Battle of Karasaki Beach, October 1331

Battle of Karasaki Beach, October 1331

Battle of Karasaki Beach, October 1331

The battle of Karasaki Beach (October 1331) was the first battle of the Genko War (1331-33), and saw the Monastic supports of the Emperor Go-Daigo defeat a cavalry force sent to capture him.

Since coming to the throne in 1318 the Emperor Go-Daigo had prepared to make an attempt to overthrown the Kamakura Shogunate and restore direct Imperial rule. During 1331 the agents of the Shogunate discovered part of this plan, and in late September the Bakufu (a term for the collective officials of the Shogun) dispatched two officials to Kyoto, where they were to take the Emperor into exile and kill Prince Morinaga, his most able son, and an abbot of the Buddhist monastery of Enryaku-ji on Mount Hiei (home of a powerful force of warrior monks).

News of this plan reached the Prince, who passed the news to his father and suggested a way to take advantage of the situation. While the Emperor himself escaped in secret one of his officials, dressed in the Imperial costume and using the Imperial litter, would leave the city very publicly and head towards the monastic complex on Mount Hiei. The Prince hoped that the Bakufu would respond by sending an army to try and capture the Emperor, a move that would almost inevitably trigger a battle between the troops of the Shogunate and the monks.

The Prince's plan was partially successful. In early October 1331 the Emperor escaped from Kyoto and headed south towards the southern capital at Nara. In the meantime Lord Morokata, one of the Emperor's senior advisors, put on the imperial dragon robes and made his way to the Western Pagoda cloister on Mount Hiei. The fake imperial party then announced their presence, and announced that the Emperor had entrusted himself to the temple. A sizable army soon assembled at Mount Hiei, made up partly of warrior monks from the temple and partly of warriors from the surrounding areas. Prince Morinaga was also present, (although only commanded part of the Imperial army) as was one of his brothers.

Not everyone at Hiei supported the Emperor. One monastic official, Jorimbo, sent a message to the Rokuhara informing them that the Emperor had reached the monastery, had the support of 3,000 monks and was planning to attack Rokuhara. Jorimbo suggested that the Bakufu should send a force to the eastern slopes of Mount Hiei to attack the Emperor's supporters. He would then attack from behind, trapping the Imperial supporters between two armies.

After checking the palace to see if the Emperor had indeed fled, the Rokuhara decided to send two columns towards Mount Hiei. According to our main primary source, the Taiheiki, the Bakufu sent 5,000 horsemen to attack Mount Hiei from the south, going via Sagarimatsu and Mount Seki, and another 7,000 horsemen who would advance further east, towards Otsu, the western shores of Lake Biwa, and then north up the coast towards Karasaki, east of Mount Hiei. According to the same source the Imperial loyalists had 6,000 cavalry who had gathered at Mount Hiei overnight and the 3,000 monks.

The battle began when the Imperial troops at Sakamoto, east of Mount Hiei, detected the Bakufu force advancing towards Karasaki. A small force of 300 monks rushed down to the beach to confront the advancing cavalry. Although the monks were badly outnumbered, they were handed an early success when one of the Bakufu commanders, Kaito Sakon Shogen, decided to try and defeat the monks before reinforcements arrived. He charged into the small force of monks but was killed by Kaijitsu of Harima, one of the monks. In the aftermath of this fight Kaito's young son attempted to avenge his father. Kaijitsu attempted to capture him alive, but the son was killed by reinforcements. Kaito's thirty-six close retainers then charged into the fray, hoping to be killed, but they were forced away.

More men were now fed into the battle. Three hundred Bakufu cavalry attacked the monks, who were reinforced by fifty fresh men. The battle took place on a narrow road between the beach and some rice fields, so the Bakufu forces were unable to take advantage of their numbers.

The main Imperial forces now began to move. Some men got into boats to the north of Karasaki and attempted to reach Otsu, behind the Bakufu force. Prince Morinaga advanced with his 3,000 men and another 7,000 monks came down from the main cloister on Mount Hiei.

Facing with the prospect of being surrounded, the Bakufu forces decided to retreat. They were harassed by archers while they pulled back, and a significant number of important retainers were killed.

In the aftermath of the fighting the monks discovered the ruse that the Emperor had used to escape from Kyoto. The monks of the main cloister demanded that the Emperor move there from the West Pagoda. The monks of the West Pagoda agreed, but when they went to inform the Emperor they discovered Morokata in his place. This discovery greatly discouraged the monks and encouraged the supports of the Bakufu in the monastery. The Princes and the main Imperial advisors soon felt endangered and fled from the area. The Princes soon split up and headed into different areas. Prince Morinaga went on to play a major part in keeping his father's cause alive over the next two years.

The defeat of the Bakufu forces at Karasaki did have some long term impact, encouraging the monks at Kasagi to support the Emperor, as did a number of warriors from nearby provinces. This force wasn't enough to successfully defend Kasagi against the inevitable siege, but it did show that the Emperor had support.

Black Death

The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague pandemic occurring in Afro-Eurasia from 1346 to 1353. [a] It is the most fatal pandemic recorded in human history, causing the death of 75–200 million people in Eurasia and North Africa, peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351. [1] [2] Bubonic plague is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, but it may also cause septicaemic or pneumonic plagues. [3] [4]

The Black Death was the beginning of the second plague pandemic. [5] The plague created religious, social and economic upheavals, with profound effects on the course of European history.

The origin of the Black Death is disputed. The pandemic originated either in Central Asia or East Asia but its first definitive appearance was in Crimea in 1347. [6] From Crimea, it was most likely carried by fleas living on the black rats that travelled on Genoese slave ships, spreading through the Mediterranean Basin and reaching Africa, Western Asia and the rest of Europe via Constantinople, Sicily and the Italian Peninsula. There is evidence that once it came ashore, the Black Death was in large part spread by fleas – which cause pneumonic plague – and the person-to-person contact via aerosols which pneumonic plague enables, thus explaining the very fast inland spread of the epidemic, which was faster than would be expected if the primary vector was rat fleas causing bubonic plague. [7]

The Black Death was the second great natural disaster to strike Europe during the Late Middle Ages (the first one being the Great Famine of 1315–1317) and is estimated to have killed 30 percent to 60 percent of the European population. [8] [9] [10] The plague might have reduced the world population from c. 475 million to 350–375 million in the 14th century. [11] There were further outbreaks throughout the Late Middle Ages and, with other contributing factors (the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages), the European population did not regain its level in 1300 until 1500. [b] [12] Outbreaks of the plague recurred around the world until the early 19th century.

Taran Alexander the Great

The Hundred Days Offensive (WW1/Great War) was the largest and costliest uninterrupted moment of conflict in human history.

It has become the (somewhat) consensus view among historians and laymen alike, that Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943), fought between the Soviet Red Army and German Wehrmacht (and allies) for control over the city of Stalingrad in southern Russia during World War II, is the largest example of uninterrupted conflict in history. While Stalingrad was horrendously lethal, the scale of a battle is most commonly measured by the combined number of casualties (dead, wounded, missing, captured) each combatant sustains during the course of the single confrontation. When discussing battles that took place at such an immense scale, small numerical differences in the ultimate outcome tend to be of less importance than the rate at which said casualties occurred.

When attempting to determine the largest battle of all time, the unequaled colossal scales of military operations seen during both World War 1 (The Great War) and World War 2, narrow the debate to a battle that occurred during one of these massive wars. While, Stalingrad is undoubtedly the largest battle of World War 2, a war that took place on a scale even greater than that of its predecessor, it is not a large leap to assume that Stalingrad must have dwarfed any other uninterrupted battle in a similar fashion. However, after examining the numbers, this just doesn’t seem to be the case.

Using the combined casualty numbers offered by Wikipedia*, we can place the number of combined casualties at Stalingrad at 1,857,619. Furthermore, with the battle beginning on 23 August 1942 and concluding on 2 February 1943, the combined casualty rate for both sides was approximately 11,610 casualties per day.

Now to compare those numbers to largest battle of World War 1. The Hundred Days Offensive, which although was not technically a single battle, it was an uninterrupted moment of vicious conflict over a limited area of land. With the simultaneous offensives of the allied Entente forces along the same vulnerable sections of the Western Front, as a response devastating, yet ultimately failed last-ditch German Spring Offensive of 1918. The battle lasted from 8 August to 11 November 1918, ending with the official surrender of the German Empire, and the conclusion of the Great War. The combined number of casualties suffered by both sides was a staggering 2,242,075 total casualties, or a unnerving 21,768 casualties every day, for over 100 days straight.

Some other massive battles:
Battle of the Somme (WW1)
British Empire, France v. German Empire
1 July – 18 November 1916
1,223,907 total casualties
8,868 casualties per day
Battle of Moscow (WW2)
Nazi Germany v. Soviet Union
2 October 1941 – 7 January 1942

1,000,000 total casualties
10,309 casualties per day
Spring Offensive/Kaiserschlacht (WW1)
German Empire v. France, British Empire, United States, Italy, Portugal
21 March – 18 July 1918
1,544,715 total casualties
13,090 casualties per day
Battle of Berlin (WW2)
Soviet Union v. Nazi Germany
16 April – 2 May 1945
1,153,367 total casualties
72,085 casualties per day
Brusilov Offensive (WW1)
Russian Empire v. Austro-Hungarian Empire, German Empire, Ottoman Empire
4 June – 20 September 1916

1,800,000 total casualties
16,981 casualties per day
Operation Ichi-Go (WW2)
Empire of Japan v. China, United States
19 April – 31 December 1944

1,150,000 total casualties
4,510 casualties per day
Battle of Verdun (WW1)
German Empire v. France
21 February – 18 December 1916
976,000 total casualties
3,264 casualties per day
Battle of Passchendaele (WW1)
British Empire, France, Belgium v. German Empire
31 July – 10 November 1917
868,614 total casualties
8686 casualties per day

Historical Events on November 30

German Beer Purity Law

1487 The first German Beer Purity Law (Reinheitsgebot), is promulgated in Munich by Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria stating beer should be brewed from only three ingredients – water, malt and hops

    Amsterdam bans assembly of heretics England reconciles with Pope Julius III 16,000 inhabitants of Venice died this month of plague

Victory in Battle

1648 English Parliamentary army captures King Charles I

Victory in Battle

1700 Battle at Narva: Swedish force of King Charles XII defeats Russian army [NS]

    Utrecht, Overijssel, Buren, Leerdam and IJsselstein go on Gregoria calendar Beijing hit by an earthquake about 100,000 die States of Holland forbid Free Masonry Dutch State of Zealand declare governorship hereditary for women

Event of Interest

1753 Benjamin Franklin receives the Godfrey Copley medal "on account of his curious Experiments and Observations on Electricity"

Event of Interest

1776 Captain James Cook begins 3rd and last trip to the Pacific

Event of Interest

1786 Grand Duke of Tuscany Leopold II promulgates a penal reform, making his the 1st state to abolish the death penalty. November 30 commemorated as Cities for Life Day.

    Spanish governor leaves the Philippines Spain cedes her claims to Louisiana Territory to France Impeachment trial of Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase begins Prince Willem Frederik returns to Netherlands First ground is broken at Allenburg for the building of the original Welland Canal First Welland Canal opens for a trial run, 5 years to the day from the groundbreaking Mexico declares war on France Harper's Weekly publishes EE Beers' "All quiet along the Potomac" Confederate troops vacate Fort Esperanza, Texas Battle of Franklin, Tennessee: Confederate attack fails, 7,700 casualties Battle of Honey Hill, South Carolina (Broad River) 96 dead, 665 wounded Work begins on 1st US underwater highway tunnel in Chicago The inauguration of a statue of King Charles XII of Sweden takes place in the King's garden in Stockholm First international soccer game, Scotland draws with England (0-0) in Glasgow

Event of Interest

1876 Archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann finds the gold Mask of Agamemnon at Mycenae (modern Greece) "the Mona Lisa of prehistory" [1]

Catholic Encyclical

1891 Pope Leo XIII's encyclical "Rerum novarum" published

    A German engineer patents front-wheel drive for automobiles The First Isthmian Canal Commission, appointed by the President having examined possible routes for a canal, issues its report favoring that through Nicaragua over the Panama route American Old West: Second-in-command of Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch gang Kid Curry Logan sentenced to 20 years imprisonment with hard labor Pike Place Market dedicated in Seattle The US Secretary of State and Japan's ambassador to the US exchange notes in what becomes known as the Root-Takahira Agreement: they affirm support for an independent China with an 'open door' policy and for the status quo in the Pacific International Lawn Tennis Challenge, Melbourne, Australia: Anthony Wilding representing Australasia beats American Fred Alexander 6-3, 6-4, 6-1 to give defending champions a 3-2 victory

Event of Interest

1909 British House of Lords rejects David Lloyd George's 'People's Budget', which tried to shift tax burden to the wealthy. Leads to the Parliament Act intent to stop unelected house overruling will of the elected house.

