept. of Justice assigned an Assistant Attorney General with responsibility for the Post Office Dept. the position was listed with both departments in the Official Register until 1921.
                                                          • The position of General Counsel in the Post Office Dept. was created by the Act of 31 July 1956.
                                                          • Thomas A. Spence, Maryland, appt. 20 Mar. 1873
                                                            • PG, 1875
                                                            • OR 1881, 1883
                                                            • OR 1885, 1887
                                                            • OR 1893, 1895
                                                            • OR 1889, 1891, 1897, 1899, 1901
                                                            • OR 1903
                                                            • OR 1905, 1907, 1909, 1911
                                                            • OR (Asst AG) 1913
                                                            • OR (Solicitor) 1915, 1917, 1919
                                                            • OR 1921
                                                            • OR 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932
                                                            • Assistant to the Solicitor, OR 1933
                                                            • OR 1933, 1934, 1936, 1937
                                                            • GM 1935, 1936, 1937
                                                            • OR 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946
                                                            • GM 1938 (10 Oct. 1938), 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946
                                                            • OR 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950
                                                            • GM 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950
                                                            • OR 1951, 1952
                                                            • GM 1951, 1952
                                                            • Associate Solicitor, GM 1949
                                                            • OR 1953
                                                            • GM 1953
                                                            • OR (Solicitor) 1954, 1955, 1956 (General Counsel) 1957
                                                            • GM (Solicitor) 1954, 1955, 1956 (General Counsel) 1957
                                                            • recess appointment
                                                            • nominated 14 Jan. 1957 SEJ v.99 p.4 confirmed 4 Feb. 1957 SEJ v.99 p.275
                                                            • OR 1958 (Acting), 1959
                                                            • GM 1958, 1959, 1960
                                                            • nominated 17 Mar. 1958 SEJ v.100 p.543 confirmed 22 May 1958 SEJ v.100 p.745
                                                            • GM 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965
                                                            • GM 1966, 1967, 1968
                                                            • GM 1969, 1970
                                                            • William E. Cochran, Pennsylvania
                                                              • OR 1905, 1907
                                                              • previously, Chief Post-Office Inspector, OR 1899, 1901, 1903
                                                              • OR 1909, 1911
                                                              • OR 1913, 1915, 1917, 1919
                                                              • OR 1921, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928
                                                              • previously, Chief Clerk, Division of Purchasing Agent OR 1919
                                                              • OR 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932
                                                              • nominated 11 June 1929 SEJ v.68 p.165 confirmed 13 June 1929 SEJ v.68 p.173-174
                                                              • OR 1933, 1934, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951
                                                              • GM 1935 - 1951
                                                              • appointed, term expiring 15 June 1937 nominated 8 June 1933 SEJ v.74 p.148 confirmed 10 June 1933 SEJ v.74 p.172
                                                              • appointed, term expiring 15 June 1941 nominated 10 May 1937 SEJ v.78 p.325 confirmed 12 May 1937 SEJ v.78 p.329-330
                                                              • appointed, term expiring 15 June 1945 nominated 22 Apr. 1941 SEJ v.83 p.176 confirmed 29 Apr. 1941 SEJ v.83 p.194
                                                              • appointed, term expiring 15 June 1949 nominated 17 Apr. 1945 SEJ v.87 p.201 confirmed 19 Apr. 1945 SEJ v.87 p.219
                                                              • reappointed nominated 18 May 1949 SEJ v.91 p.1099 confirmed 1 June 1949 SEJ v.91 p.1164
                                                              • OR 1952 GM 1952
                                                              • OR 1953

                                                              Frederick E. Batrus, Executive Assistant to the Deputy Postmaster General GM 1970
                                                              Paul N. Carlin, Executive Assistant to the Postmaster General for Congressional Affairs GM 1969, 1970
                                                              PMG, 1985


                                                              John Henninger Reagan

                                                              Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

                                                              John Henninger Reagan, (born October 8, 1818, Sevier County, Tennessee, U.S.—died March 6, 1905, Palestine, Texas), American congressman who was postmaster general of the Confederate States of America and later coauthor of the bill creating the U.S. Interstate Commerce Commission.