    CFL Grey Cup, AAA Grounds, Hamilton: Hamilton Alerts win their only title beat Toronto Argonauts, 11-4 International Lawn Tennis Challenge, Melbourne, Australia: James Cecil Parke beats Rodney Heaths 6-3, 6-4, 6-4 to give British Isles 3-2 victory over defending champions Australasia St John Ervine's "John Ferguson" premieres in Dublin Costa Rica becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty. 1st speed test of 1st genuine Japanese aircraft carrier Hosho

Event of Interest

1922 Hitler speaks to 50,000 national-socialists in Munich

    Dutch Catholic minority government of Wilhelm Marx forms National Football League Championship: Cleveland Bulldogs (7-1-1) [formerly Canton] win first past the post title 1st photo facsimile transmitted across Atlantic by radio (London-NYC)

Event of Interest

1928 Australian cricket legend Don Bradman makes an inauspicious Test debut scores 18 & 1 vs England in 1st Test in Brisbane dropped to 12th man for 2nd Test

Historic Invention

1928 Vladimir K. Zworykin receives patent on Iconoscope TV system

    CFL Grey Cup, AAA Grounds, Hamilton: Hamilton Tigers take their 4th title beat Regina Roughriders, 14-3 His Master's Voice and Columbia Records merge into EMI CCC Camps are established in Cleveland Park District London's Crystal Palace (built 1851) destroyed by fire 3rd Heisman Trophy Award: Clint Frank, Yale (HB) Fascist coup in Romania fails Germany bans Jews being lawyers Paul Osborn's "Mornings at 7" premieres in NYC USSR invades Finland, bombs Helsinki CFL Grey Cup (Game 1), Varsity Stadium, Toronto: Ottawa beats Toronto Balmy Beach, 8-2 101 year old Nyack-Tarrytown (NY) ferry makes its last run

Event of Interest

1941 Japanese Emperor Hirohito consults with admirals Shimada and Nagano

    U-boats sink and damage 142 allied ships this month (877,774 tons) -Dec 1st: Sea battle at Tassafaronga, Guadalcanal Bill Terry resigns as supervisor of NY Giants minor league system German supply vessel Uckermark (formerly called the Altmark) explodes & sinks off Yokohama Biggest & last British battleship HMS Vanguard launched

Election of Interest

1949 New Zealand general election won by Sidney Holland's National party, ousting Peter Fraser's Labour government

    Chinese Communists captured Chungking KOTV TV channel 6 in Tulsa, OK (CBS) begins broadcasting US President Harry Truman threatens China with atom bomb

Event of Interest

1952 Jackie Robinson accuses the NY Yankees of racial bias on national television

    French parachutist under Colonel De Castries attacks Dien Bien Phu Edward Mutesa II, kabaka (king) of Buganda is deposed and exiled to London by Sir Andrew Cohen, Governor of Uganda Ann Hodges is bruised by a meteor at Sylacauga, Alabama in first modern instance of a meteorite striking a human 20th Heisman Trophy Award: Alan Ameche, Wisconsin (FB) John Strydom succeeds D. F. Malan as premier of South Africa "Pipe Dream" opens at Shubert Theater NYC for 245 performances Argentine government disbands Peronistic party 1st use of videotape on TV (Douglas Edwards & the News)

Boxing Title Fight

1956 At 21 years, 10 months, 3 weeks, 5 days Floyd Patterson becomes youngest world heavyweight boxing champion KOs Archie Moore in 5th round in Chicago first Olympic gold medalist to win a professional heavyweight title

    Australian Betty Cuthbert takes Olympic sprint double when she runs OR equalling 23.4s to win the 200m gold medal at the Melbourne Games beats Christa Stubnick in repeat of 100m final 4 days earlier Milt Campbell sets Olympic record total of 7,937 points to upset fellow American and world record holder Rafer Johnson, and win the decathlon gold medal at the Melbourne Games Jon Henricks swims world record 55.4 to win the men's 100m at the Melbourne Olympics rare Australian 1-2-3 with John Devitt and Gary Chapman taking the minor medals Gert Fredriksson of Sweden wins his 2nd straight K-1 10,000m canoeing gold medal at the Melbourne Olympics last time event held in the Summer Olympics also wins 3rd consecutive K-1 1,000m gold "Happy Hunting" closes at Majestic Theater NYC after 413 performances CFL Grey Cup, Varsity Stadium, Toronto: Hamilton Tiger-Cats take out their 2nd title beat Winnipeg Blue Bombers, 32-7

Assassination Attempt

1957 Assassination attempt on Indonesian President Sukarno, kills 8

    1st US guided missile destroyer launched - the Dewey at Bath Iron Works, Maine WKBW TV channel 7 in Buffalo, NY (ABC) begins broadcasting Joe Foss named 1st commissioner of AFL 1960 NFL Draft: Billy Cannon from LSU first pick by Los Angeles Rams French Senate condemns building own nuclear weapons Tad Mosels "All the Way Home" premieres in NYC Billy Williams of the Cubs is voted NL Rookie of Year USSR vetoes Kuwaits application for UN membership U Thant of Burma becomes the 3rd Secretary-General of the United Nations CFL Grey Cup, Empire Stadium, Vancouver: Hamilton Tiger-Cats defeat BC Lions, 21-10 features controversial sequence involving American players Angelo Mosca and Willie Fleming Martin Walser's "Überlebensgross Herr Krott" premieres in Stuttgart USSR launches Zond 2 towards Mars no data returned Barbados gains independence from Great Britain (National Day)

Event of Interest

1967 Senator Eugene McCarthy announces he will run for the US presidency on an anti-Vietnam war platform

    The Pakistan Peoples Party is founded by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto who becomes its first Chairman later as the Head of state and Head of government after the 1971 Civil War CFL Grey Cup, CNE Stadium, Toronto: Ottawa Rough Riders defeat Calgary Stampeder, 24-21 MVP Vic Washington's 79-yard TD run remains a Grey Cup record

Event of Interest

1968 A Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association march in Armagh is stopped by Royal Ulster Constabulary because of the presence of a Loyalist counter demonstration led by Ian Paisley and Ronald Bunting

    CFL Grey Cup, Autostade, Montreal: Ottawa Rough Riders defeat Saskatchewan Roughriders, 29-11 first Grey Cup game played in its entirety on a Sunday USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR The government of the Republic of Ireland states that it will take the allegations of brutality against the security forces in Northern Ireland to the European Court of Human Rights

Television Premiere

1971 Emmy and Peabody Award winning TV movie "Brian's Song", about the friendship of Chicago Bears football teammates Brian Piccolo and Gale Sayers (based on Sayers' autobiography) premieres on ABC, starring James Caan and Billie Dee Williams

    BBC bans Wings' "Hi, Hi, Hi" Illegal fireworks factory explodes killing 15 in Rome, Italy M T Ghani scores 104 on FC debut for Commerce Bank (Pak) age 44 Firestone Professional Bowling World Tournament of Champions won by Jim Godman "Good Evening" closes at Plymouth Theater NYC after 438 performances "Mack & Mabel" closes at Majestic Theater NYC after 66 performances 20th time Islanders shut-out (3-0 vs Canucks) Dahomey renamed People's Republic of Benin

Event of Interest

1979 Pink Floyd's "The Wall" released, sells 6 million copies in 2 weeks

    Ted Koppel becomes anchor of nightly news on Iran Hostages (ABC) USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR "Banjo Dancing" closes at Century Theater NYC after 38 performances "Perfectly Frank" opens at Helen Hayes Theater NYC for 16 performances "West Side Story" closes at Minskoff Theater NYC after 341 performances Uruguay's new constitution rejected by referendum

Event of Interest

1981 NY Yankee Dave Righetti wins AL Rookie of Year Award

    Porn star John Holmes arrested on fugitive charges South Africa anti-apartheid advocate Bulelani Ngcuka arrested Cold War: In Geneva, representatives from the United States and the Soviet Union begin to negotiate intermediate-range nuclear weapon reductions in Europe (the meetings ended inconclusively on December 17) STS-6 vehicle moves to launch pad US submarine Thomas Edison collides with US Navy destroyer in South China Sea USSR performs nuclear test

Album Release

1982 "Thriller", 6th studio album by Michael Jackson is released (Grammy Award Album of the Year 1984, best-selling album of all time, Billboard Album of the Year 1983)

Film Premier

1982 "Gandhi" directed by Richard Attenborough and starring Ben Kingsley and John Gielgud premieres in New Delhi (Best Picture 1983)


The Champlain Valley is the northernmost unit of a landform system known as the Great Appalachian Valley, which stretches between Quebec, Canada, to the north, and Alabama, US, to the south. The Champlain Valley is a physiographic section of the larger Saint Lawrence Valley, which in turn is part of the larger Appalachian physiographic division. [5]

Lake Champlain is one of numerous large lakes scattered in an arc through Labrador, in Canada, the northern United States, and the Northwest Territories of Canada. It is the thirteenth largest lake by area in the US. Approximately 490 square miles (1,269 km 2 ) in area, the lake is 107 miles (172 km) long and 14 miles (23 km) across at its widest point, [1] and has a maximum depth of approximately 400 feet (120 m). The lake varies seasonally from about 95 to 100 ft (29 to 30 m) above mean sea level. [6]

Lake Champlain has been described as the sixth largest lake in the United States. [7] [8] [9] [10] The Wikipedia articles List of largest lakes of the United States by area and List of largest lakes of the United States by volume list it as the 13th-largest lake by area and the 14th-largest by volume. While the source of the claim that Lake Champlain is the sixth-largest lake in the United States is unclear, it possible to recreate the sixth-place ranking by omitting the two larger man-made lakes, Lake Oahe and Lake Sakakawea the two larger non-freshwater lakes, Great Salt Lake and Lake Pontchartrain Iliamna Lake in Alaska Lake of the Woods, which extends into Canada and Lake Okeechobee, which has much lower volume.

Hydrology Edit

Lake Champlain is in the Lake Champlain Valley between the Green Mountains of Vermont and the Adirondack Mountains of New York, drained northward by the 106-mile-long (171 km) Richelieu River into the St. Lawrence River at Sorel-Tracy, Quebec, northeast and downstream of Montreal, Quebec. It also receives the waters from the 32-mile-long (51 km) Lake George, so its basin collects waters from the northwestern slopes of the Green Mountains and the northernmost eastern peaks of the Adirondack Mountains.

Lake Champlain drains nearly half of Vermont, and approximately 250,000 people get their drinking water from the lake. [11]

The lake is fed in Vermont by the LaPlatte, Lamoille, Missisquoi, Poultney, and Winooski rivers, along with Lewis Creek, Little Otter Creek, and Otter Creek. [12] In New York, it is fed by the Ausable, Boquet, Great Chazy, La Chute, Little Ausable, Little Chazy, Salmon, and Saranac rivers, along with Putnam Creek. In Quebec, it is fed by the Pike River.

It is connected to the Hudson River by the Champlain Canal.

Parts of the lake freeze each winter, and in some winters the entire lake surface freezes, referred to as "closing". [13] In July and August, the lake temperature reaches an average of 70 °F (21 °C). [14] [15]

Chazy Reef Edit

The Chazy Reef is an extensive Ordovician carbonate rock formation that extends from Tennessee to Quebec and Newfoundland. It occurs in prominent outcropping at Goodsell Ridge, Isle La Motte, the northernmost island in Lake Champlain. [ citation needed ]

The oldest reefs are around "The Head" of the south end of the island slightly younger reefs are found at the Fisk Quarry, and the youngest (the famous coral reefs) are in fields to the north. [16] Together, these three sites provide a unique narrative of events that took place over 450 million years ago in the ocean in the Southern Hemisphere, long before Lake Champlain's emergence 20,000 years ago. [ citation needed ]

The lake has long acted as a border between indigenous nations much as it is today between the states of New York and Vermont. The lake is located at the frontier between Abenaki and Mohawk (Iroquois Confederacy) traditional territories. The official toponym for the lake according to the orthography established by the Grand Council of Wanab-aki Nation is Pitawbagok (alternative orthographies include Petonbowk [17] and Bitawbagok [18] ), meaning 'middle lake', 'lake in between' or 'double lake'.

The Mohawk name in modern orthography as standardized in 1993 is Kaniatarakwà:ronte, meaning "a bulged lake" or “lake with a bulge in it". [19] [20] An alternate name is Kaniá:tare tsi kahnhokà:ronte (phonetic English spelling Caniaderi Guarunte [21] ), meaning 'door of the country' or 'lake to the country'. The lake is an important eastern gateway to Iroquois Confederacy lands.

The lake was named after the French explorer Samuel de Champlain, who encountered it in July 1609. [4] While the ports of Burlington, Vermont, Port Henry, New York, and Plattsburgh, New York today are primarily used by small craft, ferries, and lake cruise ships, they were of substantial commercial and military importance in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Colonial America and the Revolutionary War Edit

New France allocated concessions all along lake Champlain to French settlers and built forts to defend the waterways. In colonial times, Lake Champlain was used as a water (or, in winter, ice) passage between the Saint Lawrence and Hudson valleys. Travelers found it easier to journey by boats and sledges on the lake rather than go overland on unpaved and frequently mud-bound roads. The lake's northern tip at Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec (known as St. John in colonial times under British rule), is a short distance from Montreal, Quebec. The southern tip at Whitehall (Skenesborough in revolutionary times) is a short distance from Saratoga, Glens Falls, and Albany, New York.

Forts were built at Ticonderoga and Crown Point (Fort St. Frederic) to control passage on the lake in colonial times. Important battles were fought at Ticonderoga in 1758 and 1775. During the Revolutionary War, the British and Americans conducted a frenetic shipbuilding race through the spring and summer of 1776, at opposite ends of the lake, and fought a significant naval engagement on October 11 at the Battle of Valcour Island. While it was a tactical defeat for the Americans, and the small fleet led by Benedict Arnold was almost destroyed, the Americans gained a strategic victory the British invasion was delayed long enough so the approach of winter prevented the fall of these forts until the following year. In this period, the Continental Army gained strength and was victorious at Saratoga.

Beginning of the Revolutionary War Edit

At the start of the Revolutionary War, British forces occupied the Champlain Valley. [22] However, it did not take long for rebel leaders to realize the importance of controlling Lake Champlain. Early in the war, the colonial militias attempted to expel the British from Boston however, this undertaking could not be achieved without heavy artillery. [23] The British forts at Ticonderoga and Crown Point, on Lake Champlain, were known to have ample supplies of artillery and were weakly manned by the British. Thus, the colonial militias devised a plan to take control of the two forts and bring the guns back to the fight in Boston. [23]

The necessity of controlling the two forts at Ticonderoga and Crown Point placed Lake Champlain as a strategic arena during the Revolutionary War. By taking control of these forts, Americans not only gained heavy artillery, but control of a vast water highway, as well: Lake Champlain provided a direct invasion route to British Canada. However, had the British controlled the lake, they could have divided the colonies of New England and further depleted the Continental Army.

The Continental Army's first offensive action took place in May 1775, three weeks after the Battles of Lexington and Concord. [24] Ethan Allen, accompanied by 200 Green Mountain Boys, was ordered to capture Fort Ticonderoga and retrieve supplies for the fight in Boston. Benedict Arnold shared the command with Allen, and in early May 1775, they captured Fort Ticonderoga, Crown Point, and the southern Loyalist settlement of Skenesborough. [24] As a result of Allen's offensive attack on the Champlain Valley in 1775, the American forces controlled the Lake Champlain waterway.

Siege of Quebec: 1775–1776 Edit

The Continental Army realized the strategic advantage of controlling Lake Champlain, as it leads directly to the heart of Quebec. [25] Immediately after taking Forts Ticonderoga and Crown Point, the Americans began planning an attack on British Canada. The American siege of Quebec was a two-pronged assault and occurred throughout the winter of 1775–1776. [26] Brigadier General Richard Montgomery led the first assault up the Champlain Valley into Canada, while Benedict Arnold led a second army to Quebec via the Maine wilderness. [26]

Despite the strategic advantage of controlling a direct route to Quebec by way of the Champlain Valley, the American siege of British Canada during the winter of 1775 failed. The Continental Army mistakenly assumed they would receive support from the Canadians upon their arrival at Quebec. This was not the case, and the rebel army struggled to take Quebec with diminishing supplies, support, and harsh northern winter weather. [27]

The Continental Army was forced to camp outside Quebec's walls for the winter, with reinforcements from New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Connecticut allowing the soldiers to maintain their siege of the city. [28] The reinforcements traveled hundreds of miles (kilometres) up the frozen Lake Champlain and St. Lawrence River, but were too late and too few to influence a successful siege of Quebec. In May 1776, with the arrival of a British convoy carrying 10,000 British and Hessian troops to Canada, the Continental forces retreated back down the Champlain Valley to reevaluate their strategy. [29]

"I know of no better method than to secure the important posts of Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and by building a number of armed vessels to command the lakes, otherwise the forces now in Canada will be brought down upon us as quick as possible, having nothing to oppose them… They will doubtless try to construct some armed vessels and then endeavor to penetrate the country toward New York." (Brigadier General John Sullivan to George Washington, June 24, 1776). [24]

Both British and American forces spent the summer of 1776 building their naval fleets, at opposite ends of Lake Champlain. [28] By the October 1776, the Continental Army had 16 operating naval vessels on Lake Champlain, a great increase to the four small ships they had at the beginning of the summer. [24] General Benedict Arnold commanded the American naval fleet on Lake Champlain, which was composed of volunteers and soldiers drafted from the Northern Army. With great contrast to the Continental navy, experienced Royal Navy officers, British seamen, and Hessian artillerymen manned the British fleet on Lake Champlain. [24] By the end of the summer of 1776, the opposing armies were prepared to battle over the strategic advantage of controlling Lake Champlain.

Battle of Valcour Island Edit

On October 11, 1776, the British and American naval fleets met on the western side of Valcour Island, on Lake Champlain. [23] American General Benedict Arnold established the location, as it provided the Continental fleet with a natural defensive position. The British and American vessels engaged in combat for much of the day, only stopping due to the impending nightfall. [24]

After a long day of combat, the American fleet was in worse shape than the experienced British Navy. Upon ceasefire, Arnold called a council of war with his fellow officers, proposing to escape the British fleet via rowboats under the cover of night. As the British burned Arnold's flagship, the Royal Savage, to the east, the Americans rowed past the British lines. [30]

The following morning, the British learned of the Americans' escape and set out after the fleeing Continental vessels. On October 13, the British fleet caught up to the struggling American ships near Split Rock Mountain. [30] With no hope of fighting off the powerful British navy, Arnold ordered his men to run their five vessels aground in Ferris Bay, Panton, Vermont. The depleted Continental army escaped on land back to Fort Ticonderoga and Mount Independence however, they no longer controlled the Lake Champlain waterway. [30]

The approaching winter of 1776–1777 restricted British movement along the recently controlled Lake Champlain. As the British abandoned Crown Point and returned to Canada for the winter, the Americans reduced their garrisons in the Champlain Valley from 13,000 to 2,500 soldiers. [24]

General Burgoyne’s Campaign Edit

In early 1777, British General John Burgoyne led 8,000 troops from Canada, down Lake Champlain, and into the Champlain Valley. [29] The goal of this invasion was to divide the New England colonies, thus forcing the Continental Army into a separated fight on multiple fronts. [31] Lake Champlain provided Burgoyne with protected passage deep into the American colonies. Burgoyne's army reached Fort Ticonderoga and Mount Independence in late June 1777. During the night of July 5, the American forces fled Ticonderoga as the British took control of the fort. However, Burgoyne's southern campaign did not go uncontested.

On October 7, 1777, American General Horatio Gates, who occupied Bemis Heights, met Burgoyne's army at the Second Battle of Freeman's Farm. [31] At Freeman's Farm, Burgoyne's army suffered its final defeat and ended their invasion south into the colonies. Ten days later, on October 17, 1777, British General Burgoyne surrendered his army at Saratoga. [31] This defeat was instrumental to the momentum of the Revolutionary War, as the defeat of the British army along the Champlain-Hudson waterway convinced France to ally with the American army. [24]

Aftermath of 1777 Edit

Following the failed British campaign led by General Burgoyne, the British still maintained control over the Champlain waterway for the duration of the Revolutionary War. [24] The British used the Champlain waterway to supply raids across the Champlain Valley from 1778 to 1780, and Lake Champlain permitted direct transportation of supplies from the British posts at the northern end of the lake.

With the end of the Revolutionary War in 1783, the British naval fleet on Lake Champlain retreated up to St. John's. [24] However, British troops garrisoned at Fort Dutchman's Point (North Hero, Vermont) and Fort au Fer (Champlain, New York) on Lake Champlain, did not leave until the 1796 Jay Treaty. [32] [33]

Post-Revolutionary War period Edit

Eager to take back control of Lake Champlain following the end of the Revolutionary War, Americans flocked to settle the Champlain Valley. Many individuals emigrated from Massachusetts and other New England colonies, such as Salmon Dutton, a settler of Cavendish, Vermont. [34] Dutton emigrated in 1782 and worked as a surveyor, town official, and toll road owner. His home had a dooryard garden, typical of mid-19th century New England village homes, [34] and his experience settling in the Champlain Valley depicts the industries and lifestyles surrounding Lake Champlain following the Revolutionary War.

Similar to the experience of Salmon Dutton, former colonial militia Captain Hezekiah Barnes settled in Charlotte, Vermont, in 1787. [35] Following the war, Barnes also worked as a road surveyor he also established an inn and trading post in Charlotte, along the main trade route from Montreal down Lake Champlain. Barnes's stagecoach inn was built in traditional Georgian style, with 10 fireplaces and a ballroom on the interior, and a wraparound porch on the outside. [35] In 1800, Continental Army Captain Benjamin Harrington established a distillery business in Shelburne, Vermont, which supplied his nearby inn. [36] Furthermore, Captain Stevens and Jeremiah Trescott built a water-powered sawmill in South Royalton, Vermont, in the late 1700s. [37] These individual accounts shed light on the significance of Lake Champlain during the post-Revolutionary War period.

War of 1812 Edit

During the War of 1812, British and American forces faced each other in the Battle of Lake Champlain, also known as the Battle of Plattsburgh, fought on September 11, 1814. This ended the final British invasion of the northern states during the War of 1812. It was fought just prior to the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, and the American victory denied the British any leverage to demand exclusive control over the Great Lakes or territorial gains against the New England states.

Following the War of 1812, the U.S. Army began construction on "Fort Blunder", an unnamed fortification built at the northernmost end of Lake Champlain to protect against attacks from British Canada. Its nickname came from a surveying error: the initial phase of construction on the fort turned out to be taking place on a point 3 ⁄ 4 mile (1.2 km) north of the Canada–U.S. border. Once this error was spotted, construction was abandoned. Locals scavenged materials used in the abandoned fort for use in their homes and public buildings.

By the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842, the Canada–U.S. border was adjusted northward to include the strategically important site of "Fort Blunder" on the US side. [38] In 1844, work was begun to replace the remains of the 1812-era fort with a massive new Third System masonry fortification, known as Fort Montgomery. Portions of this fort are still standing.