                                                              Reagan went to Texas in 1839 and fought against the Cherokees. He worked as a surveyor and studied law, and, by the time he was admitted to the bar in 1848, he had already served as a justice of the peace and a county judge. He quickly became one of the leading lawyers in Texas. In 1847 he won a seat in the state legislature, and in 1852 he was elected to a six-year term as district judge. In 1856 Reagan won a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives. He was reelected two years later, despite his denunciation of the position of proslavery extremists.

                                                              In 1861, however, Reagan became deeply involved in the secession movement. He was first elected to the Texas secession convention and then sent by that convention to the provisional Congress of the Confederacy. By March 1861 he was postmaster general of the Confederacy, a position he held until the Confederacy collapsed. A capable administrator, he kept the post office running efficiently and, during the last few weeks of the Civil War, also served as treasury secretary.

                                                              After the war, Reagan returned to his home in Palestine, Texas. During the following decade he became active in the railroad business and successfully sought a rail line to serve Palestine. In 1875 he returned to the U.S. House of Representatives, and he was reelected continuously thereafter. In 1887 he took a seat in the Senate. While in Congress he served on both the House and Senate commerce committees, and he cowrote the bill establishing the Interstate Commerce Commission.

                                                              In 1891 Reagan accepted appointment to the Texas Railroad Commission and served as its chairman from 1897 to 1903, when he retired from public life.

                                                              The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.


                                                              Timeline

                                                              1794 First letter carriers appointed by Congress

                                                              1863 Free city delivery instituted in large cities

                                                              1888 Eight-hour day law for carriers, championed by Congressman “Sunset Cox, enacted

                                                              1889 NALC founded in Milwaukee

                                                              1890 Carriers from large cities and NALC hold consolidation meeting in New York City first NALC Convention held in Boston, Massachusetts

                                                              1893 Supreme Court upholds NALC interpretation of Eight Hour Law in two decisions carriers eventually awarded $3.5 million in overtime claims

                                                              1894 Mutual Benefit Association established at NALC Convention in Detroit

                                                              1905 National Ladies Auxiliary founded at NALC Convention in Portland, Oregon

                                                              1912 Lloyd-LaFollette Act rescinds Gag rules, and gives postal and federal workers right to organize

                                                              1917 NALC affiliates with American Federation of Labor women hired as temporary letter carriers as men went to war

                                                              1921 Postmaster General Will B. Hays announces “humanization” policy and officially recognizes postal organizations

                                                              1939 Golden Jubilee Convention marks NALC’s first 50 years–gold card for 50-year members established

                                                              1960 NALC Health Benefit Plan began operation

                                                              1962 Executive Order 10988 issued NALC wins right to represent city delivery carriers in nationwide representation elections

                                                              1964 NALCREST retirement community for letter carriers dedicated

                                                              1970 National wildcat strike Postal Reorganization Act passed

                                                              1972 Membership gains power to elect national officers directly

                                                              1982 Fair Labor Standards Act litigation settled Joint NALCUSPS Employee Involvement Process established

                                                              1984 Arbitration panel determines terms of a National Agreement for the first time

                                                              1989 Union celebrates its 100th anniversary in Milwaukee where it was founded

                                                              1992 NALC, USPS and other organizations sign Joint Statement on Violence and Behavior in the Workplace

                                                              1993 Hatch Act Reform expands political rights for carriers, other postal and federal employees.

                                                              1999 Arbitrators elevate letter carriers to Grade 6, breaking historic link with postal clerks

                                                              2006 Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act signed into law

                                                              2007 Restrictions on subcontracting letter carrier work contained in new National Agreement

                                                              2013 Arbitration panel resolves 2011-2016 contract, creating city carrier assistant position with a path to a career position


                                                              Watch the video: Kapitel 2 - Die DDR - Probleme einer Gesellschaftsgeschichte (July 2022).


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