Modern history Edit

In the early 19th century, the construction of the Champlain Canal connected Lake Champlain to the Hudson River system, allowing north–south commerce by water from New York City to Montreal and Atlantic Canada.

In 1909, 65,000 people celebrated the 300th anniversary of the French discovery of the lake. Attending dignitaries included President William Howard Taft, along with representatives from France, Canada, and the United Kingdom. [39] [40]

In 1929, then-New York Governor Franklin Roosevelt and Vermont Governor John Weeks dedicated the first bridge to span the lake, built from Crown Point to Chimney Point. [41] This bridge lasted until December 2009. Severe deterioration was found, and the bridge was demolished and replaced with the Lake Champlain Bridge, which opened in November 2011.

On February 19, 1932, boats were able to sail on Lake Champlain. It was the first time the lake was known to be free of ice during the winter at that time. [42]

Lake Champlain briefly became the nation's sixth Great Lake on March 6, 1998, when President Clinton signed Senate Bill 927. This bill, which was led by U.S. Senator Patrick Leahy of Vermont and reauthorized the National Sea Grant Program, contained a line declaring Lake Champlain to be a Great Lake. This status enabled its neighboring states to apply for additional federal research and education funds allocated to these national resources. However, following a small uproar, the Great Lake status was rescinded on March 24 (although New York and Vermont universities continue to receive funds to monitor and study the lake). [43]

"Champ", Lake Champlain monster Edit

In 1609, Samuel de Champlain wrote that he saw a lake monster five feet (1.5 m) long, as thick as a man's thigh, with silver-gray scales a dagger could not penetrate. The alleged monster had 2.5 foot (0.76 m) jaws with sharp and dangerous teeth. Native Americans claimed to have seen similar monsters 8 to 10 feet (2.4 to 3.0 m) long. This mysterious creature is likely the original Lake Champlain monster. [44] : 20 The monster has been memorialized in sports teams' names and mascots, i.e., the Vermont Lake Monsters and Champ, the mascot of the state's minor league baseball team. [45] A Vermont Historical Society publication recounts the story and offers possible explanations for accounts of the so-called monster: "floating logs, schools of large sturgeons diving in a row, or flocks of black birds flying close to the water". [46]

Ecology Edit

A pollution prevention, control, and restoration plan for Lake Champlain [47] was first endorsed in October 1996 by the governors of New York and Vermont, and the regional administrators of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In April 2003, the plan was updated, and Quebec signed onto it. The plan is being implemented by the Lake Champlain Basin Program and its partners at the state, provincial, federal, and local levels. Renowned as a model for interstate and international cooperation, its primary goals are to reduce phosphorus inputs to Lake Champlain, reduce toxic contamination, minimize the risks to humans from water-related health hazards, and control the introduction, spread, and impact of non-native nuisance species to preserve the integrity of the Lake Champlain ecosystem.

Senior staff who helped organize the Environmental Protection Agency in 1970 recall that International Paper was one of the first companies to call upon the brand new agency, because it was being pushed by both New York and Vermont with regard to a discharge of pollution into Lake Champlain. [48] [49]

Agricultural and urban runoff from the watershed or drainage basin is the primary source of excess phosphorus, which exacerbates algae blooms in Lake Champlain. The most problematic blooms have been cyanobacteria, commonly called blue-green algae, in the northeastern part of the Lake, primarily Missisquoi Bay. [50]

To reduce phosphorus runoff to this part of the lake, Vermont and Quebec agreed to reduce their inputs by 60% and 40%, respectively, by an agreement signed in 2002. [51] While agricultural sources (manure and fertilizers) are the primary sources of phosphorus (about 70%) in the Missisquoi basin, runoff from developed land and suburbs is estimated to contribute about 46% of the phosphorus runoff basin-wide to Lake Champlain, and agricultural lands contributed about 38%. [52]

In 2002, the cleanup plan noted that the lake had the capacity to absorb 120 short tons (110 metric tons) of phosphorus each year. In 2009, a judge noted that 240 short tons (218 metric tons) were still flowing in annually, more than twice what the lake could handle. Sixty municipal and industrial sewage plants discharge processed waste from the Vermont side. [53]

In 2008, the EPA expressed concerns to the State of Vermont that the Lake's cleanup was not progressing fast enough to meet the original cleanup goal of 2016. [54] The state, however, cites its Clean and Clear Action Plan [55] as a model that will produce positive results for Lake Champlain.

In 2007, Vermont banned phosphates for dishwasher use starting in 2010. This will prevent an estimated 2–3 short tons (1.8–2.7 metric tons) from flowing into the lake. While this represents 0.6% of the phosphate pollution, it took US$1.9 million to remove the pollutant from treated wastewater, an EPA requirement. [56]

Despite concerns about pollution, Lake Champlain is safe for swimming, fishing, and boating. It is considered a world-class fishery for salmonid species (Lake trout and Atlantic salmon) and bass. About 81 fish species live in the lake, and more than 300 bird species rely on it for habitat and as a resource during migrations. [57]

By 2008, at least six institutions were monitoring lake water health:

    , which in 2002 appointed a "lakekeeper," who reviews the state's pollution controls
  1. Friends of Missisquoi Bay, formed in 2003
  2. Lake Champlain Committee
  3. Vermont Water Resources Board, which hired a water quality expert in 2008 to write water quality standards and create wetland protection rules , which in 2007 appointed a "lake czar" to oversee pollution control
  4. Clean and Clear, an agency of the Vermont state government, established in 2004 , a non-profit group which focuses on biodiversity and ecosystem health. [58]

In 2001, scientists estimated that farming contributed 38% of the phosphorus runoff. By 2010, results of environmentally conscious farming practices, enforced by law, had made any positive contribution to lake cleanliness. A federally funded study was started to analyze this problem and to arrive at a solution. [59]

Biologists have been trying to control lampreys in the lake since 1985 or earlier. Lampreys are native to the area but have expanded in population to such an extent that they wounded nearly all lake trout in 2006 and 70–80% of salmon. The use of pesticides against the lamprey has reduced their casualties of other fish to 35% of salmon and 31% of lake trout. The goal was 15% of salmon and 25% of lake trout. [60]

The federal and state governments originally budgeted US$18 million for lake programs for 2010. This was later supplemented by an additional US$6.5 million from the federal government. [61]

In 2010, the estimate of cormorant population, now classified as a nuisance species because they take so much of the lake fish, ranged from 14,000 to 16,000. A Fish and Wildlife commissioner said the ideal population would be 3,300 or about 7.8 per square mile (3/km 2 ). Cormorants had disappeared from the lake (and all northern lakes) due to the use of DDT in the 1940s and 1950s, which made their eggs more fragile and reduced breeding populations. [62]

Ring-billed gulls are also considered a nuisance, and measures have been taken to reduce their population. Authorities are trying to encourage the return of black crowned night herons, cattle egrets, and great blue herons, which disappeared during the time DDT was being widely used. [62]

In 1989, UNESCO designated the area around Lake Champlain as the Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve. [63] [64]

Lake crossings Edit

The Alburgh Peninsula (also known as the Alburgh Tongue), extending south from the Quebec shore of the lake into Vermont, and Province Point, the southernmost tip of a small promontory approximately 2 acres (1 ha) in size [65] a few miles (kilometres) to the northeast of the town of East Alburgh, Vermont, are connected by land to the rest of the state only via Canada. This is a distinction shared with the state of Alaska, Point Roberts, Washington, and the Northwest Angle in Minnesota. All of these are practical exclaves of the United States contiguous with Canada. Unlike the other cases, highway bridges across the lake provide direct access to the Alburgh peninsula from within the United States (from three directions), but Province Point is still accessible by land only through Canada.

Road Edit

Two roadways cross over the lake, connecting Vermont and New York:

  • Since November 2011, the Lake Champlain Bridge has crossed the lake's southern part, connecting Chimney Point in Vermont with Crown Point, New York. It replaced Champlain Bridge, which was closed in 2009 because of severe structural problems that could have resulted in a collapse. [66]

In 2009, the bridge had been used by 3,400 drivers per day, [67] and driving around the southern end of the lake added two hours to the trip. Ferry service was re-established to take some of the traffic burden. On December 28, 2009, the bridge was destroyed by a controlled demolition. A new bridge was rapidly constructed by a joint state commitment, opening on November 7, 2011. [68]

  • To the north, US 2 runs from Rouses Point, New York, to Grand Isle County, Vermont, in the town of Alburgh, before continuing south along a chain of islands towards Burlington. To the east, Vermont Route 78 runs from an intersection with US 2 in Alburgh through East Alburgh to Swanton. The US 2-VT 78 route technically runs from the New York mainland to an extension of the mainland between two arms of the lake and then to the Vermont mainland, but it provides a direct route across the two main arms of the lake's northern part.

Ferry Edit

North of Ticonderoga, New York, the lake widens appreciably ferry service is operated by the Lake Champlain Transportation Company at:

    , to Essex, New York (may not travel when the lake is frozen) , to Port Kent, New York (seasonal) , to Cumberland Head, part of Plattsburgh, New York (year-round icebreaking service)

While the old bridge was being demolished and the new one constructed, Lake Champlain Transportation Company operated a free, 24-hour ferry from just south of the bridge to Chimney Point in Vermont at the expense of the states of New York and Vermont at a cost to the states of about $10 per car. [69] [70]

The most southerly crossing is the Fort Ticonderoga Ferry, connecting Ticonderoga, New York with Shoreham, Vermont, just north of the historic fort.

Railroad Edit

Four significant railroad crossings were built over the lake. As of 2016, only one remains.

  • The "floating" rail trestle from Larabees Point, Vermont to Ticonderoga, New York was operated by the Addison Branch of the Rutland Railroad. It was abandoned in 1918 due to a number of accidents which resulted in locomotives and rail cars falling into the lake. [44] : 257
  • The Island Line Causeway, a marble rock-landfill causeway that stretched from Colchester (on the mainland) three miles (4.8 km) north and west to South Hero, Vermont. Two breaks in the causeway were spanned by a fixed iron trestle and a swing bridge that could be opened to allow boats to pass. Rutland Railroad (later Rutland Railway) operated trains over this causeway from 1901–1961. The Railway was officially abandoned in 1963, with tracks and trestles removed over the course of the 10 years that followed. The marble causeway still remains, as does the fixed iron trestle that bridges the lesser of the two gaps. The swing bridge over the navigation channel was removed in the early 1970s. [71] [citation needed]

Now called Colchester Park, the main three-mile (5 km) causeway has been adapted and preserved as a recreation area for cyclists, runners, and anglers. Two smaller marble rock-landfill causeways were also erected as part of this line that connected Grand Isle to North Hero, and spanned from North Hero to Alburgh. [44] : 257 [72]

  • The Alburgh, Vermont – Rouses Point, New York rail trestle. From sometime in the late 19th century until 1964, this wooden trestle carried two railroads (the Rutland Railroad and the Central Vermont Railroad) over the lake just south of the US 2 vehicular bridge. The iron swing bridge at the center (over the navigation channel) has been removed. Most of the wooden pilings remain and can be seen looking south from the US 2 bridge. Part of the trestle on the Rouses Point side has been converted for use as an access pier associated with the local marina. [citation needed]
  • The Swanton – Alburgh, Vermont rail trestle. Built in the same manner as at Rouses Point, it crosses the lake just south of Missisquoi Bay and the Canada–U.S. border, within yards south of the Vermont Route 78 bridge. It is still in use by the New England Central Railroad. [73]

Waterways Edit

Lake Champlain has been connected to the Erie Canal via the Champlain Canal since the canal's official opening September 9, 1823, the same day as the opening of the Erie Canal from Rochester on Lake Ontario to Albany. It connects to the St. Lawrence River via the Richelieu River, with the Chambly Canal bypassing rapids on the river since 1843. Together with these waterways the lake is part of the Lakes to Locks Passage. The Lake Champlain Seaway, a project to use the lake to bring ocean-going ships from New York City to Montreal, was proposed in the late 19th century and considered as late as the 1960s, but rejected for various reasons. The lake is also part of the 740-mile Northern Forest Canoe Trail, which begins in Old Forge, New York, and ends in Fort Kent, Maine.

Major cities Edit

Burlington, Vermont (pop. 42,217, 2010 Census) is the largest city on the lake. The 2nd and 3rd most populated cities/towns are Plattsburgh, New York, and South Burlington, Vermont, respectively. The fourth-largest community is the town of Colchester.

Islands Edit

Lake Champlain contains roughly 80 islands, three of which comprise four entire Vermont towns (most of Grand Isle County). The largest islands:

    , the largest, containing the towns of Grand Isle, Vermont and South Hero, Vermont
  • North Hero Island, containing the town of North Hero, Vermont
  • Isle La Motte, containing the town of Isle La Motte, Vermont , New York
  • Three Sisters
  • Four Brothers [74]
  • Savage Island
  • Burton Island (State Park)
  • Cloak Island
  • Garden Island (Gunboat Island) , New York
  • Dameas Island
  • Hen Island
  • Butler's Island
  • Young Island [75]
  • Providence Island [76]
  • Stave Island [77]

Lighthouses Edit

    , on Valcour Island near the New York shore, was built in 1871 it was manned by a full-time lightkeeper until 1930, making it one of the last lighthouses to be manned on the Lake , which operated until 1934, is an historic stone lighthouse located on Cumberland Head, which is privately owned , on the northern end of the island was originally red, but it faded to pink over time it is privately owned [78] is a cast iron lighthouse that dates from 1846 in 1954, it was deactivated and replaced by a steel tower it is privately owned
  • On Point Au Roche, part of Beekmantown, New York, there is a privately owned, historic lighthouse
  • Split Rock Lighthouse is located south of Essex, New York, near a natural boundary of the territory between the Mohawk and Algonquin tribes [79]

Aids to navigation Edit

All active navigational aids on the American portion of the lake are maintained by USCG Burlington station, along with those on international Lake Memphremagog to the east. [80] Aids to navigation on the Canadian portion of the lake are maintained by the Canadian Coast Guard. [81]

Parks Edit

There are a number of parks in the Lake Champlain region in both New York and Vermont.

Those on the New York side of the lake include: Point Au Roche State Park, which park grounds have hiking and cross country skiing trails, and a public beach and the Ausable Point State Park. The Cumberland Bay State Park is located on Cumberland Head, with a campground, city beach, and sports fields.

There are various parks along the lake on the Vermont side, including Sand Bar State Park in Milton, featuring a 2,000 feet (610 m) natural sand beach, swimming, canoe and kayak rentals, food concession, picnic grounds and a play area. At 226 acres (91 ha), Grand Isle State Park contains camping facilities, a sand volleyball court, a nature walk trail, a horseshoe pit and a play area. Button Bay State Park in Ferrisburgh features campsites, picnic areas, a nature center and a swimming pool. Burlington's Waterfront Park is a revitalized industrial area.

Battle of Karasaki Beach, October 1331 - History

(APA-64: dp. 13,910, 1. 468'8", b. 63'0" dr. 13'3"s. 16.5 k. cpl. 535, tr. 1,433, a. 2 5", a 1.1", 18 20mm. cl. Sumter T. C2-S-E:1)

Afoundria was laid down under a Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 476) on 20 April 1942 at Chickasaw, Ala., by the Gulf Shipbuilding Corp. renamed Wayne and classified as a transport, AP-99, on 26 October 1942 launched on 6 December 1942 sponsored by Mrs. N. G. Nicolson reclassified an attack transport, APA-54, on 1 February 1943, acquired by the Navy on 30 April 1943, delivered to the Navy the following day, 1 May 1943, and simultaneously placed in commission "in ordinary." Taken to the Bethlehem Steel Co. Key Highway Yard, Baltimore, Md., Wayne was converted for naval service.

Decommissioned on 11 May 1943 for the duration of the conversion work, Wayne (APA-54) was recommissioned at Baltimore on 27 August 1943, Comdr. T. V. Cooper in command. Wayne departed Baltimore on 1 September and headed down the eastern seaboard to Norfolk, Va., where she arrived the following day to take on fuel, stores, equipment and a full complement of landing craft. After shakelown training in Chesapeake Bay, Wayne departed Hampton Roads on 4 October, bound for New York.

Upon finishing loading at New York, she put to sea on 13 October and, escorted by Doran (DD-634) and Canfield (DE-262), headed for the Pacific. The attack transport transited the Panama Canal on 21 and 22 October and arrived at San Diego at the end of the month. For the remainder of 1943, Wayne operated out of San Diego on training exercises with various battalion landing teams of the 4th Marine Division.

On 13 January 1944, Wayne got underway with marines of the 3d Battalion (Reinforced), 24th Marines embarked and steamed in convoy for the Hawaiian Islands. She arrived at Lahaina Roads, Maui, Territory of Hawaii, on the 21st. There, she fueled from Tallulah (AO-50) and took on stores from Pastores (AF- 16). She departed Hawaiian waters two days later, bound for the Marshall Islands.

Arriving off Kwajalein on 30 January as part of the northern landing force, Wayne transferred her marines to LST's which then carried them inside the lagoon to the beachhead. After retiring to the open sea at night, the attack transport returned to the transport area the next morning, lowered her boats, and commenced unloading cargo. On the afternoon of 1 February, Wayne left the Marshalls and put in at Funafuti, in the Ellice Islands, on the 9th. Fueling there, Wayne and Elmore (APA-42) were detached from the homeward-bound convoy on the 17th, near Efate, in the New Hebrides, and anchored in Havannah Harbor. Nine days later, Wayne and her consort shifted to Guadalcanal.

Wayne trained with marines in the Solomons before she moved to Noumea, New Caledonia, on 21 March. Subsequently, after discharging naval passengers at Guadalcanal, she shifted to Emirau, St. Matthias Islands. Wayne disembarked marine replacements for the garrison there on the 11th of April. That same day, she stood out of Emirau harbor on a return run to Guadalcanal with the 1st Battalion, 4th Marine Division, embarked.

Wayne performed a similar reinforcement mission to New Britain where American forces had been fighting to push back Japanese troops since the previous December. At the time the attack transport arrived there, Allied troops had established a line about half-way across the island toward Rabaul and were awaiting more aid before continuing the push. On 18 April Wayne began embarking men of the 213th Field Artillery Battalion, 4th Marine Division, and on the 20th stood out to relieve the 1st Marine Division on New Britain, arriving on 23 April. Wayne then began a complicated cargo and man-handling task. While troops and equipment of the 213th Field Artillery Battalion were being disembarked and unloaded on one side of the ship, men of the 4th Battalion, 11th Marines, were being embarked on the other. Completing that assignment on the 25th, Wayne sailed to the Russells, where she unloaded cargo and disembarked more troops on the 28th before moving on to Guadalcanal the same day.

From 10 May to 3 June, Wayne trained at Guadalcanal. On 4 June, the attack transport stood out for Kwajalein—the staging area for the forthcoming Marianas campaign—and, from the 9th to the 12th, participated in staging and rehearsal operations. On the latter day, Wayne got underway for the Marianas. Her embarked marines—1st Battalion, 21st Marines, 3d Marine Division—were earmarked to land at Guam if not needed at Saipan.

On 15 June, transports under Vice,Admiral R. K. Turner landed marines under the command of Lt. General Holland M. Smith, USMC, on Saipan, covered by intensive naval gunfire and carrier-based air support. Wayne steamed offshore for several days after the initial assault. During the Battle of the Philippine Sea, which took place between the 19th and the 21st, Wayne remained on station about 250 miles east of Guam while the action was taking place some 500 miles to the west of the island. On 25 June, her troops as yet unused, the attack transport—part of Task Group ( TG ) 53—was ordered to retire to the Marshalls to await further orders.

Wayne remained at anchor in Eniwetok lagoon from the end of June through mid-July. Underway on 17 July, the attack transport proceeded to Guam, where she arrived three days later. There, she witnesesd part of the intensive preinvasion shelling by the gunfire support ships in the task force under Rear Admiral R. L. Conolly. Carrier-based air attacks also assisted in the "softening up" process. At 0828 on 21 July, Wayne's embarked marines headed for shore in the first wave of the invasion.

The attack transport completed her unloading of equipment on the morning of the 23d. During her stay, she received 177 wounded troops from the beaches, and her medical department rendered sterling work in the care and treatment of those men. Wayne stood by for two additional days after finishing her unloading before departing the Marianas on the 25th and carrying 165 wounded fighting men to Espiritu Santo, in the New Hebrides. Putting into Espiritu Santo on 6 August, Wayne discharged her disabled passengers and stood by to await further orders.

The attack transport remained at anchor in the New Hebrides until 14 August, when she shifted to Guadalcanal, en route to Renard Sound, in the Russell Islands, where the 1st Marine Division was encamped. From the 17th to the 26th, Wayne carried out practice landings in preparation for the next operation, the assault on the Palau Islands. On 26 August, the attack tran

port sailed with TG 32.3 and devoted the ensuing days of the voyage to drills and briefings for the upcoming landings.

On the morning of 15 September, marines of the 1st Marine Division moved ashore at Peleliu. Wayne's troops were among those who landed that morning. They were later followed by boatloads of high-priority cargo: ammunition and medical supplies. By 1100, three and one-half hours after the initial waves waded ashore the first of the casualties began to arrive back on the ship for medical treatment, evidence of the intense and bloody struggle going on ashore. Japanese guns swept the beaches and waters offshore with deadly accuracy. Casualties among the marines and boat crews were high.

In the days that followed, Wayne kept up a steady pace of discharging cargo and receiving casualties during the day and retiring seaward at night. On the night of 20 September, she was ordered to move close inshore to serve as casualty evacuation ship, 1,000 yards off the reef. As the attack transport closed the island, enemy artillery opened up, lobbing two shells over the ship. Later during the night, machine gun fire from Japanese guns passed ovehead.

Wayne retired from the Palaus on 21 September and proceeded to Humboldt Bay, New Guinea. Between 1 and 12 October Wayne participated in staging operntions, includingioading troops of the 2d Battalion, 19th Infantry, 24th Division, USA, and their equipment on the 8th and a practice landing at Sko Skai beach, eight miles east of Humboldt Bay, on the 12th. On the morning of the 13th, the attack transport got underway for Leyte, in the Philippine Islands, and arrived off the town of Palo on the 20th, the first day of the invasion An enemy plane, a twin-engined "Nick," passed by the ship and was taken under fire by Wayne's 5-inch battery for a brief time before it dove steeply over friendly ships astern.

As the ship's commanding officer later recounted, the landings on Leyte were "accomplished with surprising ease." The beach upon which Wayne had landed her troops and equipment had been ". . . lightly defended at best . . .," facilitating a rapid unloading. The operation was not without cost to the ship, however, as a Japanese gun scored a direct hit on one of the ship's LCVP landing craft, killing some of the Army personnel embarked and slightly wounding the boat's coxswain.

By 1600 on the afternoon of D-day, all cargo and troops had been unloaded, and Wayne got underway for Humboldt Bay—but only to return to Leyte with troops of the 1st Battalion, 128th Infantry, 32d Division, together with their cargo. Departing Dutch New Guinean waters on 9 November, the attack transport arrived off Leyte on the 13th.

While no enemy planes made an appearance close to Wayne that morning, a solitary "Jill," carrying a torpedo, attacked the convoy to which she was attached At 1700, the enemy aircraft appeared forward of the convoy, briefly took a parallel course to it, and then when aft of Wayne's position, banked to starboard and began a low-altitude run on Catskill (LSV-1). The torpedo missed, but Catskill's gunners did not and the raider splashed into the sea. Later that day, more enemy aircraft appeared in the vicinity, prompting the ships to go to general quarters, but did not come close enough to draw fire. By the time the word came to secure from general quarters, the convoy was in approach disposition in Leyte Gulf.

At 0736 on the 14th, Wayne's lookouts observed three "Zeke" fighters forward of the ship at a range of 7,000 yards. The planes maneuvered back and forth, closing the range steadily and drawing fire from the ships of the convoy. Wayne's forward 5-inch gun managed to get off one round to include in the scattered gunfire. Apparently the antiaircraft barrage sufficed to force the enemy to stay out of range. Attracted by the firing, American P-38's soon showed up and downed two of the "Zekes."

The third "Zeke," however, returned to the area, going into a strafing dive. At a range of 400 yards, the plane swooped low at 150 feet altitude. Wayne's starboard guns opened fire and tracers began striking the plane. The "Zeke" changed course, crossing Wayne's bow at 200 yards. The attack transport's port batteries now commenced firing, scoring hits. Flames burst from the fuselage, and the "Zeke" executed a fatal wingover and spun out of control into the sea.

Within the space of a day, Wayne unloaded her cargo and disembarked her troops and, by 1630 on the 14th, was ready for sea, her boats hoisted on board and secured. Departing that day, the attack transport moved to Seeadler Harbor, at Manus, in the Admiralties. Provisioning and taking on fuel after her arrival there on the 20th, Wayne departed on 30 November, bound for Aitape, British New Guinea.

Arriving there on 1 December, Wayne remained at anchor through Christmas. Loading cargo on the 17th, the attack transport had fueled on Christmas Eve and, on the 26th, took the main body of troops—from the 3d Battalion, 172d Infantry, 43d Division, United States Army—on board. After landing exercises at Aitape on the 27th, Wayne departed British New Guinea the following day, as part of the San Fabian Attack Group, bound for Lingayen Gulf.

As the ship's commanding officer later recalled, "the most memorable feature of the assault on Luzon, from the standpoint of the transports involved, was the long and difflcult journey which the ships were forced to make through enemy waters between Leyte and Luzon." The convoy passed through the Surigao Strait into the Mindanao Sea on 5 January 1945 and entered the Sulu Sea west of the islands of Panay and Mindoro on the 6th.

On 9 January, Army forces landed at Lingayen Gulf
under cover of gunfire from ships offshore and carrier based aircraft overhead. Wayne disembarked her troops in her fifth assault landing and remained in the transport area offshore until the evening of 10 January. Air activity was heavier than the ship had encountered in any previous operation. The Japanese often attacked at dawn and at dusk, frequently utilizing single planes. Wayne had opened fire on a low flying twin-engined "Dinah" but scored no hits. Later that day, at 1835, a twin-engined "Frances" flew over the transport area dropping a stick of bombs that fell near Wayne. The danger of heavy antiaircraft fire laid down in the vicinity of "friendly" ships was amply demonstrated when two men in Wayne's crew were wounded by fragments from "friendly" gunfire.

Wayne departed the transport area on the 10th and, upon receipt of an enemy plane alert at 1905, went to general quarters. At 1914, a single enemy aircraft under fire from the ships in column on both flanks of Wayne, crashed into the port side of Du Page (APA-41) the column leader directly ahead of Wayne. An explosion followed, and Du Page was rapidly shrouded in smoke.

Wayne sheared out of the column to port but Du Page held her course and speed in column, prompting Wayne to move back into formation astern. The following morning, she transferred two medical officers and eight corpsmen to Du Page to treat casualties caused by the suicide plane.

On the afternoon of 15 January, Wayne reached Leyte Island, and anchored off Taytay Point, receiving on board an advance detail of the 1st Battalion, 128th Infantry, 32d Division—the same battalion that she had brought to Leyte almost three months before. Almost nightly air raid alerts enlivened the ship's ensuing stay at Tacloban, Leyte, and the ship's company became accustomed to almost nightly "red alerts."

On 24 January, Wayne departed Leyte en route back to Luzon, her convoy came under attack by Japanese torpedo planes. One succeeded in hitting the dock landing ship Shadwell (LSD-15), just astern of Wayne in the steaming disposition. Shadwell, able to proceed on one engine, consequently veered out of formation and returned to Leyte. Wayne, meanwhile, continued onward with the rest of the convoy and reached Lingayen Gulf with her embarked reinforcements on the 27th.

Between 0830 and 1331, Wayne unloaded her troops and cargo and got underway to return to Leyte at 1817 that evening. By 2100 on the 30th, the attack transport was back off Taytay Point. There was little rest for the ship, however, for she soon received orders directing her to Guadalcanal, as part of Transport Squadron (TransRon) 12. Departing Leyte on 2 February, Wayne arrived at Tulagi harbor on the 11th.

Assigned to carry the 2d Battalion, 22d Marines, of the 6th Marine Dlvision, Wayne spent a bit over a month fueling, provisioning, loading cargo, and carrying out the inevitable training exercises. Early on the morning of 15 March, TransRon 12 got underway, bound, via the Carolines, for the Ryukyus.

A week later, Wayne arrived at Ulithi, the staging point for the invasion of Okinawa. There, a number of the marines and sailors embarked at Tulagi were transferred to tank landing ships (LST's). On the afternoon of 27 March, Wayne and the other ships of the invasion force set sail for Okinawa itself.

"All hands anticipated that the attack on Okinawa would be a difficult and dangerous undertaking," wrote Wayne's chronicler. Her troops went ashore on D day —Easter Morning, 1 April 1945—on a small beach dominated by high ground and protected by a reef. The actual landing, gratifyingly, seemed "puzzlingly easy" to observers in Wayne. Her embarked troops went ashore against slight resistance.

During the day, unloading progressed until 1745, when Wayne and her consorts headed seaward in night retirement disposition. Red alerts, however, continued throughout the night—alerts that had resulted in the ship's being called repeatedly to general quarters. At 0543 on the 2d, Wayne returned to the transport area and observed heavy antiaircraft fire from other ships in the vicinity, as well as enemy planes attacking ships close to the beaches.

By evening, Wayne had made satisfactory progress in the unloading and then was ordered to move closer inshore. She anchored for the night close to the beach and completed unloading the remainder of her cargo before standing out to sea at 0015 on the morning of 3 April.

However, instead of being ordered from the area, Wayne was directed instead to put into Kerama Retto, by way of "Point Oboe." She consequently loaded empty brass shell casings from Salt Lake City (CA-25) before she moved into Kerama Retto to take on more brass and to receive on board casualties from other ships that had been sunk or damaged during the nearly incessant Japanese air raids.

Wayne remained at Kerama Retto from 5 April to 9 April, spending much of that time moored alongside the battle-battered attack transport Hinedale (APA120) that had been damaged by a suicide plane on 31 March. Wayne fed the crew of that ship and provided her with power.

Red alerts and air raids continued almost without letup "more than once enemy planes were observed making suicide attacks on other ships in the vicinity." Loaded with empty brass, survivors, and casualties, Wayne weighed anchor on 9 April and headed for the Marianas. She anchored in Saipan harbor on the 13th before she shifted to the Marshalls, arriving at Eniwetok on the 18th. From there, the attack transport steamed on to Hawaii, arriving at Pier 8, Honolulu, on the morning of 27 April.

Proceeding independently from Hawaii to the west coast of the United States, Wayne departed Pearl Harbor on 29 April and reached San Francisco on 6
May. After disembarking casualties and survivors from I the Okinawa crucible there, she sailed north to Astoria, I Oreg., on 12 May for an overhaul. Completing repairs late in July, Wayne departed Astoria on the 27th, bound for San Diego, and arrived there soon thereafter.

On 10 August, Wayne sailed for the Marianas with naval and marme passengers—replacements bound for the forward areas of the Pacific theater. The end of the war in mid-August found Wayne at sea, steaming to the western Pacific. She made a fuel stop at Eniwetok on 26 August and reached Guam shortly thereafter where she unloaded her cargo and disembarked her passengers.

Wayne embarked men of the 3d Battalion, 6th Marines, at Saipan and, on 18 September, got underway for Japan. She disembarked the marines at Nagasaki on 23 September and then proceeded to the Philippines, touching at Manila first and later at Mindoro.

The attack transport departed the Philippines in late October, stopped at Guam for fuel on the 21st and arrived at San Diego on 6 November. Between 2i November 1945 and 7 January 1946, Wayne made one similar trip to the Philippine Islands, returning Navy veterans to the United States in Operation "Magic Carpet."

Subsequently visiting Seattle and San Diego, she ' cleared the latter port on 26 January 1946 and transited the Panama Canal on 6 February. Making port at New Orleans on the 11th, Wayne later shifted to Mobile and thence moved to her building site at the Gulf Shipbuilding Corp. where she was decommissioned on 16 March 1946. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 17 April 1946, and, on 1 August of the same year she was transferred to the War Shipping Administration.

Reverting to her original name, Afoundria, soon thereafter, the ship was acquired by the Waterman Steamship Corp., of Mobile, Ala., and renamed Beauregard in about 1947. She operated with the Waterman firm into the late 1950's. The erstwhile attack transport retained the name Beauregard as she operated into the 1970's with a succession of firms: with the Wilmington, Dell based Beauregard, Inc. the Litton Industries Leasing Corp., and the Reynolds Leasing Corp.—operating with the last two corporations as a container ship. She disappeared from the American Bureau of Shipping Register in 1978.

Kawasaki Heavy builds world’s first tanker for liquid hydrogen

The Suiso (hydrogen) Frontier tanker developed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. to transport liquified hydrogen (Taiki Koide)

Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., a pioneer in transporting liquified natural gas (LNG), has now developed the world’s first tanker for liquified hydrogen.

The new technology, along with tanks the company developed to store liquified hydrogen as rocket fuel, is expected to be used for the government’s goal of having hydrogen and ammonia serve as the fuel for 10 percent of electric power generation by 2050. It is part of Japan’s overall target of achieving net zero emissions of greenhouse gases in that year.

The first liquified hydrogen tanker, Suiso (hydrogen) Frontier, constructed in Kobe was shown to media representatives on May 24. The tanker is 116 meters long and can transport 75 tons of liquified hydrogen kept at temperatures of minus 253 degrees.

The hydrogen will be liquified after lignite mined in Australia is steamed. Although that process emits carbon dioxide, the plan is to trap that gas deep underground to keep emissions at virtually zero.

Plans have also been hatched to use renewable energy sources to create hydrogen by breaking down water.

Kawasaki has already installed equipment at Kobe Port to unload liquified hydrogen from the tanker as well as tanks on land.

It plans to transport the first load of liquified hydrogen from Australia by spring 2022.

Tests are being conducted in conjunction with J-Power and Iwatani Corp., and a total of about 40 billion yen ($368 million), including contributions from the Japanese and Australian governments, is being set aside for the project.

Under the Japanese government’s plan for 2050, the total volume of liquified hydrogen imports, including for fuel in motor vehicles, is estimated at 20 million tons, about 5,000 times the volume imported in 2020.

Kawasaki Heavy plans to build 80 tankers to transport 9 million tons of liquified hydrogen.

But a major barrier toward importing that volume of liquified hydrogen will be bringing down the power generation cost. One estimate is that by 2030 power generated by liquified hydrogen will cost 1.5 times that generated using LNG.

Other nations have also joined the race to construct liquified hydrogen tankers.

“There will be a need to quickly promote greater use of such vessels,” Motohiko Nishimura, a Kawasaki Heavy executive officer who also serves as deputy general manager of the company’s Hydrogen Strategy Division, said.


In the small hours of December 11, 1937 the ocean liner SS President Hoover ran aground in a typhoon on Kasho-to off Formosa, and 14 hours later Ashigara and a Mutsuki-class destroyer arrived to assist. ΐ] The two warships stood by as Hoover ' s 330 crew got all 503 passengers and themselves ashore. ΐ]

On December 12 the Clemson-class destroyers USS Alden and USS Barker arrived and Ashigara cleared them to enter Japanese territorial waters. ΐ] On the 13th the liner SS President McKinley arrived to repatriate about 630 survivors, and on the 14th Ashigara and her destroyer escort provided flat-bottomed boats to ferry them from the beach to a motor launch and lifeboats that took them out to the liner. ΐ] On 15 December the liner SS President Pierce evacuated the last 200 survivors, and Alden was allowed to remain to guard Hoover ' s wreck until Japanese authorities relieved her on December 23. ΐ]

Battle of Karasaki Beach, October 1331 - History

(AO-106: dp. 7,423, (It.) 25,480 (f.) 1. 553' b. 75' dr. 32' s.
16 k cpl 304 a 1 5" 4 3" 8 40mm cl Cimarron T

Navasota (AO-106) was laid down under Maritime Commission contract 22 February 1945 as MC hull 2702 by Sun Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., Chester, Pennsylvania launched 30 August 1945 sponsored by Mrs. A. Hahn and commissioned 27 February 1946, Comdr. David H. MeCluskey, USNR, in command.

After three months of shakedown and training off the East Coast Navasota steamed via the Panama Canal for Pearl Harbor and the western Pacific. Assigned to Service Force, Pacific Fleet, she departed Pearl Harbor 3 July to bring petroleum products from the Persian Gulf to the Pacific fleet. She stood out of Yokosuka 20 August for San Pedro, California, arriving 2 September. For the next four months the oiler was in an operational training status, and on 30 January 1948 she again deployed to WESTPAC. After serving as station ship at Tsingtao, China from April through June, she returned to San Pedro, California, 7 July, thence to Pearl Harbor in August

Navasota departed Pearl Harbor 13 October, onee again enroute the Far East. She departed Yokosuka 20 November for Tsingtao and remained on station until 30 December, when she sailed for California via Pearl Harbor. She arrived Long Beach, 19 January 1949, steamed to Kodiak, Alaska 1 February, returned to San Francisco the 25th and continued to operate on the west coast for the next year.

Navasota again deployed to WESTPAC 1 May 1950. When the North Koreans crossed the 38th Parallel 25 June, the oiler steamed for Korean waters to fuel Allied ships in the area. In

late August she put in at T(eelung, Formosa, but she was back m Korean waters to take part in the Inehon invasion 15 September.

She steamed for Pearl Harbor 22 October and then for Japan via I(wajelein and Guam. Departing Japan 16 December, she arrived at Long Beach 30 December, only to return to the Far East 31 March 1951 for further operations off Wonsan, Korea.

During her Korean operations Na,

asota fueled ships in Subie Bay, Buckner Bay, the Peseadores Islands, Formosa Japan, and Korea. She returned to Long Beach for overhaul from October 1951 until February 1952. The oiler operated off the west coast until getting underu ay 3 April for Sasebo and resumption of her Korean fueling operations. She remained in thr area of Wonsan and Songjin, Korea for the next seven months and then returned to Long Beach, arriving 13 November.

Navasota steamed 2 February 1953 for Pearl Harbor to participate in Mereantile Convoy Exereise RES 53B, after which she called at Sasebo 26 February to eommenee her fourth Paeifie deployment. For the next seven months she conducted fueling operations in Korean waters. She was also utilized as station ship at Kaohsiung, Formosa, where she fueled units of the Formosa Straits Patrol until she headed for Long Beach 3 September.

For the next ten years ATavasota continued to provide fueling services to the fleet through her annual WESTPAC deployments. In one overhaul at Long Beach Naval Shipyard (February-May 1958), all guns save her single 3" mounts were removed.

lIighlights in this period inchlded service as fuel ship during the nuclear weapons tests at Bikini in the summer of 1956 and her WESTPAC deployment of 1958, when she refueled 174 ships from August through November while serving as station r,hip at hIakung, Peseadores.

IJpon completion of her fifteenth WESTPAC deployment 14 October 1963, Navasota was scheduled for "Jumboization" the first oiler so designated. She steamed 14 November for Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington for preliminary preparations, then entered Puget Sound Bridge and Drydoek Co., Plant No. 2, Harbor Island, Seattle for the conversion. Her new 394 foot midsection was built in Kawasaki Doek Yard, Kobe, Japan and towed to Seattle by the Japanese tug Daisho Man

The "Jumboization" process consisted of five basie steps. First, the bow was removed and retained in the drydoek while the rest of the ship was 90ated out. Next, the new section was

floated in, raised, and joined to the bow. Third, the bridge structure was transferred to the new section by heavy lift crane 9 January 1964. Then the stern section was severed and retained in drydock while the old midsection was floated out. In the last step, the new section with bow and bridge strueture attached, was floated into the dock, raised, and joined to the stern.

Although replacement of the midsection was the single largest change in the fifteen million dollar process, many other important improvements were made during the conversion. A major mod)fication was made to the stern, including a new eounterbalaneed rudder, new stern easting and struts, and new shorter propeller shafts and stern tubes. The latest in fuehng and replenishment at sea equipment was also added, including kingposts with outriggers, ram tensioned span wires and high lines, eleetrie hydraulic winches, cargo elevators helo pickup area, and sliding blocks and cargo drop reels at replenishment stations. New eleetrie pumps, larger cargo piping, and double hose fueling rigs were also added, as well as a 4,500 KW auxiliary diesel generator plant, and more enclosed stowage space. Habitability was also improved.

Navasota left the yard 28 December 1964. Her new dimensions were: dp. 12,840 (light), 33,987 (f) 1. 644' dr. 34'9". After upkeep and training, Navasota steamed 20 August 1965 on her sixteenth WESTPAC deployment, arriving Subic Bay 11 September and returning Long Beach, 6 June i966.

Navasota again steamed for WESTPAC 11 October. Arriving Subie Bay 3 November, she operated in the Gulf of Tonkin and in coastal waters off North and South Viet Nam in support of 7th Fleet combatants, with Subie Bay as her base of operations. The summer of 1967 brought the oiler back to Long Beach for upkeep and west coast operations until she again deployed to the western Pacific 5 January 196X to assume support duties for 7th Fleet forces off Viet Nam. Through 1970 she has continued to deploy to WESTPAC for six to eight months of each year, while the remainder is spent operating Ollt of Long Beach as part of Service Force, Pacific Fleet, in support of 1st Fleet operations and the Fleet Training Group, San Diego.

Battle of Inkerman

Place of the Battle of Inkerman: In the Crimea outside Sevastopol, in the Old Tsarist Russian Empire.

Combatants at the Battle of Inkerman: British and French troops against the Imperial Russian Army.

Generals at the Battle of Inkerman: Lieutenant General the Earl of Raglan commanded the British Army, General Canrobert commanded the French Army and Prince Menshikov commanded the Russian Army.

General Dannenberg, Russian commander at the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War

The immediate commanders in the battle were: British Major General Sir George Brown, Major General Sir George Cathcart and Brigadier Pennefather. The French general on the ground was General Bosquet. The Russian commanders were General Dannenberg, General Soimonoff and General Pauloff.

Size of the armies at the Battle of Inkerman: The forces involved in the battle were: British 8,500 men and 38 guns French 7,500 men and 18 guns Russian 42,000 men and 134 guns.

Uniforms, arms and equipment at the Battle of Inkerman: The armies that fought in the Crimean War for Russia, Britain and France were in organisation little different from the armies that fought the Napoleonic wars at the beginning of the century. They were however on the verge of substantial change, brought about by developments in firearms.

The British infantry fought with the Brown Bess musket in some form from the beginning of the 18 th Century.

Brigadier General Pennefather, commander of the British Second Division at the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War

As the Crimean War broke out, the British Army’s infantry was being equipped with the new French Minié Rifle, a muzzle loading rifle fired by a cap (all the British divisions, other than the Fourth, arriving in the Crimea with this weapon). This weapon was quickly replaced by the more efficient British Enfield Rifle.

The new rifle was sighted up to 1,000 yards, as against the old Brown Bess, wholly inaccurate beyond 100 yards.

It would take the rest of the century for field tactics to catch up with the effects of the modern weapons coming into service.

The Russian infantry, in contrast, were still armed with the flintlock muskets carried in the Napoleonic Wars of forty years before.

Winner of the Battle of Inkerman: The British and the French were left holding the field. The Russians withdrew.

Ensign of the Grenadier Guards: Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: print by Ackermann

British Regiments at the Battle of Inkerman:
Royal Artillery
Grenadier Guards
Coldstream Guards
Scots Fusilier Guards, now the Scots Guards
1 st Regiment, the Royal Regiment, now the Royal Regiment of Scotland.
4 th the King’s Own Royal Regiment, now the Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment.
7 th Royal Fusiliers, now the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers.
19 th Regiment, now the Yorkshire Regiment.
20 th Regiment, later the Lancashire Fusiliers and now the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers.
21 st Royal North British Fusiliers, now the Royal Regiment of Scotland.

7th Royal Fusiliers: Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: print by Ackermann

23 rd Royal Welch Fusiliers, now the Royal Welsh.28 th Regiment, later the Gloucestershire Regiment and now the Rifles.

30 th Regiment, later the East Lancashire Regiment and now the Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment.
33 rd Regiment, later the Duke of Wellington’s Regiment and now the Yorkshire Regiment.
38 th Regiment, later the South Staffordshire Regiment and now the Mercian Regiment.
41 st Regiment, later the Welch Regiment and now the Royal Welsh.
44 th Regiment, later the Essex Regiment and now the Royal Anglian Regiment.
47 th Regiment, later the Loyal Regiment and now the Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment.
49 th Regiment, later the Royal Berkshire Regiment and now the Rifles.

38th Regiment: Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: print by Ackermann

50 th Regiment, later the Queen’s Own Royal West Kent Regiment and now the Princess of Wales’s Royal Regiment.
55 th Regiment, later the Border Regiment and now the Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment.

57 th Regiment, later the Middlesex Regiment and now the Princess of Wales’s Royal Regiment.
63 rd Regiment, later the Manchester Regiment and now the Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment.
68 th Regiment, later the Durham Light Infantry and now the Light Infantry.
77 th Regiment, later the Middlesex Regiment and now the Princess of Wales’s Royal Regiment.
88 th Regiment, the Connaught Rangers, disbanded in 1922.
95 th Regiment, later the Sherwood Foresters and now the Mercian Regiment.
The Rifle Brigade, now the Rifles.

95th Regiment: Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War

Account of the Battle of Inkerman:
The British, French and Turkish Armies landed on the western coast of the Crimea, in the Tsarist Russian Empire, on 14 th September 1854, intending to capture and destroy the Russian naval port of Sevastopol. The Allied army marched south towards the city, crossing a series of rivers and winning the battle of the Alma.

French troops: Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War

Following the Battle of the Alma, the allied armies could have forced their way into Sevastopol, taking advantage of the confusion of defeat and the Russian failure to put the city in a proper state of defence. The French General St Arnaud and the British commander, Lord Raglan, were unable to agree on a plan of attack. The allies marched around the city, establishing themselves to the east and south and began a siege, digging entrenchments and batteries and bombarding the Russian defences.

Before the siege began, Prince Menshikov took his field army out of Sevastopol, leaving a garrison, and, crossing the Tchernaya River, established the Russian army to the north-east of the city.

During October 1854, Menshikov received substantial re-inforcements and was urged by Tsar Nicholas II to take the offensive against the British and French.

On 25 th October 1854, a Russian force under General Liprandi crossed the Tchernaya and advanced on the British base, leading to the Battle of Balaclava. Liprandi’s assault was foiled in the battle, during which the Charge of the Light Brigade and the Charge of the Heavy Brigade took place, but the Russians were left holding a strong position north of the British line.

The Battle of Balaclava revealed the weakness of the allies before Sevastopol. The British and French did not have sufficient troops to man the siege lines around the city and, at the same time, to oppose the substantial field army of Prince Menshikov, threatening them across the Tchernaya River.

Map of the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: map by John Fawkes

Account of the Battle of Inkerman:

On 5 th November 1854, the Russians launched a heavy attack on the right of the allied positions to the east of Sevastopol. The attacking force was made up of infantry and guns from the garrison of the city, commanded by General Soimonoff, and a second column from the field army, commanded by General Pauloff. The two forces, numbering 42,000 men and 134 guns, would come under the overall command of General Dannenberg once they combined. The attack fell on the British Second Division, comprising 2,700 men and 12 guns (41 st , 47 th , 49 th , 30 th , 55 th and 95 th Regiments).

55th Regiment at the the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: picture by Orlando Norie

Soimonoff’s advance on the British positions was to be along the southern side of a deep ravine known as the Careenage, moving east. With Pauloff advancing from the north-eastern side of the Tchernaya River to join him, the combined force would be in a position to overwhelm the Second Division on the end of the British line, before support could arrive.

In the event, Soimonoff followed an earlier directive from Menshikov and took his whole force along the northern side of the Careenage Ravine, with the result that there was insufficient space for his substantial number of troops to deploy.

21st Royal North British Fusiliers defending the Barrier at the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: picture by Marjorie Weatherstone

The Second Division had its positions and camp on a hill called Home Ridge. The post road, known as Quarry Road, from the south of the Crimea, climbed over Home Ridge and descended into the valley to its north, past an outcrop known as Fore Ridge, before crossing the Tchernaya River at Inkerman Bridge. The village of Inkerman itself was on the far side of the Tchernaya River. The area around Home Ridge came to be known as Mount Inkerman.

British infantry attacking the Russians at the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War

The British troops built a wall across the post road on its descent, which they called ‘The Barrier’. On the eastern face of Fore Ridge overlooking the Tchernaya River was an empty battery position called ‘the Sandbag Battery’. The Barrier and the Sandbag Battery were to be of great significance in the battle, both bitterly contested, particularly in the second series of attacks by Pauloff’s columns.

Soimonoff’s force of 20,000 men and 100 guns set off from the city of Sevastopol before dawn. It was a foggy day, the clouds hanging around the gullies and ravines. Soimonoff’s guns, many of them of the heaviest calibres, 20 pounders and more, established themselves on a hill called Shell Hill directly to the North of Home Ridge.

55th Regiment attacking the Russian infantry at the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: picture by Stanley Wood

As dawn broke, all the church bells of Sevastopol began a frenzied peel. It was Sunday, but the ringing was to encourage the Russian soldiery, rather than to call the faithful to worship. Soimonoff’s columns advanced on Home Hill, 300 riflemen preceding his first line, 6,000 men moving in dense columns. Behind Shell Hill waited the Russian reserve of a further 9,000 men.

Several factors alerted the Second Division to the imminence of an attack, one being the reconnaissance battle known as Little Inkerman the day after the Battle of Balaclava. Strong British pickets were in place along the valley to the North West, many at company strength. In the fog these pickets engaged the advancing Russian columns.

Guards attacking the Sandbag Battery at the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War

The firing in the valley gave warning to Brigadier Pennefather, the acting divisional commander of the British Second Division, of the beginning of a general action.

Pennefather, a highly aggressive officer, always inclined to the attack, sent all the units of the Second Division forward to engage the Russians. His actions were exactly appropriate for the day, even though he was committing a small number of troops to battle against overwhelming odds. The Russian heavy artillery on Shell Hill opened a bombardment of the Second Division’s position and camp on Home Ridge. The camp was destroyed but there were no troops on the crest, the division having moved off the ridge into the valley.

Grenadier Guards attacking at the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War

The Russian infantry, advancing through the drifting fog in dense columns, were met by the British regiments in open skirmishing order or in line. The British Minié rifled muskets gave quicker, longer ranged and more accurate fire than the Russian flint lock muskets of the Napoleonic period, the cap firing mechanism of the Minié infinitely more reliable in the wet conditions.

Guards at the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: picture by Thomas Rose Miles

The bottleneck formation of the ground prevented the Russians from making their final approach to Home Ridge on a broad front. The first Russian column to attack emerged from the constricted ground and advanced on the Second Division’s left. A wing of the British 49 th Regiment fired a volley into the column and charged with the bayonet, driving the Russians down the slope and across the valley to Shell Hill.

The next assault, also on the Second Division’s left, was in substantially greater numbers and led by General Soimonoff himself.

Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War

As the Russians approached the ridge, troops of General Buller’s brigade from the Light Division and a battery of guns came up. The 88 th Regiment passed the crest, followed by the battery, but were driven back, three guns falling into Russian hands.

General Buller then charged the Russian column with the 77 th and 88 th Regiments. The 47 th Regiment attacked the Russians in flank and the column retreated, giving up the captured guns. General Soimonoff was killed in the struggle and General Buller wounded.

Private John McDermond of the 47th winning the VC by rescuing his CO at the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: picture by Louis Desanges

A column of Russian sailors, attempting an approach from the Careenage Ravine was also attacked by Buller’s men and driven back.

The remainder of Soimonoff’s first line advanced down the post road to the Barrier. They were bombarded by a British battery and finally driven back by the assembled British pickets and the remaining companies of the 49 th Regiment. The initial Russian assaults had all failed.

Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: picture by Henri Dupray

Soimonoff’s attack took up the first part of the battle. Some of his regiments were so severely handled, losing a high proportion of officers, that they took no further part in the war. While the struggle had been intense it could not compare with the severity of the fighting that began with the arrival of Pauloff’s force from across the Tchernaya River.

General Pauloff’s 15,000 men advanced down the axis of the post road towards the northern and north-eastern sides of Home Ridge and Fore Ridge. The main focal points of the battle became the Barrier, the Sandbag Battery and the crest of the ridge above them.

Pauloff’s attacking line stretched from the post road to the Sandbag Battery. As the Russians advanced, the wing of the British 30 th Regiment holding the Barrier, 300 men, leaped the wall and attacked with the bayonet. After a savage fight, the leading Russian battalions were driven back down the slope. A further five Russian battalions were assailed by the British 41 st Regiment under Brigadier Adams, advancing in extended order. Their intense fire drove this column back to the banks of the Tchernaya River.

21st Royal Scots Fusiliers attacking at the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War

General Dannenberg now took command of the two Russian forces, Pauloff’s troops from the field army and the 9,000 men in Soimonoff’s reserve and began a sustained and ferocious attack on the Second Division’s positions on Home Ridge.

Rifle Brigade: Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: print by Ackermann

Support was coming up for Brigadier Pennefather, the Guards Brigade arriving from its camp to the south and General Cathcart approaching with his Fourth Division.

The British troops holding the Barrier abandoned the position to the Russians for a time, but Pennefather sent forward men from the 21 st Royal North British Fusiliers, the 63 rd and the Rifle Brigade to retake it and the Barrier remained in British hands for the rest of the battle, despite repeated and determined assaults by the Russians.

Brigadier Adams held the Sandbag Battery with 700 men, supported by the 1,300 men of the Guards Brigade. The Russians launched an attack on his position with 7,000 men, beginning a series of charges and counter charges, the ground changing hands several times as the fighting raged up and down the hillside.

Death of General Sir George Cathcart at the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War

The British were only finally enabled to go on the offensive with the arrival of Cathcart’s Fourth Division. Cathcart’s men were rushed into the line wherever there appeared to be a gap, other than 400 men that Cathcart himself led in a flank attack on the Russians. Whilst initially successful, Cathcart was taken in the rear by an unexpected assault from the crest of the ridge. Cathcart was killed and his force broken up.

Cathcart’s initiative had the unfortunate effect of encouraging other British units to break from the line and attempt charges down the hill, giving a Russian regiment the opportunity to gain the crest of the ridge. The situation was retrieved by the timely arrival of a French infantry regiment which attacked the Russians in flank and drove them off the ridge.

French Zouaves: Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: picture by Orlando Norie

The arrival of further French reinforcements helped to reduce the preponderance of Russian strength and drive them down the hillside. The 21 st Regiment still held the Barrier on the post road, although the position had been enveloped by each Russian advance.

At this crisis in the battle, the Russians launched a further assault on the left of the Second Division’s position at the exit from the Careenage Ravine, with a second attack on the Home Ridge, bypassing the Barrier. Along the line the Russians reached the crest of the ridge, where a savage struggle developed. But the presence of the French and other British reinforcements was decisive and the Russian attacks were all driven back.

French Zouaves coming to the relief of the British Guards at the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War

During the day, the 100 Russian guns on Shell Hill provided a substantial support for their infantry. Towards the end of the battle two large British guns, 18 pounders of modern construction, called up by Lord Raglan from the siege park, were manhandled onto Home Ridge by teams of gunners and brought into action. These two guns, with the assistance of the field batteries along the line, overwhelmed the Russian guns, whose unprotected crews had been subjected to long range rifle fire.

Roll call of the Grenadier Guards after the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: the mounted officer is Captain Higginson: picture by Lady Butler

Hamley described the end of the fighting saying: ‘This extraordinary battle closed with no final charge nor victorious advance on the one side, no desperate stand nor tumultuous flight on the other. The Russians, when hopeless of success, seemed to melt from the lost field.

The exhausted English regiments, with their French colleagues, were left on a field strewn with casualties the main points of the fighting, the Sandbag Battery and the Barrier, heaped with bodies. The regiments stood down and returned to the siege positions around Sevastopol or to their encampments.

The 20th Regiment and Foot Guards returning from the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: picture by Lady Butler

Casualties (killed, wounded or captured) at the Battle of Inkerman: The British suffered 2,357 casualties. The French suffered 929 casualties. The Russians suffered 12,000 casualties.

British regimental casualties at the Battle of Inkerman:
Staff: 17 officers (General Cathcart killed: General Buller wounded)
17 th Lancers: 2 men.
Royal Artillery: 6 officers and 89 men.
Grenadier Guards: 9 officers and 225 men.
Coldstream Guards: 13 officers and 181 men.
Scots Fusilier Guards: 9 officers and 168 men.
1 st Regiment: 1 man.
7 th Royal Fusiliers: 5 officers and 62 men.
19 th Regiment: 1 officer and 4 men.
20 th Regiment: 9 officers and 162 men.
21 st Regiment: 7 officers and 114 men.
23 rd Regiment: 2 officers and 38 men.
30 th Regiment: 7 officers and 130 men.
33 rd Regiment: 3 officers and 61 men.

Soldier’s body from the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: picture by Lieutenant Colonel Dawkins of the Coldstream Guards

41 st Regiment: 11 officers and 156 men.
47 th Regiment: 2 officers and 64 men.
50 th Regiment: 2 officers and 29 men.
55 th Regiment: 5 officers and 66 men.
57 th Regiment: 5 officers and 88 men.
63 rd Regiment: 10 officers and 105 men.
68 th Regiment: 4 officers and 49 men.
77 th Regiment: 1 officer and 57 men.
88 th Regiment: 2 officers and 102 men.
95 th Regiment: 4 officers and 131 men.
The Rifle Brigade: 6 officers and 144 men.

Graves from the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War picture by Lieutenant Colonel Dawkins of the Coldstream Guards

Follow-up to the Battle of Inkerman: The Russian attack, although unsuccessful, helped to divert the allies from the siege of Sevastopol, reducing further the prospects of the city being captured before winter and condemning the British and French armies to two winters on the heights.

On 14 th November 1854, a fierce storm struck the Crimea, wrecking the camps and sinking British and French ships. Much of the limited supply of winter equipment was destroyed and many men drowned.

HMS Danube, wrecked in the storm on 14th November 1854 in the Crimean War

Anecdotes and traditions from the Battle of Inkerman:

  • Inkerman is described as ‘The Soldier’s Battle’, a reference to the ferocity of the fighting, the importance of the role of battalions, companies and even small parties of men and the foggy isolation of the soldiers who were thrown on their own initiative.
  • Twelve Victoria Crosses were awarded to British soldiers for actions in the battle.

Sergeant Major Andrew Henry of the Royal Artillery under attack by Russian infantrymen at the Battle of Inkerman and winning the VC on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: picture by Louis Desanges

Guards at the Battle of Inkerman on 5th November 1854 in the Crimean War: picture by Robert Gibb

Crimean War Medal 1854 to 1856 with clasps for the Alma, Balaclava, Inkerman and Sevastopol

References for the Battle of Inkerman:

Sir John Fortescue’s History of the British Army

The War in the Crimea by General Sir Edward Hamley

British Battles Volume III by James Grant

The previous battle in the Crimean War is the Battle of Balaclava

The next battle in the Crimean War is the Siege of Sevastopol


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